Because the ANS is a visceral motor system, afferent pathways are of no importance and actually are rarely found
The rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic divison of the ANS
The gray rami communicantes consists of myelinated postganglionic fibers
Splanchnic nerves are mixed motor and sensory nerves
The autonomic nervous system may cause activation or inhibition, depending on the division that is active and the target that is affected
The celiac ganglion is primarily associated with the sympathetic division
All visceral organ receive dural innnervation from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the ANS
Thermoregulatory responses to increased heat are mediated by the sympathetic nervous divison
Most disorders of the autonomic nervous system reflect abnormalities of smooth muscle control
Alpha-adrenergic effects dominate the direct control of blood pressure
The adrenal medulla is considered a “misplaced” sympathetic ganglion by some
Acetylcholine is the substance released by the axonal endings of the somatice efferent fibers and by the parasympathetic nerve ending fibers
The sympathetic and parasympthathetic divisions of the ANS have the same effect on most body organ systems
Through direct neural stimulation, the sympathetic division promotes many metabolic effects via hormone release
Cranial nerves VII, IX, and X contain postaganlionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system
The ANS stimulates smooth muscles, skeletal muscles and glands, whereas the somatic nervous system innervates skeletal muscle only
Norepinephrine-releasing fibers are called cholinergic fibers
Autonomic ganglia are motor ganglia only
The craniosacral division is another name for the parasympathetic division alone.
Most blood vessels are innervated by the sympathetic division alone
The blood vessels of the skin are one of the few areas of the body whre the vessels are innervated by both the sympathetic and parasympathetic division.
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Events recorded in a lie detector examination are controlled by the sympathetic division
All splanchnic nerves are sympathetic
The structures that specifically exhibit vasomotor tone are mostly under sympathetic control
Most splanchnic nerves pass through the abdominal aortic plexus
Because many of the same cardiac cells are innervated by both parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers, the influence of the two divisions on the heart is synergistic
Adrenergic receptors are the only receptors found on the heart
Autonomic reflex centers occur in the spinal cord, medulla, and midbrain.
Cranial nerves III, VII, and IX supply the entire parasympathetic innervation of the head; however, only the preganglionic fibers lie within these three pairs of cranial nerves
Because the parasympathetic fibers never run in spinal nerves, rami communicantes are associated only with the sympathetic division
Rami communicantes are designated white or grey to indicate wheather or not the fibers passing through them are myelinated
The autonomic and somatic nervous systems are two separate systems that work totally independent of each other
Albuteral is used by asthma patients to dialate thhe bronchioles of the lungs and ease breathing
The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of
Which of the following does not describe the ANS
a system of motor neurons that innervates all muscle cells
Preparing the body for the “fight or flight” response is the role of the
sympathetic nervous system
The somatic and autonomic nervous systems differ in all of the following except
all of the neurotransmitters
Where would you not find a cholinergeric nicotinic receptor?
all parasympathetic target organs
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic divison include all except
dialiation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from the cranial nerve number
The “resting and digesting” division of the autonomic nervous system is the
Control of temperature , endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
Which of the following statements is not true?
Sympathetic origin is craniosacral, parasympathetic is thoracolumbar.
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because
NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebra?
Autonomic ganglia contain
the cell bodies of motor neurons
The parasympathetic fibers of the __________nerves innervates smooth muscles of the eye that cause the lenses to bulge to accomodate close vision
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called
Which of the following is not a plexus of the vagus nerve?
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that
visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
The parasympathetic tone
determines normal activity of the urinary tract
Once a sympathetic preganglionic axon reaches a trunk ganglion, it can do all but which one of the following?
synapse with a parasympathetic neuron in the same trunk ganglion
Which of the following appears to exert the most direct influence over the autonomic function?
decrease heart rate and blood pressure
Erection of the penis or clitoris
is primarily under parasympathetic control
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
regulation of body temperature
is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
involves uncontrolled activatio of autonomic neurons
Which sympathetic fibers from a splanchhnic nerve?
those that pass through the trunk ganglion to synapse in collateral or prevertebral ganglia
Which of the following adrenergic neurotransmitter receptors plays the major role in heart activity
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
in the armpit
Sympathetic division stimulation causes
increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood pressure
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the
tenth cranial nerve
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is via the
Parasympathetic functions include
lens accomodation for close vision
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the
Alpha and beta receptors are classes of
Sweat glands are innervated by the
sympathetic fibers alone
A division alone that adaptss the lens of the eye for close vision
The two cholinergic receptor types are nicotonic and
A receptor type is used by the heart, and when activated increases heart rated
The only sympathetic preganglionic neuron to go directly to an organ is one branch of the
greater splanchnic nerve
The parasympathetic division uses only_____________ as a neurotransmitter in the ganglionic neurons