Autonomic ganglion flash card
a. cardiac muscle
b. exocrine glands
c. skeletal muscle
d. endocrine glands
e. smooth muscle
a. outside; skeletal muscle; involuntary
b. inside; the viscera; voluntary
c. outside; the viscera; involuntary
d. inside; skeletal muscle; voluntary
e. outside; the viscera; voluntary
a. autonomic target tissues become more sensitive than normal to stimulating agents
b. skeletal muscle effectors enter a state of flaccid paralysis and atrophy
c. can result from severing (cutting) autonomic motor neurons
d. an example is restoring the secretion of acid from the stomach following vagotomy (severing the
Autonomic motor nerves innervate organs whose functions are not usually under voluntary control.
The word viscera refers to the organs located within the body cavities.
Unlike somatic motor neurons, autonomic motor neurons always involve two neurons in the efferent
A ganglion is defined as a collection of cell bodies inside the CNS (brain and spinal cord).
Ganglia are an integral part of the somatic motor pathway
Cardiac muscle (the heart) and many smooth muscles can contract rhythmically even in the absence of
autonomic nerve stimulation.
Unlike somatic motor neurons that always cause stimulation of skeletal muscle effectors, some autonomic
nerves release neurotransmitter substances that inhibit the activity of their effectors.
a. They are usually activated as a single unit (mass activation).
b. They emerge from the brain and sacral regions.
c. They form white and gray rami communicantes fibers.
d. They may have ganglia located along the spinal cord
b. superior mesenteric
c. inferior mesenteric
e. All of these systems are served by these postganglionic fibers
a. Like sympathetics, they travel within spinal nerves.
b. They synapse in terminal ganglia, either next to or within the organs innervated.
c. They originate in the brain or sacral spinal cord regions (the craniosacral division).
d. Postganglionic fibers are usually shorter than those of sympathetic neurons.
e. They send preganglionic fibers to the visceral organs, such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, intestine,
Both sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons have preganglionic cell bodies located inside the CNS
and postganglionic cell bodies located outside the CNS
Preganglionic sympathetic neurons are myelinated, and thus, called white rami communicantes, while
postganglionic sympathetic fibers are unmyelinated, and therefore, known as the gray rami
The convergence of impulses from the spinal cord to the ganglia and the divergence of impulses within
the ganglia usually result in the mass activation of almost all postganglionic fibers as
The cortex of the adrenal gland is a modified sympathetic ganglion
Neurons whose cell bodies originate in the medulla oblongata and whose axons serve as cranial nerves
would be classified as parasympathetic
Sympathetic neurons show great divergence from preganglionic to postganglionic fibers, whereas
parasympathetic neurons diverge only a little.
a. preganglionic sympathetic fibers
b. postganglionic sympathetic fibers
c. preganglionic parasympathetic fibers
d. postganglionic parasympathetic fibers
a. acetylcholine (ACh).
a. slowing down (relaxation) of the digestive tract muscular motility, such as peristalsis
b. opening of the airways or bronchioles in the lung
c. increasing the force and rate of the heart beat
d. dilating the smooth muscle of the skin and splanchnic blood vessels
e. relaxing the smooth muscle wall of the urinary bladder
a. They are not found in autonomic ganglia or at the neuromuscular junctions of skeletal muscle fibers.
b. They are stimulated by extracts from poisonous mushrooms.
c. They are subtypes of adrenergic receptors.
d. They are not affected by the drug, curare that specifically blocks nicotinic receptors.
e. They can be found on the target organs of specific postganglionic parasympathetic fibers.
“nonadrenergic noncholinergic” postganglionic autonomic axons?
a. adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
b. gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA)
c. vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)
d. nitric oxide (NO)
can best be described as
c. cooperative (synergistic)
c. cooperative (synergistic).
c. cooperative (synergistic).
a. adrenal medulla
b. arrector pili muscle
c. sweat glands
d. most blood vessels
e. All of these are only innervated by sympathetic neurons.
a. medulla oblongata.
b. pituitary gland.
e. basal ganglia.
a. cardiovascular system
b. pulmonary system
c. urinary system
d. reproductive system
e. immune system
a. body temperature.
b. various emotional states.
The term “fight or flight” is used to describe the mass activation of the parasympathetic system that
prepares the body for intense physical activity in emergency situations.
Cocaine is considered a sympathomimetic drug – a drug that mimics or promotes the effects of
sympathetic nerve activity through the action of norepinephrine.
Sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons usually release different neurotransmitters from their
respective postganglionic neuron axons.
Those sympathetic postganglionic neurons activating blood vessels in skeletal muscle and in sweat glands
are unique in their release of acetylcholine (ACh) instead of norepinephrine (NE).
Adrenergic stimulation by epinephrine, usually secreted by the adrenal medulla, and by norepinephrine,
secreted from sympathetic nerve endings, can produce both excitatory and inhibitory effects.
The autonomic neurons are unique in that they form synapses en passant (“synapses in passing”) as
neurotransmitters are released from numerous swellings or varicosities as they pass through their target
The physiology of α2-adrenergic receptors is complex because these receptors are mainly located on the
presynaptic axon terminals (decreasing NE release), yet are found on the postsynaptic membrane of
vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in complicated influence on blood pressure.
When epinephrine and norepinephrine bind to adrenergic receptors in the ANS a group of membraneassociated G-proteins dissociate into subunits, and thereby activate their respective target cells.
The activation of all somatic motor neurons or preganglionic autonomic neurons results in cholinergic
effects that can be both excitatory and inhibitory.
Parasympathetic neuron stimulation of the pacemaker region of the heart increases the heart rate.
In the digestive system, activation of parasympathetic neurons increases intestinal movements and
stimulates intestinal secretions.
Increased sympathetic neuron activity to smooth muscle fibers around blood vessels of the skin
(cutaneous) causes vasoconstriction, whereas cutaneous vasodilation results when sympathetic nerve
activity is decreased.
The Vagus nerve (cranial nerve X) is a mixed nerve, containing both sensory and motor neuron fibers.
Thermoregulation, the regulation of heat gain or loss by the body, is accomplished without the direct
involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system.
preganglionic neurons. Postganglionic neurons originate from collections of __________ outside the CNS,
known as __________.
__________ __________, and __________.
characteristic of autonomic neurons is called __________. Preganglionic sympathetic neurons emerge from the
__________ and __________ levels of the spinal cord, whereas preganglionic parasympathetic fibers originate
in the __________ and __________ levels of the spinal cord.
neurons with __________ (long/short) postganglionic neurons because the ganglia are located close to or
__________ the target cells.
(sympathetic/parasympathetic) neurons—effects called __________.
__________ (sympathetic/parasympathetic), release only the neurotransmitter __________; and their effects are
called _________________. Hint: Sympathetic fibers that innervate __________ __________ and those that
innervate __________ __________ in skeletal muscles are cholinergic!
activity are the __________ __________ located in the brain stem and the higher brain region called the
Cite this Autonomic ganglion flash card
Autonomic ganglion flash card. (2017, Dec 14). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/chapter-15-the-autonomic-nervous-system-2-essay/