Chapter 7 The Nervous System Part 1 Notes

sensory input
the first function of the overall nervous system is ________ __________ which is gathering information to monitor changes occurring inside and outside the body
stimuli
changes that occur inside and outside the body are called _________
integration
the second function of the overall nervous system is __________ which is to process and interpret sensory input and decide whether action is needed
motor output; muscles; glands
the third and last function of the overall nervous system is ________ __________ which is a response to integrated stimuli and that response activates _________ or _______
structural; functional
nervous system is based on __________ classification and __________ classification
central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
structural classification of the nervous system is divided into ________ ________ _________ and _________ ________ ________
central nervous system
the _________ _________ __________ consists of the brain and spinal cord
central nervous system
the __________ _________ ___________ functions include integration because it is a command center, to interpret incoming sensory information, and to issue outgoing instructions
peripheral nervous system
the __________ ___________ __________ includes nerves extending from the brain and spinal cord
spinal nerves
________ ________ carry impulses to and from the spinal cord
cranial nerves
________ _______ carry impulses to and from the brain
peripheral nervous system
the function of the _________ _________ __________ is to serve as communication lines among sensory organs, the brain and spinal cord, and glands or muscles
sensory or afferent division; motor or efferent division
the functional classification of the peripheral nervous system includes __________ or __________ __________ and _______ or __________ ___________
sensory or afferent division
the _________ or _________ ___________ contains nerve fibers that carry information to the central nervous system
somatic sensory fibers
__________ _________ ________ carry information from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints
visceral sensory fibers
___________ _________ ________ carry information from visceral organs
motor or efferent division
________ or __________ ___________ contains nerve fibers that carry impulses away from the central nervous system organs
somatic nervous system; autonomic nervous system
the two subdivisions of the motor or efferent division of the functional classification of the peripheral nervous system are _______ __________ _________ and _________ __________ ________
voluntary; skeletal
the somatic nervous system is _________ and consciously controls __________ muscles
involuntary; smooth; cardiac
the autonomic nervous system is _________ and automatically controls _______ and ________ muscles and glands
sympathetic; parasympathetic
the autonomic nervous system of the functional classification of the peripheral nervous system is further divided into ___________ and _____________
neuroglia; nerve glue
support cells in the CNS are grouped together as _________ which also stands for _______ _____
neuroglia
general functions of _________ include to support, insulate, and protect
astrocytes; brace
__________ are CNS glial cells that are abundant, star-shaped and, ______ neurons
capillaries; neurons
astrocytes form a barrier between _________ and _______
astrocytes
these CNS glial cells control the chemical environment of the brain
microglia; disposes
_______ is a CNS glial cell that looks spiderlike phagocytes and ________ of debris
ependymal cells
___________ ______ are CNS glial cells that line cavities of the brain and spinal cord
cerebrospinal
in the CNS glial cells such as ependymal cells, cilia assists with circulation of ____________ fluid
oligodendrocytes; myelin sheaths
____________ are a CNS glial cell that wraps around nerve fibers in the central nervous system and produces ________ _______
satellite cells
________ ______ are a PNS glial cells that protect neuron cell bodies
schwann cells
_________ _______ are a PNS glial cell that forms myelin sheaths in the PNS
nerve cells; messages
neurons, also known as ______ ______, are cells specialized to transmit __________
cell body
one major region of the neuron is the _____ ______ which contains the nucleus and metabolic center of the cell
processes
one major region of the neuron is __________ which are fibers that extend from the cell body
nissl bodies
cell bodies of neurons contain _______ _________ which are specialized rough endoplasmic reticulum
neurofibrils
cell bodies of neurons contain _________ which is an intermediate cytoskeleton that maintains cell shape
nucleolus
the cell body of a neuron contains a nucleus with a large _________
dendrites
processes outside the cell body of neurons include __________ which conduct impulses toward the cell body
hundreds
neurons can have ________ of dendrites
axons
________ conduct impulses away from the cell body
one; axon hillock
neurons have only _____ axon arising from the cell body at the _____ __________
axon terminals; neurotransmitters
axons end in _____ ________ which contain vesicles with __________
synaptic cleft; synapse
axon terminals are separated from the next neuron by a gap such as the _________ ______ which is a gap between adjacent neurons or a _________ which is a junction between nerves
myelin sheaths
_________ _________ are whitish, fatty material covering axons
schwann cells
_________ ______ produce myelin sheaths in jelly roll-like fashion around axons (PNS)
nodes of ranvier
_______ __ __________ are gaps in myelin sheaths along the axon
oligodendrocytes
___________ produce myelin sheaths around axons of the CNS
nerve impulse
myelin sheaths speed the _________ _________ transmission
central nervous system
most neuron cell bodies are found in the _________ _________ ________
gray matter
________ _________ are collections of mostly unmyelinated fibers and cell bodies
white matter
nuclei are clusters of cell bodies within the ______ ________ of the central nervous system
glangia
________ are collections of cell bodies outside the central nervous system
tracts
_______ are bundles of nerve fibers in the CNS
nerves
_______ are bundles of nerve fibers in the PNS
white matter
________ _________ is collections of myelinated fiber tracts
sensory or afferent neurons
________ or ________ _______ carry impulses from the sensory receptors to the CNS like cutaneous sense organs
proprioceptors
___________ detect stretch or tension in sensory (afferent) neurons
motor or efferent neurons
______ or _________ ________ carry impulses from the central nervous system to viscera, muscles, or glands
interneurons or association neurons
__________ or ___________ _______ are found in neural pathways in the central nervous system
sensory; motor
interneurons or association neurons connect _______ and ______ neurons
processes
the structural classification of neurons is based on the number of ___________ extending from the cell body
multipolar
_________ neurons contain many extensions from the cell body
motor; interneurons
all _______ and __________ are multipolar
axon; dendrite
bipolar neurons contain one _____ and one _________
bipolar neurons
_________ _________ are located in special sense organs, such as nose and eye and are rare in adults
unipolar neurons
_________ ________ have a short single process leaving the cell body
unipolar
sensory neurons found in PNS glangia are __________
toward; away
unipolar neurons conduct impulses both _______ and _____ the cell body
irritability
one of a neurons functional property is __________ which is the ability to respond to a stimulus and convert it to a nerve impulse
conductivity
one of a neurons functional property is __________ which is the ability to transmit the impulse to other neurons, muscles, or glands
myelin sheaths
_________ _________ are whitish, fatty material covering axons
myelin sheaths
_________ ______ produce myelin sheaths in jelly roll-like fashion around axons (PNS)
nodes of ranvier
_______ __ __________ are gaps in myelin sheaths along the axon
nerve impulse
myelin sheaths speed the _________ _________ transmission
myelin sheaths
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