Chapter 24 Quiz

What is the function of aldosterone?
It increases Na+ reabsorption and K+ secretion.
What is the function of antidiuretic hormone?
It promotes water conservation
Emphysema can lead to which of the following?
Respiratory acidosis
Where is the greatest volume of water in the body found?
Intracellular fluid (ICF)
Blood plasma osmolarity is higher than intracellular fluid osmolarity.
False
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic receptors called osmoreceptors.
True
What determines osmosis from one fluid compartment to another?
The relative concentration of solutes in each compartment
Aldosterone promotes potassium excretion.

True
Most body water intake is from __________, whereas most body water lost is via __________.
Drinking; Urine
Uncompensated alkalosis is a pH imbalance that can only be corrected with clinical intervention.
True
Chloride homeostasis is regulated as a side effect of sodium homeostasis.
True
Acidosis is a pH lower than 7, whereas alkalosis is a pH higher than 7.
False
What are the major chemical buffer systems of the body?
The bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein
Which of the following occurs when blood volume and pressure become too high?
ADH release is inhibited.
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Which of the following does not stimulate aldosterone secretion?
High blood sodium concentration
Long-term inhibition of thirst is mostly associated with which of the following?
A drop in blood osmolarity
Which of the following is a result of phosphate excretion from the body?
An increase in free calcium ions in the ECF
Hyponatremia is usually a result of hypotonic hydration.
True
The bicarbonate buffer system would not work very well in the human body if not for the action of the respiratory system, which ___________.
expels CO2 produced by the buffer system
The three physiological buffer systems are urinary, digestive, and respiratory.
False
Which of the following accurately describes the inorganic phosphates (Pi) of the body fluids?
They participate in the activation of some enzymes.
Chloride homeostasis is achieved mainly as a result of ____________ homeostasis.
Na+
Which of the following can prolonged exposure to cold weather lead to?
Increased respiratory water loss
Women have a tendency to retain water during part of the menstrual cycle because estrogen mimics the action of what?
Aldosterone
Hypocalcemia causes muscle weakness, whereas hypercalcemia causes potentially fatal muscle tetanus.
False
Which of the following characterizes a weak base?
It binds a little H+ and has a weak effect on pH
The kidneys neutralize more acid or base than any other buffer system.
True
A buffer system converts a weak acid or base into a strong one.
False
In response to dehydration, osmoreceptors stimulate the secretion of __________.
ADH
What is the most significant solute in determining the distribution of water among fluid compartments?
Na+
What is the greatest determinant of the intracellular water volume?
K+
How is calcium concentration in the body regulated?
By horomones
A hemorrhage results in which of the following?
A decrease in water volume without significantly affecting the osmolarity
Hypovolemia refers to a reduction in total body water while maintaining normal osmolarity.
True
Chronic vomiting can lead to which of the following?
Metabolic alkalosis
Hypernatremia is a plasma __________ concentration above normal.
Na+
What is the normal pH of tissue fluid?
7.35-7.45
An excessive intake of antacids can lead to which of the following?
Metabolic alkalosis
In which compartment would fluid accumulate in edema?
Tissue (interstitial) fluid
What is the most abundant cation in the ICF?
K+
What is the most abundant anion in the ECF?
Cl-
Breathing into and out of a paper bag for a long period of time will lead to __________.
respiratory acidosis
In a state of water balance, average daily fluid gains and losses are equal.
True
Fluid intake is governed mainly by hypothalamic neurons called __________
osmoreceptors
What is the principal cation of the ECF?
Na+
Where are cells with aldosterone receptors found?
Distal convoluted tubule
Natriuretic peptides promote sodium and potassium excretion.
False
Water output is largely controlled by varying ___________.
Urine volume
Which of the following is not a role of calcium in the body?
It is a significant component of nucleic acids.
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