Chapter 15- The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes Practice Problems

The ______ is a motor nervous system that controls glands, smooth muscle, and cardiac muscle.
autonomic nervous system
The autonomic nervous system is also referred to as the ________ motor system to distinguish it from the somatic motor nervous system.
visceral
Name the nervous system division that has effectors that are glands, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle.
autonomic
Identify the nervous system that regulates conscious, voluntary movements of skeletal muscles.
somatic
Identify the characteristics of a visceral reflex.
unconscious, automatic, sterotyped
If the nerves to visceral effectors are severed, the effectors exhibit _____.

hypersensitivity
Identify the preganglionic nerve fiber in the figure.
Identify the preganglionic nerve fiber in the figure.
First half
Within an autonomic output pathway, the ______ fiber is unmyelinated and synapses with visceral effectors.
postganglionic
Identify the number of nerve fibers connecting the CNS and the effector in the ANS.
two
Which image is depicting somatic efferent innervation.
Which image is depicting somatic efferent innervation.
Indicate the regions of the spinal cord from which the nerves of the sympathetic nervous system arise.
thoracic, lumbar
The adrenal gland has two parts: an outer rim called the _____ and an inner portion called the ______.
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adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla
A _____ _______ is an unconscious, automatic response to a stimulus involving effectors. But, it has slower responses.
visceral reflexes
Describe a preganglionic neuron.
It has its cell body in the spinal cord or the brainstem and its axon terminates in a ganglion.
Name the nervous system division has two nerve fibers connecting the CNS and the effector.
autonomic
The sympathetic nervous system is also called the ____ division as it arises from the thoracic and lumbar regions of the spinal cord.
thoracolumbar
The parasympathetic division arises from the _____ and the _____.
sacral spinal cord, brainstem
From beginning to end, the components of a visceral reflex arc.
1. receptor
2. afferent neuron
3. interneuron
4. efferent neurons
5. effector
Identify the activities attributed to the parasympathetic nervous system.
normal body maintenance, reduced energy expenditure, waste elimination, digestion
Name the division of the ANS that is responsible for increasing heart rate, alertness, blood pressure, pulmonary airflow, blood-glucose concentration, and blood flow to the heart and skeletal muscles.
sympathetic
Regulation of pupillary constriction and dilation is an example of the _____ effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions on the same organ.
antagonistic
Indicate which of the following send input to the ANS.
medulla oblongata, hypothalamus, spinal cord, cerebral cortex
In roman numerals, cranial nerves numbered _____, VII, IX, and X carry parasympathetic fibers from the brainstem.
III
______ _____ refers to the fact that many structures are innervated by nerve fibers from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.
dual innervation
Name the cranial nerve that carries parasympathetic fibers to the heart, lungs, and digestive organs.
vagus
The ____ of the brain is a major control center for the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system.
hypothalamus
Name the division of the ANS that is referred to as the “rest and digest” division.
parasympathetic
What hormones are secreted by the adrenal medulla.
norepinephrine, epinephrine
Indicate which of the following are sympathetic effects on the reproductive system.
labor contractions of the uterus, smooth muscle’s role in organsm
All receptors that bind to ACh are referred to as _____ receptors.
cholinergic
Identify the stimuli that trigger the limbic system to influence hypothalamic control of the ANS.
anxiety, fear, anger
Identify the cranial nerve that regulates secretion from the tear glands, the salivary glands and the nasal glands.
VII
Identify the effferent pathway that transmits both excitatory and inhibitory signals to its effector cells.
autonomic
Which portion of the adrenal gland secretes epinephrine, norepinephrine and a trace of dopamne.
medulla
From which region of the CNS do ther nerves of the sympathetic nervous system arise?
lumbar, thoracic
In the circulation, ____ occurs in response to the lower rate of sympathetic nerve firing to smooth muslces of the bloood vesells
vasodilation
Regarding the length of fibers, the parasympathetic nervous system has ______ preganglionic fibers and _____ postganglionic fibers.
long; short
The cell bodies of sympathetic preganglionic fibers are located in the ____ horn of gray matter of the spinal cord.
lateral
Name the ganglia that extend from the cervical region to the coccygeal region along the vertebral column.
sympathetic
Axons of the gray communicating ramus are:
postanglionic, unmeyelinated, simple
The limbic system is a ring of structures located:
within the cerebral cortex
Indicate which of the following are autonomic reflexes regulated by the spinal cord.
micturition, erection, defacation, ejaculation
The ____ division of the ANS and the adrenal medulla develop from the same embryonic tissue.
sympathetic
The ______ nerve carries parasympathetic fibers that regulate the shape of the lends for vision and the diamer of the piupi.
oculomotor
List the functions of the ecentric nervous system:
regulates motility through the digestive track, regulates the secretion of digestive enzymes
Name the structure that are innervated by parasympathetic fibers which arise from S2-S4
reproductive organs, urinary bladder, rectum
Name the type of nerve fibers that secrete norepinephrine.
postganglionic nerve fibers of the parasympathetic divison.
The ___ communicating ramus contains melinated preganglionic sympathetic atom that extend from a spinal nerve to the nearest sympathetic changed.
white
The ___ system is part of the cerebrum that has extensive nerual connectsion with the hypothalamus. Its responsibility is to connect sensory and mental experiences with the autonomic nervous system.
limbic
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