Chapter 15 The Autonomic Nervous System

smooth
Autonomic Nervous System regulates activity of
1. _____ muscle
2. cardiac muscle
3. certain glands
cardiac
Autonomic Nervous System regulates activity of
1. smooth muscle
2. _____ muscle
3. certain glands
glands
Autonomic Nervous System regulates activity of
1. smooth muscle
2. cardiac muscle
3. certain _____
visceral afferent
Structures involved in Autonomic Nervous System
1. general _____ _____ neurons
2. general visceral efferent neurons
3. integration center within the brain
visceral efferent
Structures involved Autonomic Nervous System
1. general visceral afferent neurons
2. general _____ _____ neurons
3. integration center within the brain
integration center
Structures involved Autonomic Nervous System
1. general visceral afferent neurons
2. general visceral efferent neurons
3. _____ _____ within the brain
hypothalamus
Autonomic Nervous System receives input from _____ and brain stem
brain stem
Autonomic Nervous System receives input from hypothalamus and _____ _____
Somatic
Peripheral Nervous System:
1. _____
2. Autonomic
3. Enteric
Autonomic
Peripheral Nervous System:
1. Somatic
2. _____
3. Enteric
Enteric
Peripheral Nervous System:
1. Somatic
2. Autonomic
3. _____
somatic
The _____ nervous system contains both sensory and motor neurons.
receptors
The somatic sensory neurons receive input from _____ of the special and somatic senses.
senses
The somatic sensory neurons receive input from receptors of the special and somatic _____.

consciously
Sensations are _____ perceived.
innervate
Somatic motor neurons _____ skeletal muscle to produce conscious, voluntary movements.
skeletal
Somatic motor neurons innervate _____ muscle to produce conscious, voluntary movements.
movements
Somatic motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle to produce conscious, voluntary _____.
motor
The effect of a _____ neuron is always excitation.
excitation
The effect of a motor neuron is always _____.
subconscious
The ANS receives _____ sensory input from somatic senses and special sensory neurons.
sensory
The ANS receives subconscious _____ input from somatic senses and special sensory neurons.
exciting
The autonomic motor neurons regulate visceral activities by either increasing (_____) or decreasing (inhibiting) ongoing activities of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.
inhibiting
The autonomic motor neurons regulate visceral activities by either increasing (exciting) or decreasing (_____) ongoing activities of cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands.
cranial
43 pairs of nerves (bundles of axons)
1. 12 _____ nerves
2. rest are spinal nerves
spinal
43 pairs of nerves (bundles of axons)
1. 12 cranial nerves
2. rest are _____ nerves
afferent
Spinal Nerves have mixed functions
1. axons of _____ (sensory) fibers
2. axons of efferent fibers
efferent
Spinal Nerves have mixed functions
1. axons of afferent (sensory) fibers
2. axons of _____ fibers
somatic
Efferent fibers
1. _____ (to skeletal muscle)
2. autonomic
a. to cardiac muscle
b. to glands
c. to smooth muscle (visceral organs)
autonomic
Efferent fibers
1. somatic (to skeletal muscle)
2. _____
a. to cardiac muscle
b. to glands
c. to smooth muscle (visceral organs)
reflexes
Autonomic _____ are important for homeostasis.
homeostasis
Autonomic reflexes are important for ______.
antagonistic
Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions that often have _____ effects on target cells.
Sympathetic
_____ is often referred to as “fight or flight”
Parasympathetic
_____ term “rest and digest”.
Hypothalamus
Autonomic Nervous System receives afferent signals from:
1. _____
2. pons
3. medulla
pons
Autonomic Nervous System receives afferent signals from:
1. Hypothalamus
2. _____
3. medulla
medulla
Autonomic Nervous System receives afferent signals from:
1. Hypothalamus
2. pons
3. _____
Osmolarity
Some receptors located in hypothalamus control:
1. _____
2. Temperature
Temperature
Some receptors located in hypothalamus control:
1. Osmolarity
2. _____
hypothalamus
Output from _____ and brain stem generate autonomic, endocrine and behavioral response to maintain homeostasis.
brain stem
Output from hypothalamus and _____ _____ generate autonomic, endocrine and behavioral response to maintain homeostasis.
autonomic
Output from hypothalamus and brain stem generate _____, endocrine and behavioral response to maintain homeostasis.
endocrine
Output from hypothalamus and brain stem generate autonomic, _____ and behavioral response to maintain homeostasis.
behavioral
Output from hypothalamus and brain stem generate autonomic, endocrine and _____ response to maintain homeostasis.
thoracic
In the Sympathetic Nervous System the nerve fibers originate from _____ and lumbar levels of the spinal cord.
lumbar
In the Sympathetic Nervous System the nerve fibers originate from thoracic and _____ levels of the spinal cord.
Sympathetic
In the _____ Nervous System the preganglionic fibers are short/postganglionic fibers are long
spinal cord
In the Sympathetic Nervous System the sympathetic chain ganglia is near the _____ _____.
Norepinephrine
In the Sympathetic Nervous System, ______ is generally released at effector.
Sympathetic
In the _____ Nervous System, Norepinephrine is generally released at effector.
cranial
In the Parasympathetic Nervous System, nerve fibers originate from _____ and sacral levels
sacral
In the Parasympathetic Nervous System, nerve fibers originate from cranial and _____ levels
Parasympathetic
In the _____ Nervous System, preganglionic fibers are long/postganglionic fibers are short
ganglia
In the Parasympathetic Nervous System, _____ are near effector organs.
organs
In the Parasympathetic Nervous System, ganglia are near effector _____.
Parasympathetic
In the _____ Nervous System, Acetylcholine is generally released at effector.
Acetylcholine
In the Parasympathetic Nervous System, _____ is generally released at effector.
preganglionic
The _____ fibers of both branches of the ANS release acetylcholine.
acetylcholine
The preganglionic fibers of both branches of the ANS release _____.
Spinal cord
Differences between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
1. Where leaves _____ _____
2. Length of pre- and postganglionic neurons
a. This affects where ganglia are.
3. Neurotransmitter that is released from postganglionic neuron
ganglia
Differences between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
1. Where leaves Spinal cord
2. Length of pre- and postganglionic neurons
a. This affects where _____ are.
3. Neurotransmitter that is released from postganglionic neuron
postganglionic
Differences between Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
1. Where leaves Spinal cord
2. Length of pre- and postganglionic neurons
a. This affects where ganglia are.
3. Neurotransmitter that is released from _____ neuron
Preganglionic
_____ neuron neurotransmitter is Ach
Ach
Preganglionic neuron neurotransmitter is _____
Norepinephrine
Postganglionic neuron neurotransmitters
1. Sympathetic – ______
2. Parasympathetic – Acetylcholine
Acetylcholine
Postganglionic neuron neurotransmitters
1. Sympathetic – Norepinephrine
2. Parasympathetic – _____
Sympathetic
The 2 neuron path of the _____ is short then long
chain
The 2 neuron path of the Sympathetic is organized in _____
Parasympathetic
The 2 neuron path of the _____ is long then short
involuntary
The ANS controls the _____ responses of visceral organs and maintains homeostasis.
dual innervation
The visceral organs receive _____ _____. They are signaled by both subdivisions of the ANS.
dual innervation
The visceral organs receive _____ _____. They are signaled by both subdivisions of the ANS.
ANS
The visceral organs receive dual innervation. They are signaled by both subdivisions of the _____.
organ
In the ANS, usually both subdivisions are active in controlling the activity of an internal _____.
opposition
In the ANS, typically both subdivisions work in _____ to one another.
sympathetic
The _____ dominates during the fight-or-flight response.
pupils
Fight or Flight
1. _____ of the eye dilate
2. sweating is promoted
3. heart rate increase
4. bronchioles dilate
5. motility for digestion is inhibited
6. liver: conversion of glycogen into glucose
7. urination is inhibited
sweating
Fight or Flight
1. pupils of the eye dilate
2. _____ is promoted
3. heart rate increase
4. bronchioles dilate
5. motility for digestion is inhibited
6. liver: conversion of glycogen into glucose
7. urination is inhibited
increase
Fight or Flight
1. pupils of the eye dilate
2. sweating is promoted
3. heart rate ______
4. bronchioles dilate
5. motility for digestion is inhibited
6. liver: conversion of glycogen into glucose
7. urination is inhibited
bronchioles
Fight or Flight
1. pupils of the eye dilate
2. sweating is promoted
3. heart rate increase
4. _____ dilate
5. motility for digestion is inhibited
6. liver: conversion of glycogen into glucose
7. urination is inhibited
digestion
Fight or Flight
1. pupils of the eye dilate
2. sweating is promoted
3. heart rate increase
4. bronchioles dilate
5. motility for _____ is inhibited
6. liver: conversion of glycogen into glucose
7. urination is inhibited
liver
Fight or Flight
1. pupils of the eye dilate
2. sweating is promoted
3. heart rate increase
4. bronchioles dilate
5. motility for digestion is inhibited
6. _____: conversion of glycogen into glucose
7. urination is inhibited
urination
Fight or Flight
1. pupils of the eye dilate
2. sweating is promoted
3. heart rate increase
4. bronchioles dilate
5. motility for digestion is inhibited
6. liver: conversion of glycogen into glucose
7. ______ is inhibited
Divergence
each preganglionic cell synapses on many postganglionic cells
Mass activation
_____ _____ due to divergence (Chain)
divergence
Mass activation due to _____ (Chain)
organs
Mass activation due to divergence (Chain)
1. multiple target _____
2. fight or flight response explained
explained
Mass activation due to divergence (Chain)
1. multiple target organs
2. fight or flight response _____
Adrenal gland
modified cluster of postganglionic cell bodies that release epinephrine & norepinephrine into blood
adrenal
The _____ gland is a modified cluster of postganglionic cell bodies that release epinephrine & norepinephrine into blood
blood
The adrenal gland is a modified cluster of postganglionic cell bodies that release epinephrine & norepinephrine into _____
sympathetic
Pathways of Sympathetic Fibers
– synapse between pre- and post-ganglionic neurons occurs in _____ ganglion near spinal cord
ganglion
Pathways of Sympathetic Fibers
– synapse between pre- and post-ganglionic neurons occurs in sympathetic ______ near spinal cord
trunks
Pathways of Sympathetic Fibers
– Sympathetic _____ are chains of sympathetic ganglia parallel to either side of the spinal cord
ganglia
Pathways of Sympathetic Fibers
– Sympathetic trunks are chains of sympathetic _____ parallel to either side of the spinal cord
output
Sympathetic trunks tend to be coordinated _____
routes
Sympathetic trunks complex _____ – divergence
divergence
Sympathetic trunks complex routes – _____
Adrenal cortex
_____ ______ is a true endocrine gland
endocrine
Adrenal cortex is a true _____ gland
Adrenal medulla
_____ _____ is a modified sympathetic ganglion.
ganglion
Adrenal medulla is a modified sympathetic ______.
adrenal medulla
The preganglionic sympathetic neuron attaches the _____ _____ to the spinal cord.
chromaffin
The _____ cell is a modified postganglionic sympathetic neuron.
sympathetic
The chromaffin cell is a modified postganglionic ______ neuron.
adrenal medulla
In the _____ _____, preganglionic sympathetic neuron releases epinephrine into the blood.
epinephrine
In the adrenal medulla, preganglionic sympathetic neuron releases _____ into the blood.
parasympathetic
The _____ dominates during quiet, relaxed situations (Rest/digest).
decreased
A responses signaled by the parasympathetic subdivision is _____ heart rate.
innervation
Dual, reciprocal _____ allows the precise control over the activity of a visceral organ.
visceral
Dual, reciprocal innervation allows the precise control over the activity of a _____ organ.
adrenal medulla
Exceptions to Dual Innervation:
– the _____ _____ is a gland that evolved from postganglionic neurons
postganglionic
Exceptions to Dual Innervation:
– the adrenal medulla is a gland that evolved from ______ neurons
innervated
Exceptions to Dual Innervation:
– Most _____ blood vessels (arterioles and veins) receive only sympathetic nerve fibers.
sympathetic
Exceptions to Dual Innervation:
– Most innervated blood vessels (arterioles and veins) receive only _____ nerve fibers.
sweat
Exceptions to Dual Innervation:
– Most _____ glands are innervated only by sympathetic nerves.
sympathetic
Exceptions to Dual Innervation:
– Most sweat glands are innervated only by _____ nerves.
salivary
Exceptions to Dual Innervation:
– Both ANS subdivisions stimulate the activity of _____ glands.
neurotransmitter
Each autonomic _____ binds to several different receptors
Cholinergic
_____ receptors have binding sites for ACh.
ACh
Cholinergic receptors have binding sites for _____.
Nicotinic
_____ receptors are found on the postganglionic cells bodies of all autonomic ganglia. These ganglia are found where the preganglionic neuron signals the postganglionic neuron.
ganglia
Nicotinic receptors are found on the postganglionic cells bodies of all autonomic ganglia. These _____ are found where the preganglionic neuron signals the postganglionic neuron.
Muscarinic
_____ receptors on effector organs bind to ACh from parasympathetic postganglionic nerve fibers.
postganglionic
Muscarinic receptors on effector organs bind to ACh from parasympathetic _____ nerve fibers.
Adrenergic
_____ receptors have binding sites for norepinephrine and epinephrine from sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
binding sites
Adrenergic receptors have _____ _____ for norepinephrine and epinephrine from sympathetic postganglionic fibers.
tissues
Adrenergic receptors
α1 – excitatory response in the sympathetic _____
α2 – inhibitory response
β1 – found mainly in the heart – excitatory response
β2 – inhibitory responses
inhibitory
Adrenergic receptors
α1 – excitatory response in the sympathetic tissues
α2 – _____ response
β1 – found mainly in the heart – excitatory response
β2 – inhibitory responses
heart
Adrenergic receptors
α1 – excitatory response in the sympathetic tissues
α2 – inhibitory response
β1 – found mainly in the _____- excitatory response
β2 – inhibitory responses
inhibitory
Adrenergic receptors
α1 – excitatory response in the sympathetic tissues
α2 – inhibitory response
β1 – found mainly in the heart – excitatory response
β2 – _____ responses
reflex
A visceral autonomic _____ adjusts the activity of a visceral effector, often unconsciously.
effector
A visceral autonomic reflex adjusts the activity of a visceral _____, often unconsciously.
blood
A visceral autonomic reflex changes in _____ pressure, digestive functions etc
digestive
A visceral autonomic reflex changes in blood pressure, _____ functions etc
arcs
Autonomic reflexes occur over autonomic reflex _____.
receptor
Components of that reflex arc:
1. sensory _____
2. sensory neuron
3. integrating center
4. pre & postganglionic motor neurons
5. visceral effectors
neuron
Components of that reflex arc:
1. sensory receptor
2. sensory _____
3. integrating center
4. pre & postganglionic motor neurons
5. visceral effectors
center
Components of that reflex arc:
1. sensory receptor
2. sensory neuron
3. integrating _____
4. pre & postganglionic motor neurons
5. visceral effectors
neurons
Components of that reflex arc:
1. sensory receptor
2. sensory neuron
3. integrating center
4. pre & postganglionic motor _____
5. visceral effectors
effectors
Components of that reflex arc:
1. sensory receptor
2. sensory neuron
3. integrating center
4. pre & postganglionic motor neurons
5. visceral _____
lower
Control of Autonomic NS
– Not aware of autonomic responses because control center is in _____ regions of the brain
Hypothalamus
Control of Autonomic NS
_____ is a major control center
1. input: emotions and visceral sensory information
2. output: to nuclei in brainstem and spinal cord
3. posterior & lateral portions control sympathetic NS
4. anterior & medial portions control parasympathetic NS
consciously
Somatic nervous system
– _____ perceived sensations
– excitation of skeletal muscle
– one neuron connects CNS to organ
excitation
Somatic nervous system
– consciously perceived sensations
– _____ of skeletal muscle
– one neuron connects CNS to organ
one
Somatic nervous system
– consciously perceived sensations
– excitation of skeletal muscle
– _____ neuron connects CNS to organ
unconsciously
Autonomic nervous system
– _____ perceived visceral sensations
– involuntary inhibition or excitation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glandular secretion
– two neurons needed to connect CNS to organ
involuntary
Autonomic nervous system
– unconsciously perceived visceral sensations
– _____ inhibition or excitation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glandular secretion
– two neurons needed to connect CNS to organ
two
Autonomic nervous system
– unconsciously perceived visceral sensations
– involuntary inhibition or excitation of smooth muscle, cardiac muscle or glandular secretion
– _____ neurons needed to connect CNS to organ
preganglionic
In the autonomic nervous system, fibres from the CNS to the ganglion are known as _____ fibers.
cholinergic
All preganglionic fibers, whether they are in the sympathetic division or in the parasympathetic division, are _____ (that is, these fibers use acetylcholine as their neurotransmitter) and can be either unmyelinated or myelinated
postganglionic
neurons whose cell bodies lie in the autonomic ganglia and whose purpose is to relay impulses beyond the ganglia
preganglionic
neurons whose cell bodies lie in the central nervous system and whose efferent fibers terminate in the autonomic ganglia.
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