Chapter 15 APUSH

Liberal religious belief, held by many of the Founding Fathers such as Paine, Jefferson, and Franklin, that stressed rationalism and moral
behavior rather than Christian revelation while retaining belief in a Supreme Being.
Second Great Awakening
Religious revival that began on the frontier and swept eastward, stirring an evangelical spirit in many areas of American life
Methodists and Baptists
The two religious denominations that benefited from the evangelical revivals of the early nineteenth century.
Religious group founded by Joseph Smith that eventually established a cooperative commonwealth in Utah.
Burned-Over District
Area of western New York state where frequent, fervent religious revivals produced intense religious controversies and numerous new sects

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Seneca Falls Convention
Memorable 1848 meeting in New York where women made an appeal based on the Declaration of Independence.
Oberlin College
Evangelical college in Ohio that was the first institution of higher education to admit Blacks and women.
Brook Farm
Short-lived intellectual commune in Massachusetts based on “plain living and high thinking”
Thomas Jefferson’s stately self-designed home in Virginia that became a model of American architecture.
Long-lived communal religious group, founded by Mother Ann Lee, that greatly influenced many American writes of the early nineteenth century
Philosophical and literary movement, centered in New England, that greatly influenced many American writers of the early nineteenth century.
On the Duty of Civil Disobedience
The doctrine, promoted by writer Henry David Thoreau in an essay of the same name, that later influenced Gandhi and Martin Luther King, Jr.
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman’s originally shocking poetic masterpiece that embraced sexual liberation and celebrated America as a great democratic experiment
Moby Dick
Herman Melville’s great but commercially unsuccessful novel about Captain Ahab’s obsessive pursuit of a white whale.
minstrel shows
Popular nineteenth-century musical entertainments that featured white actors and singers with painted black faces
Dorothea Dix
Quietly determined reformer who substantially improved conditions for the mentally ill
Brigham Young
The “Mormon Moses,” who led persecuted Latter-Day Saints to their promised land in Utah
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Leading feminist who wrote the “Declaration of Sentiments” in 1848 and pushed for women’s suffrage
Lucretia Mott
Quaker women’s rights advocates who also strongly supported abolition of slavery
Emily Dickinson
Reclusive New England poet who wrote about love, death, and immortality
Charles G. Finney
Influential evangelical revivalist of the Second Great Awakening
Amelia Bloomer
Female reformer who promoted short skirts and trousers as a replacement for highly restrictive women’s clothing
John Humphrey Noyes
Leader of radical New York commune that practiced complex marriage and eugenic birth control
Mary Lyon
Pioneering women’s educator, founder of Mount Holyoke Seminary in Massachusetts
Louisa May Alcott
A leading female transcendentalist who wrote Little Women and other novels to help support her family
James Fenimore Cooper
Path-breaking American novelist who contrasted the natural person of the forest with the values of modern civilization
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Second-rate poet/philosopher, but first-rate promoter of transcendentalist ideas and American culture & scholarship
Walt Whitman
Bold, unconventional poet who celebrated American democracy
Edgar Allan Poe
Eccentric southern-born genius whose tales of mystery, suffering, and the supernatural departed from general American literary trends
Herman Melville
New York writer whose romantic sea tales were more popular than his dark literary masterpiece
CAUSE: The Second Great Awakening
Inspired a widespread spirit of evangelical reform in many areas of American life
CAUSE: The Mormon practice of polygamy
Aroused persecution from morally traditionalist Americans and delayed statehood for Utah
CAUSE: Women abolitionists’ anger at being ignored by male reformers
Led to expanding the crusade for equals rights to include women
CAUSE: The women’s rights movement
Aroused hostility and scorn in most of the male press and pulpit
CAUSE: Unrealistic expectations and conflict within perfectionist communes
Caused most utopian experiments to decline or collapse in a few years
CAUSE: The Knickerbocker and transcendentalist use of new American themes in their writing
Created the first literature genuinely native to America
CAUSE: Henry David Thoreau’s theory of civil disobedience
Inspired later practitioners of nonviolence like Ghandi and King
CAUSE: Walt Whitman’s Leaves of Grass
Captured, in one long poem, the exuberant and optimistic spirit of popular American democracy
CAUSE: Herman Melville’s and Edgar Allan Poe’s concern with evil and suffering
Made their works little understood in their lifetimes by generally optimistic Americans
CAUSE: The Transcendentalist movement
Inspired writers like Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry David Thoreau, and Margaret Fuller
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