Chapter 13- The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Somatic Reflexes Practice Problems

Identify the functions of the spinal cord:
locomotion, reflexes, conduction
List regions of the spinal cord:
thoracic, lumbar, cervical, sacral
The term “nerve fiber” refers to the _______ of a neuron.
axon
Indicate which of the areas are gray matter.
anterior horn, lateral horn, posterior horn
The ______ canal is an opening within the gray commissure; lined with ependymal cells and containing cerebral spinal fluid.
central
Identify connective tissue layer (#3).
Identify connective tissue layer (#3).
perineurium
Post-ganglionic _____ nerve fibers innervate skin, skeletal muscles, bones, and joints
somatic
How many spinal nerves emerges in thoracic spinal cord?
12 pairs
How many cranial spinal nerves are there?
8 pairs
How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?
5 pairs
List layers of meninges from superficial to deep.

1. dura matter
2. arachnoid matter
3. pia matter
____ matter is myelinated nervous tissue deep to the cortex of the cerebrum and cerebellum and superficial to gray matter of spinal cord.
White
A ________ is a cordlike organ composed of numerous nerve fibers (fascicles) bound together by connective tissue.
nerve
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Indicated in figure contains two tracts. Identify.
spinothalamic tract, spinal reticular tract
A _______ is a stereotyped, automatic, involuntary response to a stimulus.
reflex
Loose connective tissue surrounding individual nerve fibers within a nerve bundle is referred to as a _____.
endoneurium
Adult humans have ____ pairs of spinal nerves.
31
What structure marks the beginning of the spinal cord?
foramen magnum
Rabies
viral disease that spreads via somatic motor nerve fibers to the CNS and then to ANS fibers
A(n) _____ peripheral fiber is a nerve fiber carrying nerve signals toward the central nervous system.
afferent
Define meninges.
Fibrous connective tissue membranes covering the central nervous system.
The ____ matter of the central nervous system is where the neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses are found.
gray
A quick, involuntary, stereotyped response to stimuli is called a ______.
reflex
Order of reflex arc pathway.
1. receptor
2. afferent nerve fiber
3. integrating center
4. efferent nerve fiber
5. effector
Spinal meningitis
inflammation of spinal meninges
Guillain-Barre syndrome
accute demyelinating nerve disorder
Identify the distal branches of a spinal nerve _____.
anterior ramus, communicating rami, posterior ramus
Also known as a motor nerve fiber, an _____ fiber is a nerve fiber carrying nerve signals away from the central nervous system.
efferent
The ____ canal is an opening within the gray commissure; lined with ependymal cells and containing cerebrospinal fluid.
central
Which of the following are properties of a reflex.
Stereotyped, involuntary, quick, requires stimulation
The term “nerve fiber” refers to the ____ of a neuron.
axon
Define reflex
a stereotyped, automatic, involuntary response to a stimulus
Define somatic fiber.
Nerve fiber that innervates skin, skeletal muscles, bones and joints
The spinal cord contains ascending and descending nerve that conducts information between the CNS and the periphery. This illustrates the function of ____.
conduction
The cluster of nerves indicated on the figure is the ____ plexus.
The cluster of nerves indicated on the figure is the ____ plexus.
lumbar plexus
Indicate which types of spinal nerves form nerve plexuses.
sacral, cervical, lumbar
____ muscle fibers are muscle fibers within a muscle spindle.
intrafusal
A reflex in which a contralateral extensor muscle is contracted is called a ______ _______ reflex.
crossed extension
The _____ matter is the layer that is just below (deep to) the dura matter.
arachnoid
Identify structure.
Identify structure.
Terminal filum
The ____ matter of the central nervous system contains the synapses and therefore is the site of synaptic integration.
gray
The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain somas of somatic _____ neurons.
motor
The typical location for muscle ______ is at the ends of a muscle, near the tendons.
spindles
Define quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
The ______ ligament is formed as the terminal filum and dura mater fuse.
coccygeal
The _____ ____ is the tapering end of a spinal cord.
medullary cone (conus medullaris)
A ____ nerve is a nerve carrying nerve signals to the CNS.
sensory
Within the spinal cord, an ascending tract will carry ______ information up the spinal cord.
sensory
The _______ reflex arc is a neural pathway used by a reflex consisting of only TWO neurons and ONE synapse.
monosynaptic
The _____ is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.
epineurium
The neural pathway that mediates a reflex is called a reflex _____, consisting of a receptor, afferent nerve fiber, interneurons, efferent nerve fiber, and effector.
arc
Indicate the names of the three pairs of columns (funiculi) of white matter in the spinal cord.
posterior (dorsal), lateral, anterior (ventral) column
______ is a term meaning “on the opposite side of the body.”
contralateral
Within the spinal cord, the location of the white matter is described as _____ to the gray matter.
superficial
Moving peripherally out from the spinal cord, ____ are the closest structures to the spinal crod.
rootlets
Within a nerve, nerve fibers are gathered into bundles called:
fascicles
The _____ ramus of a spinal nerve innervates the muscles, joints, and skin of the back.
posterior
The arrangement of nerves inferior to the medullary cone is called the _____ _____.
The arrangement of nerves inferior to the medullary cone is called the _____ _____.
cauda equina
List four possible effectors of a reflex response.
glands, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle
Posterior roots of the spinal nerve carry _____ nerve fibers.
sensory
An ______ fiber are muscle fibers outside of a muscle spindle.
extrafusal
Anterior roots of the spinal cord contain axons of ____ neurons.
motor
What are some examples of somatosensory stimuli?
touch, pressure, stretch, pain, heat/cold
Define arachnoid mater.
middle layer of the meninges
The central canal of the spinal cord contains:
cerebrospinal fluid
Within the spinal cord, descending tracts conduct _____ signals down the spinal chord.
motor
Identify structure.
Identify structure.
anterior (ventral) root
A _____ is a cluster of neuron cell bodies outside of the CNS.
ganglion
The structure indicated is called the _____ ____.
The structure indicated is called the _____ ____.
posterior root
Indicate two examples of purely sensory nerves.
optic nerve, olfactory nerve
The structures indicated are called ______.
The structures indicated are called ______.
rootlets
The ____ horns of the spinal cord contain cell bodies of outgoing somatic motor neurons.
anterior
A quick contraction of the flexor muscles in response to a painful stimulus is called a ____.
felxor
Define contralateral
two points are on opposite sides of body
Identify
Identify
posterior root ganglion
The ____ reflex is ipsilateral.
flexor
The ____ matter is the meningeal layer that is closely associated with the contours of the spinal cord.
pia
In the PNS, the _____ cells form a neurilemma and the myelin sheath around an axon.
Schwann
The branch of the spinal nerve that is indicated is called a(n) _____ ramus.
The branch of the spinal nerve that is indicated is called a(n) _____ ramus.
anterior
The final nerve signal for the reflex response, carrying information to the effector, is an _____ nerve fiber.
efferent
A nerve containing both sensory and motor nerve fibers is called a _____ nerve.
mixed
Within a nerve, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer called a(n) _____.
perineurium
The somas of ____ neurons are found within the posterior root ganglion.
sensory
Somatic reflexes involve receptors located in ______.
skin, muscle, tendons
Identify connective tissue layer around nerve indicated.
Identify connective tissue layer around nerve indicated.
epineurium
Identify structure.
Identify structure.
Fascicle
The ____ space is located between the vertebral bones and the dural sheath.
epidural
From superior to inferior, the spinal cord is divided into the ______, _______, ______ and _______ regions.
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
Sensory pathways consist of a particular number of neurons. Sensory pathways consist of a particular number of neurons. Sensory pathways consist of a chain of ____ (what number?) neurons in sequence.
three
Based on the presence of both efferent and afferent fibers, spinal nerves are classified as _____ nerves.
mixed
______ fibers are nerve fibers that innervate blood vessels, glands, and internal organs.
visceral
The _____ median fissure is a longitudinal groove on ventral surface of spinal cord.
anterior
The ______ motor neuron of the descending pathway innervates the target organ.
lower
In descending pathways, the upper motor neurons synapse with ______ _______ neurons in the brainstem or spinal cord.
lower motor
Define sensory nerve.
A nerve containing only fibers carrying incoming nerve signals to the CNS
The denticulate ligaments are extensions of the _____ mater that extend through the other meningeal layers to anchor the spinal cord.
pia
In descending pathways, the _____ motor neurons have their somas in the cerebral cortex or brainstem.
upper
______ neurons carry information away from the nervous system.
efferent
Identify structure.
Identify structure.
medullary cone
Because of _______ of nerve tracts, the right side of the brain communicates with the left side of body, and vice vesra.
decussation
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