Chapter 11 - Part 11 - Economics Essay Example

Chapter 11- Social Movements, Social Change, and Technology
1: The most basic manifest function of education is the transmission of knowledge.

2: Which of the following is NOT a latent function of education?

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More Economics, Marxism Essay Topics.

bestowing status

3: Fifty years ago, a high school diploma was the minimum requirement for entry into the paid labor force of the United States. Today, a college diploma is virtually the bare minimum. This change reflects the process of credentialism.

4: Suppose that a school places students in specific “ability groups” on the basis of test scores and other criteria. This reflects the practice of

tracking.

5: Which sociological perspective argues that the educational system socializes students into values dictated by the powerful?

conflict
The conflict perspective argues that the educational system socializes students into values dictated by the powerful.

6: Which sociological perspective takes a generally positive view of the bureaucratization of education?

functionalist
The functionalists take a generally positive view of the bureaucratization of education.

7: Which sociological perspective argues that the trend toward more centralized education has harmful consequences for disadvantaged people?

conflict
The conflict perspective argues that the trend toward more centralized education has harmful consequences for disadvantaged people. The standardization of educational curricula will generally reflect the values, interests, and lifestyles of the most powerful groups in our society and may ignore those of racial and ethnic minorities.

8: Clark and Trow have identified distinctive subcultures among college students. Among these, which subculture is primarily interested in career prospects and views college as a means of obtaining degrees for advancement?

vocational
The vocational subculture is primarily interested in career prospects and views college as a means of obtaining degrees for advancement.

9: Psychologist Robert Rosenthal and school principal Lenore Jacobs studied _____, the impact that a teacher’s expectations about a student’s performance may have on the student’s actual achievements.

teacher-expectancy

10: Sociologist Max Weber noted five basic characteristics of bureaucracy, all of which are evident in the vast majority of schools, whether at the elementary, secondary, or even college level. Which of the following is NOT one of these?

shared decision-making

11: Socialist theory was refined in the writings of whom?

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels
Socialist theory was refined in the writings of Marx and Engels.

12: Which of the following believes that the central government, acting as the representative of the people, should make basic economic decisions?

socialists
Socialists believe that the central government, acting as the representative of the people, should make basic economic decisions. Therefore, government ownership of all major industries is a major feature of socialism as an ideal type.

13: As an ideal type, which economic system is one in which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce?

communism
As an ideal type, communism refers to an economic system in under which all property is communally owned and no social distinctions are made on the basis of people’s ability to produce.

14: As of 2007, which one of the following countries below was NOT a socialist society ruled by Communist parties? a. China

Japan
As of 2007, Japan was not a socialist society ruled by Communist parties.

15: Viewed from which sociological perspective does the unprecedented attention given to downsizing in the mid 1990s reflect the continuing importance of social class in the United States?

conflict

16: What term is used to refer to an economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits?

capitalism
Capitalism is the term used to refer to an economic system in which the means of production are largely in private hands, and the main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profits.

17: Power, according to which sociologist below, is the ability to exercise one’s will over others?

Max Weber
According to Max Weber, power is the ability to exercise one’s will over others.

18: There are three basic sources of power within any political system. Which of the following is NOT one of these sources of power?

persuasion
Persuasion is not one of the three basic sources of power within any political system. The three basic sources of power are force, influence, and authority.

19: Until the middle of the 20th century, Japan was ruled by a revered emperor whose power was absolute, and passed down from generation to generation. The political system presents an example of what type of authority?

traditional
In a political system based on traditional authority, legitimate power is conferred by custom and accepted practice.

20: Joan of Arc presents an example of which type of authority?

charismatic
The term charismatic authority refers to power made legitimate by a leader’s exceptional personal or emotional appeal to his or her followers. Joan of Arc is an example of charismatic authority. She was a simple peasant girl in medieval France, yet she was able to rally the French people and lead them in major battles against English invaders.

21: Whose pioneering work, The Power Elite, described a small group of military, industrial, and governmental leaders who controlled the fate of the United States?

C. Wright Mills
Feedback: <div>. In his pioneering work <i>The Power Elite</i>, Mills described a small ruling elite of military, industrial, and governmental leaders who controlled the fate of the United States.</div>

22: Political scientist Harold Lasswell defined politics as

who gets what, when, and how.

23: Which type of authority involves power made legitimate by law?

legal-rational

24: Jesus Christ, Mahatma Gandhi, Malcolm X, Adolf Hitler, and Martin Luther King, Jr. all possessed which type of authority?

charismatic

25: According to C. Wright Mills, power rests in the hands of the

power elite.

1: Sociologists use the term social movements to refer to disorganized activities that spontaneously occur in response to some new legislation passed.

False
Sociologists use the term social movements to refer to organized collective
activities to bring about or resist fundamental change in an existing group or society.

CORRECT
2: The term relative deprivation refers to the ways in which a social movement utilizes resources such as money, political influence, and access to the media and workers.

False
The term resource mobilization refers to the ways in which a social movement utilizes resources, such as money, political influence, and access to the media and workers. The term relative deprivation is defined as the conscious feeling of a negative discrepancy between legitimate expectations and present actualities.

CORRECT
3: Sociologists point out that gender is an important element in understanding social movement development.

True
Sociologists point out that gender is an important element in understanding social movement development. In our male-dominated society, women find it more difficult to assume leadership positions in social movement organizations. Moreover, gender bias causes the real extent of women’s influence to be overlooked.

CORRECT
4: Talcott Parsons was a proponent of evolutionary theory.

False
Parsons developed the equilibrium model.

CORRECT
5: The relative deprivation approach focuses on the strategic difficulties
facing social movements.

False
The resource mobilization perspective focuses on the strategic difficulties facing social movements.

CORRECT
6: Conflict theorists contend that social institutions and practices persist because powerful groups have the ability to maintain the status quo.

True
Conflict theorists contend that social institutions and practices persist because powerful groups have the ability to maintain the status quo. Change has crucial significance, since it is needed to correct social injustices and inequalities.

CORRECT
7: Ritzer’s concept of McDonaldization applies to the entire area of biotechnology.

True
This statement is true.

CORRECT
8: The functionalist perspective minimizes the significance of social change.

True
This statement is true.

CORRECT
9: New social movements generally view the government as their ally in the struggle for a better society.

False
False. While they typically do not seek to overthrow the government, new social movements may criticize, protest, or harass political officials.

CORRECT
10: Conflict theorists take a generally positive view of the Internet.

False
Functionalists take a generally positive view of the Internet.

CORRECT
11: Most households in India do not possess any form of high technology.

True
Most households in India do not possess any form of high technology; only about 1 out of 10 has a telephone, and just 3 out of 1,000 a computer.

CORRECT
12: Technological advances have little impact on the material culture.

False
Technological advances can dramatically transform the material culture. Word processing on computers, the pocket calculator, the photocopying machine, and the compact disc player have largely eliminated use of the typewriter, the adding machine, the mimeograph machine, and the turntable?all of which themselves were technological advances.

CORRECT
13: Many sociologists think we are living in a post industrial society.

True
This statement is true.

CORRECT
14: Marx argued that conflict is a normal and desirable aspect of social change.

True
Marx argued that change must be encouraged as a means of eliminating social inequality.

CORRECT
15: Efforts to promote social change seldom meet with resistance.

False
Efforts to promote social change often meet with resistance. In the midst of rapid scientific and technological innovation, many people become frightened by the demands of an ever-changing society.

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