Nervous system effector flash card

Which of the following is NOT an autonomic nervous system effector?
a) smooth muscle
b) cardiac muscle
c) skeletal muscle
d) glands
c) skeletal muscle
Oculomotor nerves are responsible for which of the following functions?
a) Focusing the eyes on close objects
b) Activating the parotid salivary glands
c) Activating the nasal and lacrimal glands of the eyes
d) Reflexive blinking of the eyes
a) Focusing the eyes on close objects
For which of the following activities is the parasympathetic nervous system generally responsible?
a) Running and walking
b) Heartbeat and breathing
c) Fight-or-flight responses
d) Resting and digesting
d) Resting and digesting
Which of the following is a way in which the somatic and autonomic nervous systems are similar?
a) Both systems share common efferent pathways.


b) Both systems share common effectors.
c) Both systems send the same target organ responses to their neurotransmitters.
d) Both systems have motor fibers.

d) Both systems have motor fibers.
Which of the following is NOT a function of the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
a) resting
b) energy conservation
c) digesting
d) emergency action
d) emergency action
Which division of the nervous system has short preganglionic neurons?
a) parasympathetic
b) motor
c) sympathetic
d) somatic
c) sympathetic
Which target organ is NOT affected by the parasympathetic division of the ANS?
a) liver
b) heart
c) adrenal medulla
d) lungs
c) adrenal medulla
The two divisions of the ANS normally have what relationship?
a) antagonistic
b) synergistic
c) disruptive
d) mutualistic
a) antagonistic
What is the effect of norepinephrine on the heart?
a) a decrease in stroke volume
b) a decrease in heart rate
c) an increase in heart rate
d) epinephrine does not affect the heart
c) an increase in heart rate
Which autonomic neurons release norepinephrine as a neurotransmitter?
a) sympathetic preganglionic neurons
b) sympathetic postganglionic neurons
c) parasympathetic postganglionic neurons
d) parasympathetic preganglionic neurons
b) sympathetic postganglionic neurons
Which of the following best demonstrates an example of cooperation of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems?
a) Parasympathetic stimulation causes copious sweating; sympathetic stimulation causes epidermal pores to dilate.
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b) Sympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the clitoris, leading to erection; parasympathetic stimulation then causes reflex contractions of the vagina.
c) Sympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the penis, leading to erection; parasympathetic stimulation then causes ejaculation.
d) Parasympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the penis, leading to erection; sympathetic stimulation then causes ejaculation.

d) Parasympathetic stimulation causes vasodilation of blood vessels in the penis, leading to erection; sympathetic stimulation then causes ejaculation.
The ANS stimulates smooth and skeletal muscles and glands, whereas the somatic nervous system innervates cardiac muscles only.
false
Most body organs are innervated by only the sympathetic division of the nervous system.
false
Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatic efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve fiber endings.
true
Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
a) synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
b) both somatic afferent and efferent neurons
c) an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
d) the cell bodies of motor neurons
d) the cell bodies of motor neurons
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
a) salivation
b) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
c) dilation of the pupils
d) elimination of urine
c) dilation of the pupils
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
a) skeletal muscle
b) smooth muscle
c) most glands
d) cardiac muscle
a) skeletal muscle
Cranial nerves III, VII, and IX supply the entire parasympathetic innervation of the head; however, only the preganglionic fibers lie within these three pairs of cranial nerves.
false
Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone.
true
What differentiates an autonomic reflex from a somatic reflex?
a) a two-neuron motor pathway
b) presence of a sensory receptor
c) an integration center
d) a single sensory neuron in the sensory pathway
a) a two-neuron motor pathway
The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
a) pancreas
b) parotid gland
c) kidneys
d) gallbladder
c) kidneys
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
a) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
b) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
c) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
d) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood pressure
b) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
a) is primarily under sympathetic control
b) depends very little on autonomic activation
c) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
d) is primarily under parasympathetic control
d) is primarily under parasympathetic control
The sympathetic nervous system is often referred to as the “resting and digesting” system.
false
A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be ________.
a) a beta-blocker
b) anticholinesterase
c) epinephrine
d) norepinephrine
a) a beta-blocker
Beta-blockers ________.
a) are potent antidepressants
b) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
c) increase a dangerously low heart rate
d) have widespread sympathetic effects
b) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the ________.
a) sympathetic trunk
b) sacral nerve
c) phrenic nerve
d) vagus nerve
d) vagus nerve
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.
a) oculomotor
b) optic
c) abducens
d) trochlear
a) oculomotor
Preparing the body for the “fight-or-flight” response is the role of the ________.
a) somatic nervous system
b) parasympathetic nervous system
c) cerebrum
d) sympathetic nervous system
d) sympathetic nervous system
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
a) vagus nerve activity
b) sympathetic stimulation
c) parasympathetic innervation
d) neurosecretory substances
b) sympathetic stimulation
The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body where the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
false
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