Chapter 3 Quiz

There are three major types of neurons
Sensory neurons receive information from the external world and convey this information to the brain via the spinal cord. They have specialized endings on their dendrites that receive signals for light, sound, touch, taste, and smell.

Motor neurons carry signals from the spinal cord to the muscles to produce movement. These neurons often have long axons that can stretch to muscles at our extremities.

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interneurons, which connect sensory neurons, motor neurons, or other interneurons

is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
central nervous system
connects the central nervous system to the body’s organs and muscles, composed of two major subdivisions, the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system:
peripheral nervous system
set of nerves that conveys information between voluntary muscles and the central nervous system. Humans have conscious control over this system and use it to perceive, think, and coordinate their behaviors.
somatic nerves
is a set of nerves that carries involuntary and automatic commands that control blood vessels, body organs, and glands. The ANS has two major subdivisions, the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system
autonomic nervous system (ANS)
ANS, is a set of nerves that prepares the body for action in challenging or threatening situations
sympathetic nervous system
ANS, helps the body return to a normal resting state. When you’re far away from your would-be attacker, your body doesn’t need to remain on red alert.
parasympathetic nervous system
Unlike the _____, people have voluntary control over the _____ .

autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system
somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system
sympathetic nervous system; parasympathetic nervous system
parasympathetic nervous system; sympathetic nervous system

autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous system
The homunculus shown in the book illustrates how much of the _____ is devoted to each area of the body.

motor cortex
association cortex
cerebral cortex
somatosensory cortex

somatosensory cortex
The typical state of a neuron is the _____, but when electrical signals stimulate it to its threshold, the _____ is immediately observed.

resting potential; refractory period
resting potential; action potential
action potential; resting potential
action potential; refractory period

resting potential; action potential
Alex recently quit smoking. Now he has trouble paying attention at work and forgets simple things. Which neurotransmitter is most likely causing Alex’s symptoms?

GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)
dopamine
acetylcholine
serotonin

acetylcholine
Compared to vertebrates, invertebrates lack a hierarchical organization of their:

subcortical structures.
reticular formations.
association areas.
central nervous systems.

central nervous systems.
The benefit of using functional neuroimaging techniques is that they allow researchers to:

observe dynamic activity of the brain as it happens during specific tasks.
produce static pictures of the brain that help locate damaged areas.
determine cause-and-effect relationships between brain and behavior.
make fundamental discoveries about the nature of sleep.

observe dynamic activity of the brain as it happens during specific tasks.
An electroencephalogram is a beneficial tool for:

studying the interaction between the heart and behaviors.
linking brain structures and regions to particular behavior responses.
localizing regions of the brain responsible only for unconscious processes.
studying the effects of the spinal cord on cognitive processes.

linking brain structures and regions to particular behavior responses.
_____ consist of strands of DNA wound around each other.

Chromosomes
Genes
Alleles
Neurons

Chromosomes
Cajal was the first to note that:

brain activity caused behavior.
the brain was like a tapestry of continuous fibers.
neurons could communicate with each other.
one could stain neurons to look at them directly.

neurons could communicate with each other.
Suzanne has been having difficulty falling asleep and waking up in the morning. She has also noticed that her appetite has changed and that she has become somewhat more aggressive. What neurotransmitter is MOST likely involved in Suzanne’s symptoms?

serotonin
glutamate
dopamine
acetylcholine

serotonin
Monozygotic twins share _____ of their genes.

25 percent
50 percent
between 50 and 100 percent
100 percent

100 percent
_____, which are found in the cerebral cortex, have a single, long dendrite and several smaller dendrites.

Sensory neurons
Purkinje cells
Pyramidal neurons
Bipolar cells

Pyramidal neurons
Through the case study of Phineas Gage, researchers found that the:

frontal lobe was not involved in emotion regulation.
temporal lobe is primarily responsible for planning.
spinal cord plays an important part in decision making.
frontal lobe is involved in planning, decision making, and emotion regulation.

frontal lobe is involved in planning, decision making, and emotion regulation.
The _____ is made up of _____ and helps to insulate the axon.

dendrite; glial cells
myelin sheath; glial cells
glial cell; the myelin sheath
cell body; glial cells

myelin sheath; glial cells
A stroke or other damage in the _______ lobes can lead to deficits in hearing and language.

temporal
occipital
parietal
frontal

temporal
Dan is running a marathon, and after 15 miles he doesn’t think he can take another step. Just as he is about to give up, the pain suddenly subsides. He feels renewed and motivated to run the rest of the race. Dan has most likely just experienced a larger release of:

acetylcholine.
dopamine.
endorphins.
serotonin.

endorphins.
_____ of neurons occurs because the brain must process a wide variety of types of information.

Lamination
Specialization
Action potential
Resting potential

Specialization
Dr. Billings studies brain wave patterns that occur when people are dreaming. He attaches a device to the outside of people’s skulls to measure electrical activity in their brains. What type of device is he using?

an MRI
a PET scan
a CT scan
an EEG

an EEG
You are driving down an unfamiliar road at night, and an animal darts out in front of your car. You quickly slam on the brakes and avoid hitting the animal. Your ability to respond quickly to this situation was MOST likely prompted by your:

sympathetic nervous system.
parasympathetic nervous system.
spinal reflexes.
somatic nervous system.

sympathetic nervous system.
Drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter are called:

antagonists.
agonists.
addictive.
inhibitors.

agonists.
_____ refers to the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.

Excitatory postsynaptic response
Degradation
Osmosis
The refractory period

The refractory period
The brain can be organized into areas that perform simple functions and areas that perform complex functions. Which answer choice begins with the area that is most simple in its functions and ends with the area that is most complex in its functions?

cerebral cortex, hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain
hindbrain, cerebral cortex, midbrain, forebrain
hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain, cerebral cortex
forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain, cerebral cortex

hindbrain, midbrain, forebrain, cerebral cortex
Functional neuroimaging techniques, such as PET and fMRI, allow researchers to _____ brain activity in certain areas with particular behaviors.

directly link
establish cause and effect between
correlate
coordinate

correlate
The ______ branches down from the brain and allows messages to be sent to different parts of the body.

peripheral nervous system
endocrine system
somatic nervous system
spinal cord

spinal cord
The _____ forms the basis of the spinal cord during prenatal development.

embryo
neural tube
cerebral cortex
cerebellum

neural tube
The brain is remarkably adaptive and the functions of areas that are damaged may be taken over by other areas of the brain. What is the term for this phenomenon?

plasticity
refractory period
glial compensation
subcortical pruning

plasticity
Diseases such as multiple sclerosis usually involve a deterioration of what part of a neuron?

the cell body
the dendrites
the myelin sheath
the axon

the myelin sheath
Which part of the brain forms first in prenatal development?

the cerebral cortex
the frontal lobes
the midbrain
the hindbrain

the hindbrain
Which statement about the spinal cord is true?

All areas are responsible for the same functions.
Different areas have different functions.
Damage lower in the spinal cord leads to greater loss of function.
The spinal cord quickly grows back after damage.

Different areas have different functions.
How does cardiovascular exercise affect brain structures?

It decreases the number of synaptic connections in the brain.
It promotes neuron growth in the amygdala.
It promotes neuron growth and increased synaptic connections in the hippocampus.
It decreases the plasticity of the brain.

It promotes neuron growth and increased synaptic connections in the hippocampus.
In order to process information from the external world, _____ receive input from the body and transfer the information to the brain through the spinal cord.

sensory neurons
motor neurons
Purkinje cell neurons
interneurons

sensory neurons
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is:

used in brain imaging.
used to create split-brain patients.
a technique to reverse brain damage.
a technique that can simulate brain damage.

a technique that can simulate brain damage.
Patients with amnesia who cannot form new memories usually have damage to the:

midbrain.
hippocampus.
amygdala.
motor cortex.

hippocampus.
A split-brain patient is shown a picture of a dog on the left side of a computer screen and a picture of a tree on the right side of a computer screen. When asked to say what object he saw, he will report _____ and when asked to use his right hand to draw the object he saw, he will draw a picture of a _____ .

dog; tree
tree; dog
tree; tree
dog; dog

tree; tree
Jayden damaged his motor cortex during a car accident, but over time, part of his frontal lobe cortex nearby began to coordinate some muscle movements. This is an example of:

brain lateralization.
brain specialization.
brain plasticity.
brain compensation.

brain plasticity.
_____ refers to the fact that each hemisphere in the brain controls the functions of the opposite side of the body.

Ipsilateral control
Contralateral control
Bilateralization
Hierarchical control

Contralateral control
Chemicals that pass information across the tiny gap between neurons are called:

neurotransmitters.
receptors.
terminal buttons.
synapses.

neurotransmitters.
If the human autonomic nervous system was compared to a car, the _____ nervous system functions like the car’s accelerator, and the _____ nervous system functions like the car’s brake.

sympathetic; parasympathetic
parasympathetic; sympathetic
peripheral; somatic
central; peripheral

sympathetic; parasympathetic
The _____ is the part of the neuron that keeps the cell alive.

axon
dendrite
synapse
cell body

cell body
The central nervous system is comprised of:

the sympathetic and somatic nervous systems.
the brain and the mind.
the brain and the spinal cord.
the midbrain and the sensory neurons

the brain and the spinal cord.
Jane’s grandmother was recently diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease. Jane wanted to do some research so that she could help her grandmother better understand this disease. Through her research, Jane found that Alzheimer’s involves the deterioration of:

dopamine
acetylcholine
serotonin
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)

acetylcholine
The _____ stimulates the release of neurotransmitters, allowing neurons to communicate with each other.

action potential
hypothalamus
retina
resting potential

action potential
The brain is remarkably adaptive and the functions of areas that are damaged may be taken over by other areas of the brain. What is the term for this phenomenon?

plasticity
refractory period
glial compensation
subcortical pruning

plasticity
Alice thinks she’s having a stroke. What would be the best way to diagnose a stroke?

a physical exam of spinal reflexes
a PET scan
an fMRI
an MRI

an MRI
Heritability scores between 0 and 1.00 indicate the:

interaction between genetics and the environment in producing a particular trait.
contribution of genetics alone in producing all behaviors.
contribution of environmental factors alone in producing all behaviors.
contribution of evolutionary development in producing all behaviors.

interaction between genetics and the environment in producing a particular trait.
Which neurotransmitter is associated with seeking pleasure and plays a role in drug addiction?

acetylcholine
endorphins
dopamine
glutamate

dopamine
Research has shown that when certain groups of animals observe another engaging in a particular behavior, some of the same neurons also become active in the observer animal. This is due to the action of _____ neurons.

primary motor
mirror
cognitive
executive

mirror
Which parts make up the major components of the peripheral nervous system?

the brain and spinal cord
the sympathetic and autonomic nervous systems
the autonomic and somatic nervous systems
the parasympathetic and central nervous systems

the autonomic and somatic nervous systems
Neurons are not connected physically and communicate _____with each other at the _____.

electrically; synapse
chemically; synapse
electrically; dendrites
chemically; axons

chemically; synapse
L-Dopa is a drug given to individuals with Parkinson’s disease. This drug helps with the symptoms of the disease because it is a(n) _____ for dopamine.

endorphin
agonist
antagonist
neurotransmitter

agonist
The main focus of the nervous system is to:

convey electrochemical signals within the brain.
have nerve fibers pass information throughout the body.
transmit emotions.
prepare the body to respond to emergencies.

have nerve fibers pass information throughout the body.
Which statement about heritability is false?

Heritability tells us nothing about specific genes that contribute to a trait.
Heritability tells us nothing about an individual.
Heritability is not dependent on the environment.
Heritability is not fate.

Heritability is not dependent on the environment.
Why is it informative to study people with damage to certain regions of the brain?

There is no benefit to studying these patients, and they should not be included in psychological research.
There is often widespread damage, which can help us localize the associated brain regions with particular behaviors.
These patients often demonstrate problems performing specific behaviors, and we can determine a cause-and-effect relationship between brain and behavior.
These patients often demonstrate problems performing specific behaviors, and we can correlate this behavior with the specific region that has been damaged.

These patients often demonstrate problems performing specific behaviors, and we can correlate this behavior with the specific region that has been damaged.
Neurons _____ connected physically and communicate with each other at the _____.

are; synapse
are not; synapse
are; dendrites
are not; cell body

are not; synapse
Information that is received on the left side of the body is processed in _____ of the brain.

the left hemisphere
the right hemisphere
both hemispheres
the corpus callosum

the right hemisphere
Spinal reflexes require input from:

the spinal cord.
the brain.
both the spinal cord and the brain.
the midbrain.

the spinal cord.
This area serves as a bridge from the cerebellum to the rest of the brain.

the pons
the medulla
the tectum
the spinal cord

the pons
The first stage of neural communication, _____, is the movement of the signal within a single neuron. _____ is the movement of a signal between neurons.

transmission; Conduction
conduction; Transmission
conduction; Signaling
signaling; Transmission

conduction; Transmission
_____ refers to the time following an action potential during which a new action potential cannot be initiated.

Excitatory postsynaptic response
Degradation
Osmosis
The refractory period

The refractory period
Prozac and other antidepressant drugs work on the _____ system.

dopamine
GABA
serotonin
norepinephrine

serotonin
Which is NOT one of the functions that can be performed by a neuron in the human body?

convey sensory information from the sensory organs to the brain
communicate with other neurons
carry messages from the spinal cord to muscles to produce movement
change the chemical structure of hormones in the endocrine system

change the chemical structure of hormones in the endocrine system
_____ direct(s) and produce(s) human behaviors, personality traits, and even psychological disorders.

Genes
The environment
Both genes and the environment
Evolution

Both genes and the environment
What is referred to as an “all or none” event?

resting potential
neurotransmitter antagonism
refractory period
action potential

action potential
The synapse is a small gap between neurons where information from:

the axon of one neuron is sent to the dendrite of another neuron.
the dendrite of one neuron is sent to the dendrite of another neuron.
the dendrite of one neuron is sent to the axon of another neuron.
the axon of one neuron is sent to the axon of another neuron.

the axon of one neuron is sent to the dendrite of another neuron.
Damage to this area of the brain can be deadly as this structure controls heart rate, respiration, and circulation.

the cerebellum
the forebrain
the thalamus
the medulla

the medulla
_____ are the billions of cells in the human brain that communicate with each other to perform information-processing tasks.

Glial cells
Dendrites
Neurons
Axons

Neurons
The action potential travels down the length of the axon and when it gets to the _____, the neurotransmitters are released into the synapse.

terminal buttons
autoreceptors
dendrites
myelin sheat

terminal buttons
What guides the development of the brain for both an individual and a species?

dopamine
genes
the frontal lobe
the X chromosome

genes
When the face or arm of an amputee is stimulated, what happens?

The person feels pain in his or her spine.
The person reports feeling a phantom limb.
The person reports feeling just the facial touch.
It depends on the person.

The person reports feeling a phantom limb.
Information is transmitted within the neuron as a(n) _____ signal, and information transmission between neurons is a(n) _____ signal.

electrical; electrical
electrical; chemical
chemical; electrical
chemical; chemical

electrical; chemical
The synapse is typically located between the ______ of the first (sending) neuron and the _______ of the second (receiving) neuron.

cell body; axon
axon; dendrite
myelin sheath; cell body
axon; axon

axon; dendrite
The typical sequence of events for neuronal activity is:

action potential, resting potential, refractory period.
resting potential, action potential, refractory period.
refractory period, action potential, resting potential.
resting potential, refractory period, action potential.

resting potential, action potential, refractory period.
Split-brain studies revealed that:

information is processed in the same hemisphere as it is received.
certain tasks and behaviors seem localized to either the left or right hemisphere.
the corpus callosum does not help the two hemispheres exchange information.
the right and left hemispheres have no independent functions.

certain tasks and behaviors seem localized to either the left or right hemisphere.
Denton pitches a baseball in what looks like one effortless, smooth movement. What part of the hindbrain is MOST associated with this highly coordinated motion?

the pons
the cerebellum
the medulla
the spinal cord

the cerebellum
The _____ receives information from other neurons, and the _____ sends that information on to the next neuron.

axon; dendrite
axon; soma
dendrite; axon
dendrite; soma

dendrite; axon
The part of a neuron that is stimulated by a neurotransmitter into initiating or preventing a new electrical signal is called a(n):

receptor.
myelin sheath.
agonist.
terminal button.

receptor.
The specialization of neurons by location is exemplified by _____, which connect the cerebellum to the rest of the brain and spinal cord.

sensory neurons
Purkinje cells
pyramidal neurons
bipolar cells

Purkinje cells
Which statement is false?

Heritability is an abstract concept.
Heritability is a population concept.
Heritability is dependent on the environment.
Heritability tells us which treatments will and won’t work for particular people.

Heritability tells us which treatments will and won’t work for particular people.
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