The ________ nervous system controls the skeletal muscles. autonomic parasympathetic afferent sympathetic somaticsomatic The part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated autonomic. motor. afferent. efferent. somatic. afferent The efferent division of the peripheral nervous system innervates: glandular cells heart muscle cells smooth muscle cells skeletal muscle cells All of the answers are correct. all The most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system is bipolar. unipolar. multipolar. seudopolar. anaxonicmultipolar The cytoplasm that surrounds the nucleus of a neuron is called the neuroplasm. sarcoplasm. nucleoplasm. perikaryon. protoplasm. perikaryon Clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called perikaryon. neurofilaments. microglia. neurofibrils. Nissl bodiesnissl bodies vThe axon is connected to the soma at the telodendria. synaptic terminal. axon hillock. synapse. collateralsaxon hillock Branches that may occur along an axon are called synapses. hillocks. telodendria. synaptic terminals. collateralscollaterals Axons terminate in a series of fine extensions known as endrites. terminals. synapses. collaterals. telodendriatelodendria The site of intercellular communication between a neuron and another cell is the collateral. telodendria. synapse. hillock. synaptic terminals. synapse Neurotransmitters ready for release are stored in synaptic telodendria. terminals. mitochondria. neurosomes. vesicles. vesicles Most CNS neurons lack centrioles. This observation explains the ability of neurons to produce a resting potential. the ability of neurons to communicate with each other. why CNS neurons grow such long axons. the ability of neurons to generate an action potential. hy CNS neurons cannot divide to regenerate damaged tissue. why CNS neurons cannot divide to regenerate damaged tissue The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the ________. neuron
Which of the following is a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system? astrocytes ependymal cells microglia oligodendrocytes satellite cellssatellite cells Functions of astrocytes include all of the following, except forming a three-dimensional framework for the CNS. guiding neuron development. responding to neural tissue damage. conducting action potentials. maintaining the blood-brain barrier. onducting action potentials ________ account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system. Dendrites Efferent fibers Axons Synapses Neuroglianeuroglia The function of the astrocytes in the CNS includes which of the following? guiding neuron development adjusting the composition of the interstitial fluid maintaining the blood-brain barrier repairing damaged neural tissue All of the answers are correct. all The neuroglial cells that participate in maintaining the blood-brain barrier are the astrocytes. oligodendrocytes. microglia. ependymal cells. Schwann cells. astrocytes The myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by oligodendrocytes. astrocytes. ependymal cells. satellite cells. microglia. oligodentrocytes Small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called satellite cells. ependymal cells. oligodendrocytes. microglia. astrocytesmicroglia The neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by oligodendrocytes. astrocytes. microglia.
Schwann cells. satellite cells. schwann cells Glial cells that surround the neurons in ganglia are ependymal cells. satellite cells. astrocytes. oligodendrocytes. icroglisatellite cells Many medications introduced into the bloodstream cannot directly affect the neurons of the CNS because the neurolemma is impermeable to most molecules. astrocytes form a capsule around neurons. ependymal cells restrict the flow of interstitial fluid between the capillaries and the neurons. oligodendrocytes form a continuous myelin sheath around the axons. the endothelium of CNS capillaries forms a blood-brain barrier. endothelium of CNH capillaries forms a blood-brain barrier Extensive damage to oligodendrocytes in the CNS could result in loss of sensation and motor control. oss of the structural framework of the brain. inability to produce scar tissue at the site of an injury. decreased production of cerebrospinal fluid. a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. loss of sensation and motor control Damage to ependymal cells would most likely affect the formation of myelin sheaths. formation of cerebrospinal fluid. transport of neurotransmitters within axons. formation of ganglia. repair of axons. formation of cerebrospinal fluid The tiny gaps between adjacent Schwann cells are called ________nodes of ranvier Regions of the CNS with an abundance of myelinated axons constitute the ________ matter. hite
After a stroke, what type of glial cell accumulates within the affected brain region? satellite cells oligodendrocytes microglia ependymal cells Schwann cellsmicroglia The membranes of neurons at rest are very permeable to _____ but only slightly permeable to _____. Na+; K+ Na+; Cl- K+; Na+ K+; Clk, na During depolarization, which gradient(s) move(s) Na+ into the cell? Na+ does not move into the cell. Na+ moves out of the cell. only the electrical gradient both the electrical and chemical gradients only the chemical gradientelectrical and chemical gradients What is the value for the resting membrane potential for most neurons? +30 mV 90 mV -70 mV-70 The Na+-K+ pump actively transports both sodium and potassium ions across the membrane to compensate for their constant leakage. In which direction is each ion pumped? Both Na+ and K+ are pumped out of the cell. Both Na+ and K+ are pumped into the cell. K+ is pumped out of the cell and Na+ is pumped into the cell. Na+ is pumped out of the cell and K+ is pumped into the cellna out k in The concentrations of which two ions are highest outside the cell. Na+ and A- (negatively charged proteins) K+ and Cl- K+ and A- (negatively charged proteins) Na+ and Cl-na and cl Ion channels that are always open are called ________ channels. ctive leak local regulated gatedleak Voltage-gated channels are present along the perikaryon of neurons. on the surface of dendrites. on the soma of neurons. at the motor end plate. in the membrane that covers axonsin the membrane that covers axons ________ channels open or close in response to physical distortion of the membrane surface. Mechanically-gated Active Voltage-gated Leak Chemically-gatedmechanically gated ________ open or close in response to binding specific molecules. Voltage-gated and chemically-gated channels Activated channels Chemically-gated channels Voltage-gated channels Leak channelschemically gated
If the potassium permeability of a resting neuron increases above the resting permeability, what effect will this have on the transmembrane potential? There will be almost no effect on transmembrane potential. The membrane will depolarize to threshold. The inside of the membrane will become more negative. The inside of the membrane will become more positive. The membrane will become depolarized. the inside of the membrane will become more negative A stimulus that changes a postsynaptic neuron’s membrane from resting potential to -85 mV is: a temporal stimulus an excitatory stimulus a saltatory stimulus an inhibitory stimulus depolarizing stimulusinhibitory stimulus If acetylcholine (ACh) causes inhibition of a postsynaptic neuron, to what type of membrane channel did the ACh bind? voltage-regulated sodium channel chemically-regulated sodium channel mechanically-regulated channel voltage-regulated calcium channel chemically-regulated potassium channechemically regulated potassium channel A shift of the resting transmembrane potential toward 0 mV is called ________depolarization The sum of the electrical and chemical forces acting on an ion is known as its ________. electrochemical gradient
Where in the neuron is an action potential initially generated? nywhere on the axon soma and dendrites axon hillockaxon hillock The depolarization phase of an action potential results from the opening of which channels? chemically gated Na+ channels chemically gated K+ channels voltage-gated K+ channels voltage-gated Na+ channelsvoltage gated na channels The repolarization phase of an action potential results from __________. the opening of voltage-gated K+ channels the opening of voltage-gated Na+ channels the closing of voltage-gated Na+ channels the closing of voltage-gated K+ channelsopening of voltage gated k channels Hyperpolarization results from __________. low closing of voltage-gated Na+ channels fast closing of voltage-gated K+ channels slow closing of voltage-gated K+ channelsslow closing of voltage gated k channels What is the magnitude (amplitude) of an action potential? 70 mV 30 mV 100 mV100 mv How is an action potential propagated along an axon? Stimuli from the graded (local) potentials from the soma and dendrites depolarize the entire axon. An efflux of potassium from the current action potential depolarizes the adjacent area. An influx of sodium ions from the current action potential depolarizes the adjacent area. a b or cc
Why does the action potential only move away from the cell body? The areas that have had the action potential are refractory to a new action potential. The flow of the sodium ions only goes in one direction—away from the cell body a or ba The velocity of the action potential is fastest in which of the following axons? a large unmyelinated axon a small unmyelinated axon a small myelinated axon a b or cc During repolarization of a neuron potassium ions move out of the cell. potassium ions move into the cell. sodium ions move out of the cell. sodium ions move into the cell. both sodium and potassium ions move into the cell b c or da A threshold stimulus is the peak of an action potential. hyperpolarization of an axon. resting potential. depolarization necessary to cause an action potential. electrical current that crosses the synaptic cleft a b c or dd Puffer fish poison blocks voltage-gated sodium channels like a cork. What effect would this neurotoxin have on the function of neurons? Neurons would depolarize more rapidly. None, because the chemically-gated sodium channels would still function. The axon would be unable to generate action potentials. Action potentials would lack a repolarization phase.
The absolute refractory period would be shorter than normal. a b c d ec In a synapse, neurotransmitters are stored in vesicles located in the __________. presynaptic neuron synaptic cleft postsynaptic neuron a b or ca Binding of a neurotransmitter to its receptors opens __________ channels on the __________ membrane. voltage-gated; postsynaptic voltage-gated; presynaptic chemically gated; postsynaptic chemically gated; presynaptic a b c or dc An action potential releases neurotransmitter from a neuron by opening which of the following channels? chemically gated Ca2+ channels voltage-gated Na+ channels oltage-gated Ca2+ channels voltage-gated K+ channels a b c or dc Binding of the neurotransmitter to its receptor causes the membrane to __________. either depolarize or hyperpolarize depolarize hyperpolarize a b or ca The mechanism by which the neurotransmitter is returned to a presynaptic neuron’s axon terminal is specific for each neurotransmitter. Which of the following neurotransmitters is broken down by an enzyme before being returned? glutamate acetylcholine a or bb When cholinergic receptors are stimulated, norepinephrine deactivates acetylcholine. chloride ions leave the postsynaptic neuron. odium ions enter the postsynaptic neuron. chloride ions enter the postsynaptic neuron. sodium ions leave the postsynaptic neuro a b c d ec Opioids relieve pain by blocking the release of substance X. substance P. substance Q. substance O. None of the answers are correct. a b c d eb After acetylcholinesterase acts, the synaptic terminal reabsorbs axoplasm. pinches off and a new terminal grows. reabsorbs the choline. reabsorbs the acetylcholine. reabsorbs the acetate. a b c d or ec Presynaptic facilitation by serotonin is caused by temporal summation. increased extracellular concentration of potassium ion. alcium channels in the presynaptic membrane remaining open longer. increased extracellular concentration of sodium ion. blockage of calcium channels in the presynaptic membrane. a-ec The buildup of depolarization when EPSPs arrive in rapid succession is called ________ summation. temporal When an action potential arrives at the axon terminal of a motor neuron, which ion channels open? voltage-gated sodium channels chemically gated calcium channels voltage-gated calcium channels voltage-gated potassium channels a-dc The binding of the neurotransmitter to receptors on the motor end plate causes which of the following to occur?
Binding of the neurotransmitter causes chemically gated sodium channels to open in the motor end plate. Binding causes potassium voltage-gated channels to open in the motor endplate. Binding causes chemically gated potassium channels to open in the motor end plate. Binding causes voltage-gated sodium channels to open in the motor endplate. a-da The action potential on the muscle cell leads to contraction due to the release of calcium ions. Where are calcium ions stored in the muscle cell? T tubule cytosol sarcolemma terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum a-dd
T tubules and the terminal cisternae are clustered into structures called __________. myofibrils fascicles sarcomeres triade a -dd To what regulatory protein does calcium bind during the initiation of the contraction cycle in skeletal muscle fibers? actin tropomyosin troponin myosin a-dc Which of the following causes the active site on actin to be exposed or uncovered? cross-bridge formation tropomyosin shifting position calcium entering the sarcoplasmic reticulum troponin releasing calcium a-db Which of the following most correctly describes excitation in the context of excitation-contraction coupling in skeletal muscle? he formation of cross-bridges the binding of calcium to troponin the release of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum the generation of an action potential in the sarcolemma a-dd Which of the following phrases best describes how excitation is coupled to contraction in skeletal muscle fibers? through T tubules through cross-bridge formation through calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum through electrical impulses travelling along the sarcolemm a-dc Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a rare genetic disease in which the sarcoplasmic reticulum leaks calcium when the patient is put under general anesthesia.
Which of the following best describes how anesthesia would affect the skeletal muscles of a patient with MH? The muscles would contract because of calcium binding to troponin. The muscles would contract because of increased action potential generation in the sarcolemma. The muscles would contract because of increased nerve stimulation. The muscles would relax because of calcium being pumped back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum a-da What causes the release of calcium from the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum within a muscle cell? ATP calcium ion pump rrival of an action potential troponin a-dc The binding of calcium to which molecule causes the myosin binding sites to be exposed? actin troponin tropomyosin a-cb A myosin head binds to which molecule to form a cross bridge? troponin actin tropomyosin a-cb What energizes the power stroke? hydrolysis of ATP calcium binding of ATP a-ca What causes the myosin head to disconnect from actin? binding of calcium hydrolysis of ATP binding of ATP binding of troponi a=dc In what part of the neuron does the action potential typically initiate? axon terminals dendrites oma (cell body) initial segment of the axon a-dd During an action potential of a neuron, what directly causes the different channels to open and close? neurotransmitter binding to chemically gated channels calcium ions Sodium and potassium ions the transmembrane potential (voltage) a-dd What is the typical duration of a nerve action potential? 20 ms 2 ms 200 ms 0. 2 ms a-db Around what transmembrane potential does threshold commonly occur? -60 mV -60 V -70 mV +60 mV a-da What ion is responsible for the depolarization of the neuron during an action potential? K+ (potassium)
Cl- (chloride) Na+ (sodium) Ca2+ (calcium) a-dc What type of membrane transport causes the depolarization phase of the action potential in neurons? active transport facilitated diffusion filtration diffusion a-dd During an action potential, after the membrane potential reaches +30 mV, which event(s) primarily affect(s) the membrane potential? Voltage-gated sodium channels begin to inactivate (close). Voltage-gated sodium channels begin to inactivate (close) and the sodium-potassium exchange pump begins removing the excess sodium ions from the inside of the cell.
Voltage-gated sodium channels begin to inactivate (close) and voltage-gated potassium channels begin to open. Voltage-gated potassium channels begin to open and the sodium-potassium exchange pump begins removing the excess Na+ ions from the inside of the cell. a-dc What ion causes repolarization of the neuron during an action potential? Ca2+ (calcium) Mg2+ (magnesium) Na+ (sodium) K+ (potassium) a-dd What causes repolarization of the membrane potential during the action potential of a neuron? potassium influx (entering the cell) sodium efflux (leaving the cell) sodium influx (entering the cell) otassium efflux (leaving the cell) a-dd What is primarily responsible for the brief hyperpolarization near the end of the action potential? the sodium/potassium exchange pump taking some time to restore the normal ion concentrations voltage-gated potassium channels taking some time to close in response to the negative membrane potential voltage-gated potassium channels opening as the membrane potential becomes more negative (repolarized) voltage-gated sodium channels taking some time to recover from inactivation a-db Where are action potentials regenerated as they propagate along an unmyelinated axon? t every segment of the axon at myelin at the nodes at the internodes a-da The movement of what ion is responsible for the local currents that depolarize other regions of the axon to threshold? voltage-gated sodium (Na+) channels Potassium (K+) sodium (Na+) calcium (Ca2+) a-dc Approximately how fast do action potentials propagate in unmyelinated axons in humans? 0. 1 meters per second 120 meters per second 12 meters per second 1 meter per second a-dd In contrast to the internodes of a myelinated axon, the nodes __________. are wrapped in myelin have higher membrane resistance to ion movement ave lower membrane resistance to ion movement only occur at the beginning and end of the axon a-dc Where are action potentials regenerated as they propagate along a myelinated axon? at every segment of the axon at the internodes at the nodes at myelin a-dc The node-to-node “jumping” regeneration of an action potential along a myelinated axon is called __________. local propagation continuous propagation myelinated propagation saltatory propagation a-dd How do action potential propagation speeds in myelinated and unmyelinated axons compare? Propagation is faster in unmyelinated axons.
Propagation speeds are similar in both axon types. Propagation is faster in myelinated axons. Propagation in myelinated axons is faster over short distances, but slower over long distance a-dc Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that stops action potential propagation by destroying the myelin around (normally) myelinated axons. Which of the following best describes how MS stops action potential propagation? Without myelin, the internode membrane is depolarized more easily. Without myelin, the internode membrane resistance decreases, preventing local currents from reaching adjacent nodes.
Without myelin, the node membrane more easily becomes refractory. Without myelin, the internode membrane resistance increases, preventing local currents from reaching adjacent nodes. a-db The acetylcholine receptor is an example of what type of channel? a voltage-gated channel a chemically gated channel a leak channel a mechanically gated channe a-db Which of the following best describes the role of calcium in synaptic activity? Calcium diffuses across the synaptic cleft to bind with receptors on the postsynaptic cell. Calcium enters the postsynaptic cell and causes depolarization.
Calcium enters the presynaptic cell and causes the release of ACh. Calcium breaks down acetylcholine. a-dc Which of the following best describes how ACh causes depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane? ACh activates acetylcholinesterase (AChE). ACh opens voltage-gated calcium channels. ACh opens ACh receptors. ACh causes vesicles to fuse, releasing neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft. a-dc Curare is a drug that prevents ACh from binding to ACh receptors. How would you expect curare to affect events at a cholinergic synapse? Calcium would not diffuse into the presynaptic neuron. Vesicles would not release ACh.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) would not break down ACh. The postsynaptic cell would not depolarize. a-dd What is the primary role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) at a cholinergic synapse? AChE binds to ACh receptors, causing them to open. AChE degrades acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. AChE releases acetylcholine into the synaptic cleft. AChE depolarizes the postsynaptic cell. a-db Which of the following best describes the order of events in synaptic activity? Extracellular calcium enters the synaptic knob, triggering exocytosis of ACh. An action potential arrives and depolarizes the synaptic knob.
ACh binds to receptors and depolarizes postsynaptic membrane. ACh is removed by AChE. ACh is removed by AChE. ACh binds to receptors and depolarizes postsynaptic membrane. An action potential arrives and depolarizes the synaptic knob. Extracellular calcium enters the synaptic knob, triggering exocytosis of ACh. An action potential arrives and depolarizes the synaptic knob. Extracellular calcium enters the synaptic knob, triggering exocytosis of ACh. ACh is removed by AChE. ACh binds to receptors and depolarizes postsynaptic membrane. An action potential arrives and depolarizes the synaptic knob.
Extracellular calcium enters the synaptic knob, triggering exocytosis of ACh. ACh binds to receptors and depolarizes postsynaptic membrane. ACh is removed by AChE. D which of the following is not a function of the nervous system? A) sense the internal and external environments B) integrate sensory information C) coordinate voluntary and involuntary activities D) direct long-term functions, such as growth E) congtrol perpheral effectorsdirect long-term functions, such as growth the _______ nevous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. a) autonomic b) peripheral c) central d) efferent e) afferentcentral he ______ nervous system controls the skeletal muscle. a) sympathetic b) parasympathetic c) afferent d) somatic e) autonomicsomatic the part of the peripheral nervous system that carries sensory information to the CNS is designated a) motor b) afferent c) efferent d) autonomic e) somaticafferent which of the following is not a function of the neuroglia? a) support b) memory c) secretion of cerebospinal fluid d) maintenace of blood-brain barrier e) phagocytosismemory which of the following are a type of glial cell found in the peripheral nervous system? a) astrocytes b) satellite cells c) c) oligodendrocytes ) microglia e) ependymal cellssatellite cells the largest and most numerous of the glial cells in the central nervous system are the a) astrocytes b) satellite cells c) oligodendrocytes d) microglia e) ependymal cellsastrocytes functions of astrocytes include all of the following, except a) maintaining the blood-brain barrier b) conducting action potentials c) guiding neuron development d) responding to neural tissue damage e) forming a three-dimensional framework for the CNSconducting action potentials the myelin sheath that covers many CNS axons is formed by a) astrocytes b) satellite cells ) oligodendrocytes d) microglia e) ependymal cellsoligodendrocytes _______ line the brain ventricles and spinal canal a) astrocytes
b) satellite cells c) oligodendrocytes d) microglia e) ependymal cellsependymal cells small, wandering cells that engulf cell debris and pathogens in the CNS are called a) astrocytes b) satellite cells c) oligodendrocytes d) microglia e) ependymal cellsmicroglia the neurilemma of axons in the peripheral nervous system is formed by a) astrocytes b) satellite cells c) oligodendrocytes d) microglia e) schwann cellsschwann cells glial cells that surround the neurons in ganglia are ) astrocytes b) satellite cells c. oligodendrocytes d) microglia e) ependymal cellssatellite cells which of the following is not a recognized structural classification for neurons? a) anaxonic b) bipolar c) multipolar d) pseudopolar e) unipolarpseudopolar the most abundant class of neuron in the central nervous system is a) anaxonic b) bipolar c)multipolar d) pseudopolar e) unipolarmultipolar the cytoplasm that surrounds the nucleus of neuron is called the a) protoplasm b) nucleoplasm c) sacroplasm d)neuroplasm e) perikaryonperikaryon clusters of RER and free ribosomes in neurons are called ) neurofilaments b) neurofibrils c) perikaryon d) nissl bodies e) microglianissl bodies the axon is connected to the soma at the a) telodendria b) synaptic knobs c) collaterals d) axon hillock e) synapseaxon hillock Branches that may occur along an axon are called a) telodendria b) synaptic knobs c) collaterals d) hillocks e synapsescollaterals axons terminate in a series of fine extensions know as a) telodendria b) knobs c) collaterals d) dendrites e) synapsestelodendria Neurotransmitter for release is stored in synaptic a) telodendria b) knobs c) vesicles d) mitochondria e) neurosomesvesicles he site of intercellular communication between neurons is the a) telodendria b) synaptic knob c) collateral d) hillock e) synapsesynapse the rabies virus travels to the CNS via a) anterograde axoplasmic transport b) retrograde axoplasmic transport c) blood vessels d) subcutaneous connective tissue
e) cerebrospinal fluidretrograde axoplasmic transport neurons that are rare,small,and lack features that distinguish dendrites from axon are called a) anaxonic b) unipolar c) bipolar c)tripolar e) multipolaranaxonic neurons in which dendritic and axonal processes are continuous and the soma lies off to one side are called ) anaxonic b) unipolar c)bipolar d) tripolar e) multipolarunipolar neurons that have one axon and one dendrite, with the soma in between are called a) anaxonic b) unipolar c) bipolar d) tripolar e) multipolarbipolar neurons that have several dendrites and a single axon are called a) anaxonic b) unipolar c) bipolar d) tripolar e)multipolarmultipolar sensory neurons of the PNS are a) unipolar b) bipolar c) anaxonic d) multipolar e) tripolarunipolar which of the following activities or sensations is not monitored by interocepters? a) sight b) taste c) activities of the digestive system ) cardiovascular activities e) urinary activitessight _____ neurons are small and have no anatomical features that distinguish dendrites from axons. a) multipolar b) anaxonic c) unipolar d) bipolar e) none of the aboveanaxonic _______ neurons are short, with a cell body between dendrite and axon, and occur in special sense organs. a) multipolar b) anaxonic c) unipolar d) bipolar e) none of the abovebipolar in a(n) ________ neuron, the dendrites and axon are continuous or fused. a) multipolar b) anaxonic c) unipolar d) bipolar e) none of the aboveunipolar ______ neurons are the most common in the CNS. ) Mutlipolar b) anaxonic c) unipolar d) bipolar e) none of the abovemultipolar _____ neurons form the afferent division of the PNS a) visceral sensory b) sensory c) neural sensory d) somatic sensory e) none of the abovesensory ______ are the most numerous type of neuron in the CNS
a) sensory neurons b) motor neurons c) unipolar neurons d)bipolar neurons e) interneuronsinterneurons which of the following are types of neuroglia a) ependymal cells b) microglia c) astrocytes d) oligodendrocytes e) all of the aboveall of the above _____ account for roughly half of the volume of the nervous system. a) axons ) dendrites c)neuroglia d) synapses e) efferent fibersneuroglia which of the following are properties of cerebrospinal fluid? a) surrounds the brain and spinal cord b) fills the brain ventricles c) transports nutrients d) circulates continuously e) all of the aboveall of the above the function of the astrocytes in the CNS includes which of the following? a) adjusting the composition of the interstitial fluid b) guiding neuron development c) maintaining the blood-brain barrier d) repairing damaged neural tissue e) all of the aboveall of the above the largest and most numerous neuroglia in the CNS are the ) astrocytes b) ependymal cells c) microglia d) ogliodendrocytes e) none of the aboveastrocytes the smallest neuroglia of the CNS are the a) astrocytes b) ependymal cells c) microglia d) oligodendrocytes e) none of the abovemicroglia after a stroke, what type of glial cell accumlates within the affected brain region? a) astrocytes b) satellite cells c) oligodendrocytes d) microglia e) ependymal cellsmicroglia the spinal cord is part of the a) peripheral nervous system b) somatic nervous system ) central nervous system d) autonomic nervous system e) afferent nervous systemcentral nervous system he ______ is a strand of fibrous tissue that provides longitudinal support as a component of the coccygeal ligament. a) conus medullaris b) filum terminale c) cauda equina d) dorsal root e) ventral rootfilum terminale spinal nerves are a) purely sensory b)purely motor c) both sensory and motor d) interneuronal e) involuntaryboth sensory and motor the spinal cord consist of five regions and ____ segments a) 5 b) 12 c) 25 d) 31 e) the number varies widely among individuals31 the dorsal root ganglia mainly contain a) axons of motor neurons b) axons of sensory neurons
c) cell bodies of motor neurons ) cell bodies of sensory neurons e) synapsescell bodies of sensory neurons the dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains a) axons of motor neurons b) axons of sensory neurons c) cell bodies of motor neurons d) cell bodies of sensory neurons e) interneuronsaxon of sensory neurons the ventral root of a spinal nerve contains a) axons of motor neurons b) axons of sensory neurons c) cell bodies of motor neurons d) cell bodies of sensory neurons e) interneuronsaxons of motor neurons the tough, fibrous, outermost covering of the spinal cord is the a) arachnoid b) pia mater c) dura mater d) epidural block ) periosteumdura mater after age ______ the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not a) 8 b)12 c) 18 d) 4 e) 14 if the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed a) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked b) output to visceral organs would be blocked c) the spinal cord would not be able to process information at that level d) the brain would not be able to communicate with that level of the spinal cord. e) sensory input would be blockedsensory input would be blocked the subdural space lies between a) the arachnoid mater and the pia mater b) the pia mater and the dura mater ) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater d) the pia mater and the subarachnoid space e)the endosteum and the periosteumthe dura mater and arachnoid mater the layer of the meninges in direct contact with the spinal cord is the a) dura mater b) subarachnoid space c) arachnoid d) pia mater e) choroid plexuspia mater a dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a a) cervical enlargement b) lumbar enlargement c) spinal nerve d) spinal meninx e) spinal ganglionspinal nerve in meningitis
a) inflammation of the meninges occurs b) bacteria can be the cause c) viruses can be the cause ) CSF flow can be disrupted e) all of the answers are correctall answers are correct which of the following is true regarding an epidural block a) it is commonly used as a method of pain control during labor and delivery b) it affects only the spinal nerves in the immediate area of the injection c) it can provide sensory and motor anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected d) it can provide mainly sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic selected e) all of the answers are correctall answers are correct cerebrospinal fluid flows within the a) filum terminal b) subarachnoid space c) dura mater d) pia mater ) arachnoid materarachnoid mater the spinal cord continues to elongate until about age a) 20 years b) 10 years c) 4 years d) 6 months e) 2 months4 years the specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the a) cranial meninges b) cranial mater c) spinal meninges d) spinal mater e)epidural membranesspinal meninges blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surface of the a) pia mater b) dura mater c) epidural space d) subdural space e) subarachnoid spacepia mater samples of CSF for diagnostic purpose are normally obtained by place the tip of a needle in the a) dura mater b) arachnoid mater ) epidural space d) subarachnoid space e) cerebral ventricessubarachnoid space in an adult, the conus medullaries is found at aboutL1 bill contracts a viral disease that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord.
As a result, which of the following would you except? a) loss of sensation in his torso b)inability to breath c) problems with moving his arms d) uncontrollable sweating of his feet e) problems with moving his legsloss of sensation in his torso the white matter of the spinal cord is mainly a) unmyelinated axons b) neuroglia c) schwann cells d) myelinated and unmyelinated axons ) nodes of Ranviermyelinated and unmyelinated axons the gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly a) nerve tracts b) columns c) meninges d) nerve cell bodies e) funiculinerve cell bodies the posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly a) sensory nuclei b) somatic motor nuclei c) autonomic motor nuclei d) nerve tracts e) sympathetic nucleisensory nuclei the anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly a) sensory nuclei b) somatic motor nuclei c) autonomic motor nuclei d) nerve tracts e) sympathetic nucleisomatic motor nuclei nerve tracts or fasciculi make up the a) central canal b) posterior gray horns ) gray commissures d) white columns e) anterior gray hornswhite columns the spinal cord, white matter is separated into ascending and descending tracts organized a) nuclei b)ganglia c) columns d) nervers e) hornscolumns the outward projections from the central gray matter of the spinal cord are called a) wings b) horns c) pyramids d) fibers e) tractshorns axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray matter are found in the a) anterior gray horns b) lateral gray horns c) posterior gray horns
d) gray commissures e) white commissuresgray commissures the white matter of the spinal cord contains ) bundles of axons with common origins, destinations, and functions b) bundles of dendrites with common origins, destinations, and functions c) sensory and motor nuclei d) both axon and dendrites e) interneuronsbundles of axons with common use image to answer questions 75-82http://o. quizlet. com/IibPvYFRvZPfGENgIVqV3A. png identify the structure labeled “1. ” a) anterior white column b) lateral white column c) lateral white horn d) median commissure e) posterior white columnposterior white column identify the structure labeled “4. ” a) posterior gray column b) dorsal gray ganglion c) posterior white column d) posterior gray horn ) anterior gray hornposterior gray horn identify the structure labeled “10. ” a) anterior white commissure b) anterior medium fissure c) anterior white column d) anterior gray commissure e) anterior white hornanterior gray commissure what is the function of the structure labeled 12″ a) control of skeletal muscle b) somatic sensory receiving c) visceral sensory receiving d) control of visceral effectors e) ascending pathwaysomatic sensory receiving what is the function of the structure labeled 14 a) control of skeletal muscle b) somatic sensory processing c) control of visceral effectors d) somatic motor control ) visceral sensory processingcontrol of visceral effectors where do somatic motor neurons reside a)10 b)12 c)13 d)14 e)1515 where are the white columns of the spinal cord? a)4,5,6 b) 1,2,3 c) 7,11 d)12,13 e) 88 the outermost connective-tissue coveing of nerves is the a) endoneurium b) endomysium c) perineurium d)epineurium e) epimysiumepineurium which of these is not one of the main division of the adult brain? a) cerebrum b) diencephalon c)prosencephalon d)midbrain e) ponsprosencephalon which of the following lies between the cerebrum and the brain stem? a) medulla oblongata b)pons c) mesencephalon d) diencephalon ) cerebellumdiencephalon the floor of the diencephalon is formed by the a)hypothalamus b) thalamus c)brain stem d)mesencephalon e) myelencephalonhypothalamus the tracts that connect the cerebellum to the brain stem are located in the a) medulla oblongata b) pons c) mesencephalon d) diencephalon
e) thalamuspons autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the a) medulla oblongata b) pons c) mesencephalon d) diencephalon e) cerebellummedulla oblongata the cerebellum and pons develop from the a) telencephalon b) diencephalon c) mesencephalon d)metencephalon e) myelencephalonmetencephalon ensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the A) medulla oblongata b) pons c)midbrain d) thalamus e) cerebellumthalamus a neural coretx is found on the surface of the a) cerebrum b) pons c) thalamus d) midbrain e) ponscerebrum As you ascend from the medulla oblongata to the cerebrum, the function of each successive level become a) more complex b) simpler c) better understood e) more crucial to visceral functions e) critical to reflexesmore complex the ____ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems a) cerebellum b) medulla oblongata c) cerebrum d) pons e) hypothalamushypothalamus he thin partition that separates the first and second ventricles is the a) falx cerebri b) septum pellucidum c) septum insula d) interventricular foramina e) cerebral aqueductseptum pellucidum Answers question 94-102 from figure of brainhttp://o. quizlet. com/fIXf4z1Noai3xXSXc. 9A0w. png indentify the structure labeled “1” a) choroid plexus b) cerebral aqueduct c) third ventricle d) subarachnoid space e) corpus callosumchoroid plexus what is produced by the structure labeled “2”? a) cerebrospinal fluid b) neurotrasmitters c) white matter d) hormones e) red blood cellscerebrospinal fluid identify the structure labeled “3”? a) arbor vitae )corpora quadrigemina c)aqueduct of midbrain
d) pons e)diencephalonaqueduct of midbrain identify the structure labeled “6”? a) choroid plexus b) fourth ventricle c) lateral ventricle d) cerebral aqueduct e) subarachnoid spacesubarachnoid space identify the structure labeled “7? ” a) dura mater b) lateral ventricle c)fourth ventricle d) subarachnoid space e) filum terminaledura mater identify the stucture labeled “9. ” a) dura mater b) superior sagittal sinus c) lateral ventricle d) subarachnoid space e) arachnoid granulationsuperior sagittal sinus identify the structure labeled “10. ” a) arbor vitae b) central canal c) corpus callosum d)pons ) diencephaloncentral canal the control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the a) cerebrum b) cerebullum c) diencephalon d) medulla oblongata e) heartmedulla oblongata the medulla oblongata regulates a) somatic motor contractions b) food intake c) auditory reflexes d) vision and hearing e) blood pressure and respirationblood pressure and respiration there are ______ pairs of cranial nerves a) 2 b) 6 c) 12 d) 22 e) 3112 droopy eyelids and double vision can result from injury to the ______nerve a) optic b) oculomotor c) trochlear d) olfactory e) abducensoculomtor the cranial nerves that innervate the eye muscles are a) I,II and III ) III, IV, and VI c) II,III and IV d) II and VI e) III and VIII, IV, and VI the cranial nerve that has three major branches is the a) abducens b) facial c)vagus d)trigenminal e) glossopharyngealtrigeminal which sensation(s) does the vestibulocochlear nerve carry? a) hearing b) equilibrium c) atmospheric pressure d) hearing and equilibrium e) hearing, equilibrium and tastehearing and equilibrium Jean needs to have a tooth in her mandible filled. Her dentist injects a local anesthetic to block pain afferents in one of her cranial nerves.
What cranial nerve does the dentist numb? a) trochlear b)trigeminal c) facial d) glossopharyngeal ) hypoglossaltrigeminal You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to a) smell his food b) smile c) blink his eyes d) nod his head e) hear your voicesmell his food Olfactory receptors send axon through the cribiform plate and synapse on neurons in the a) medulla b)thalamus c) cerebral cortex d) olfactory bulb e) olfactory tractolfactory bulb at the optic chiasm a) axon from the nasal halves of each retina cross b)axons from the temporal halves of each retina cross c) axons from the retinae synapse on those from the other half d) the olfactory nerve crosses to the opposite side of the brain e) the optic nerve nters the cerebellumaxons from the nasal halves of each retina cross A patient develops a tumor of a cranial nerve that leads to difficulty in speaking from a loss of tongue movement. Which cranial nerve is affected? a) glossopharyngeal b) hypoglossal c)vagus d) spinal accessory e) trigeminalhypglossal question 115-123 based of diagraminferior view cranial nerveshttp://o. quizlet. com/OpbKYj1dbvpfHnHYY3lABw. png identify the structure labeled “8” a) mamillary body b) infundibulum c) oculomotor nerve d)olfactory bulb e) optic chiasmoptic chiasm identify the structure labeled “9” ) olfactory bulb b) optic chiasm c) oculomotor nerve d) infundibulum
e) mamillary bodyinfundibulum identify the nerve labeled “3” a) facial b)abducens c) trochlear d)trigeminal e)vagusabducens what is the function of the nerve labeled “4” a) vision b)olfaction c) taste d) hearing and balance e) eye movementhearing and balance what is the function of the structure labeled “5” a) movement of the tongue b) facial expression c)vision d) taste e) visceral sensation and motor controlvisceral sensation and motor control what is the function of the structure labeled “7” a) vision b)olfaction c) taste ) auditory e)eye movementolfaction what is the function of the nerve labeled “10”? a) vision b)olfaction c)taste d)auditory e)eye movementeye movement identify the nerve labeled “11” a)oculomotor b)trigeminal c)trochlear d)abducens e)optictrigeminal Identify the nerve labeled “12” a) trochlear b)trigeminal c)facial d)abducens e) vagusfacial the term general senses refers to sensitivity to all the following,except a) temperature b) taste c) touch d) vibration e)paintaste which of the following is not one of the special senses? a) hearing b) smell c) taste d) vibration e) visionvibration
Receptors that monitors the position of joints belong to the category called a) nociceptors b) chemoreceptors c) baroreceptors d) proprioceptors e) thermoreceptorsproprioceptors mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called a) nonciceptors b)baroreceptors c)chemoreceptors d)proprioceptors e) thermoreceptorsbaroreceptors tactile receptors composed of capsules that surround a core of collagen fibers intertwined with dendrites are called a) ruffini corpuscles b)lamellated corpuscles c)tactile (messner) corpuscles d) tactile discs e) root hair plexusesruffini corpuscles tactile receptor composed of highly coiled dendrites that are surrounded by modified Schwann cells and a fibrous capsule is a a) lamellated corpuscle b) ruffini corpuscle c)tactile (Messiner) corpuscle d) tactile (merkel) disc e) root hair plexustactile (Messiner) corpuscle Pain is to ____as cold is to______ a) nociceptors; thermoreceptors b) baroreceptors ;chemoreceptors c)baroreceptors; nociceptors d) chemoreceptors; nociceptors e) baroreceptors; thermoreceptorsnociceptors; thermoreceptors ______ are receptors in the aorta that monitor the blood pressure a) chemoreceptors b)nociceptors c)baroreceptors )proprioceptors e)hair cellsbaroreceptors from 134 to 137 questions regarding eye diagramhttp://o. quizlet. com/JTqrB7qjmfRtX42RcQwBwA. png identify the space labeled “1” . a) posterior cavity b) posterior chamber
c) pupil d) anterior chamber e) vitreous chamberanterior chamber identify the structure labeled “7” a) choroid b) optic disc c) sclera d) retina e) corneacornea identify the structure labeled “9” a) suspensory ligaments b)optic disc c) sclera d) fovea e)pupilsuspensory ligaments identify the structure labeled “12” a) pupil b) optic disc c) sclera d) fovea e) retinaretina identify the structure labeled “14” ) pupil b) optic disc c)scelra d)fovea e) suspensory ligamentsfovea from 140 to 144 questions on ear diagramhttp://o. quizlet. com/UoNhwwWzdotUwNUEz6Wp9A. png identify the structures labeled “8” a) cochlea b) auditory ossicles c) auricle d) tympanic membrane e) vestibuleauditory ossicles which structure contains the receptors for hearing a) 6 b) 8 c) 9 d) 10 e) 11number 11 — cochlea which structure is known as the vestibule? a) 6 b) 8 c) 9 d)10 e) 11number 6 identify the structure labeled “3” a) cochlea b) semicircular canals c) auricle d) tympanic membrane e) vestibuletympanic membrane