Chapter 13- The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Somatic Reflexes Practice Problems
Identify the functions of the spinal cord:
locomotion, reflexes, conduction
List regions of the spinal cord:
thoracic, lumbar, cervical, sacral
The term “nerve fiber” refers to the _______ of a neuron.
Indicate which of the areas are gray matter.
anterior horn, lateral horn, posterior horn
The ______ canal is an opening within the gray commissure; lined with ependymal cells and containing cerebral spinal fluid.
Identify connective tissue layer (#3).
Post-ganglionic _____ nerve fibers innervate skin, skeletal muscles, bones, and joints
How many spinal nerves emerges in thoracic spinal cord?
How many cranial spinal nerves are there?
How many lumbar spinal nerves are there?
List layers of meninges from superficial to deep.
1. dura matter
2. arachnoid matter
3. pia matter
____ matter is myelinated nervous tissue deep to the cortex of the cerebrum and cerebellum and superficial to gray matter of spinal cord.
A ________ is a cordlike organ composed of numerous nerve fibers (fascicles) bound together by connective tissue.
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Indicated in figure contains two tracts. Identify.
spinothalamic tract, spinal reticular tract
A _______ is a stereotyped, automatic, involuntary response to a stimulus.
Loose connective tissue surrounding individual nerve fibers within a nerve bundle is referred to as a _____.
Adult humans have ____ pairs of spinal nerves.
What structure marks the beginning of the spinal cord?
viral disease that spreads via somatic motor nerve fibers to the CNS and then to ANS fibers
A(n) _____ peripheral fiber is a nerve fiber carrying nerve signals toward the central nervous system.
Fibrous connective tissue membranes covering the central nervous system.
The ____ matter of the central nervous system is where the neuron cell bodies, dendrites, and synapses are found.
A quick, involuntary, stereotyped response to stimuli is called a ______.
Order of reflex arc pathway.
2. afferent nerve fiber
3. integrating center
4. efferent nerve fiber
inflammation of spinal meninges
accute demyelinating nerve disorder
Identify the distal branches of a spinal nerve _____.
anterior ramus, communicating rami, posterior ramus
Also known as a motor nerve fiber, an _____ fiber is a nerve fiber carrying nerve signals away from the central nervous system.
The ____ canal is an opening within the gray commissure; lined with ependymal cells and containing cerebrospinal fluid.
Which of the following are properties of a reflex.
Stereotyped, involuntary, quick, requires stimulation
The term “nerve fiber” refers to the ____ of a neuron.
a stereotyped, automatic, involuntary response to a stimulus
Define somatic fiber.
Nerve fiber that innervates skin, skeletal muscles, bones and joints
The spinal cord contains ascending and descending nerve that conducts information between the CNS and the periphery. This illustrates the function of ____.
The cluster of nerves indicated on the figure is the ____ plexus.
Indicate which types of spinal nerves form nerve plexuses.
sacral, cervical, lumbar
____ muscle fibers are muscle fibers within a muscle spindle.
A reflex in which a contralateral extensor muscle is contracted is called a ______ _______ reflex.
The _____ matter is the layer that is just below (deep to) the dura matter.
The ____ matter of the central nervous system contains the synapses and therefore is the site of synaptic integration.
The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain somas of somatic _____ neurons.
The typical location for muscle ______ is at the ends of a muscle, near the tendons.
paralysis of all four limbs
The ______ ligament is formed as the terminal filum and dura mater fuse.
The _____ ____ is the tapering end of a spinal cord.
medullary cone (conus medullaris)
A ____ nerve is a nerve carrying nerve signals to the CNS.
Within the spinal cord, an ascending tract will carry ______ information up the spinal cord.
The _______ reflex arc is a neural pathway used by a reflex consisting of only TWO neurons and ONE synapse.
The _____ is composed of dense irregular connective tissue.
The neural pathway that mediates a reflex is called a reflex _____, consisting of a receptor, afferent nerve fiber, interneurons, efferent nerve fiber, and effector.
Indicate the names of the three pairs of columns (funiculi) of white matter in the spinal cord.
posterior (dorsal), lateral, anterior (ventral) column
______ is a term meaning “on the opposite side of the body.”
Within the spinal cord, the location of the white matter is described as _____ to the gray matter.
Moving peripherally out from the spinal cord, ____ are the closest structures to the spinal crod.
Within a nerve, nerve fibers are gathered into bundles called:
The _____ ramus of a spinal nerve innervates the muscles, joints, and skin of the back.
The arrangement of nerves inferior to the medullary cone is called the _____ _____.
List four possible effectors of a reflex response.
glands, smooth muscle, skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle
Posterior roots of the spinal nerve carry _____ nerve fibers.
An ______ fiber are muscle fibers outside of a muscle spindle.
Anterior roots of the spinal cord contain axons of ____ neurons.
What are some examples of somatosensory stimuli?
touch, pressure, stretch, pain, heat/cold
Define arachnoid mater.
middle layer of the meninges
The central canal of the spinal cord contains:
Within the spinal cord, descending tracts conduct _____ signals down the spinal chord.
anterior (ventral) root
A _____ is a cluster of neuron cell bodies outside of the CNS.
The structure indicated is called the _____ ____.
Indicate two examples of purely sensory nerves.
optic nerve, olfactory nerve
The structures indicated are called ______.
The ____ horns of the spinal cord contain cell bodies of outgoing somatic motor neurons.
A quick contraction of the flexor muscles in response to a painful stimulus is called a ____.
two points are on opposite sides of body
posterior root ganglion
The ____ reflex is ipsilateral.
The ____ matter is the meningeal layer that is closely associated with the contours of the spinal cord.
In the PNS, the _____ cells form a neurilemma and the myelin sheath around an axon.
The branch of the spinal nerve that is indicated is called a(n) _____ ramus.
The final nerve signal for the reflex response, carrying information to the effector, is an _____ nerve fiber.
A nerve containing both sensory and motor nerve fibers is called a _____ nerve.
Within a nerve, each fascicle is wrapped in a layer called a(n) _____.
The somas of ____ neurons are found within the posterior root ganglion.
Somatic reflexes involve receptors located in ______.
skin, muscle, tendons
Identify connective tissue layer around nerve indicated.
The ____ space is located between the vertebral bones and the dural sheath.
From superior to inferior, the spinal cord is divided into the ______, _______, ______ and _______ regions.
cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral
Sensory pathways consist of a particular number of neurons. Sensory pathways consist of a particular number of neurons. Sensory pathways consist of a chain of ____ (what number?) neurons in sequence.
Based on the presence of both efferent and afferent fibers, spinal nerves are classified as _____ nerves.
______ fibers are nerve fibers that innervate blood vessels, glands, and internal organs.
The _____ median fissure is a longitudinal groove on ventral surface of spinal cord.
The ______ motor neuron of the descending pathway innervates the target organ.
In descending pathways, the upper motor neurons synapse with ______ _______ neurons in the brainstem or spinal cord.
Define sensory nerve.
A nerve containing only fibers carrying incoming nerve signals to the CNS
The denticulate ligaments are extensions of the _____ mater that extend through the other meningeal layers to anchor the spinal cord.
In descending pathways, the _____ motor neurons have their somas in the cerebral cortex or brainstem.
______ neurons carry information away from the nervous system.
Because of _______ of nerve tracts, the right side of the brain communicates with the left side of body, and vice vesra.