a statistical technique called “individual fixed effects” is sometimes used in the social sciences. this technique involves:
a. comparing a particular outcome across time as some factor changes
Race, birth order, generational cohort, sex, and parental wealth are key sociological variables that are said to resist fixed effects because they:
b. are relatively stable characteristics of an individual.
A statistical technique called “individual fixed effects” compares an outcome across time as some factor changes. All of the following are examples of this technique EXCEPT:
d. analyzing whether vegetarians are less depressed than nonvegetarians by comparing the depression levels of vegetarians and nonvegetarians.
While the notion of sex refers to biological characteristics, the concept of gender refers to:
d. social characteristics.
Judith Lorber believes that gender is a social institution because it is:
c. a major structure organizing our day-to-day experiences.
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The study of gender is basically the study of how two spheres shape each other. What are the two spheres?
c. nature and nurture
Dr. John Money claimed that a genetic male could be raised successfully as a girl. The David Reimer story showed that Money’s claims were:
Surgeons today recommend prompt surgery to make intersex children conform to an ideal of normal genitalia. About 90 percent of these surgeries:
a. reassign an ambiguous male anatomy into a female one.
Why do parents and surgeons push to assign a sex to a genitally ambiguous child?
d. social discomfort and fear of difference
Many people believe sex to be an either-or situation (either male or female), but sociologists believe natural sex is:
d. more of an ideal than an absolute.
John Gray, author of Men Are from Mars, Women Are from Venus (1992), takes the position that the different temperaments, emotions, and languages of males and females are rooted in:
c. inborn differences.
The basic idea behind feminism is that women and men should be:
c. accorded equal opportunities and respect
Although female circumcision is a custom in some societies, a structural functionalist might argue that this practice exists because it:
c. fulfills some set of necessary functions.
Harvard-trained and world-renowned economist Deirdre McCloskey, who used to be named Donald, describes her journey across the invisible yet potent boundary of sex/gender in her memoir, Crossing. Which of the following is NOT one of the 20 differences she noted in the textbook?
c. Donald was more alert to relationship details in stories than Deirdre.
If we apply our sociological imaginations to sex, gender, and sexuality, we might argue that:
d. although biological differences exist between men and women, what we make of those differences is socially constructed and has changed through time and place.
Which of the following situations provides an example of how the social categories of gender influence the biology of sex?
c. the decision to raise a male infant born with a “small” penis (e.g., a phallus measuring less than 2 cm in length) as a female
All of the following terms characterize essentialist thinking EXCEPT:
d. fluid and ambiguous
What you do in the social world should be a direct result of who you are in the natural world. This statement refers to:
c. biological determinism
Bob and Sue paint their baby’s room pink as soon as they find out that they are having a girl. They are beginning to provide the baby with what?
d. gendered identity
By looking at anthropological findings in tribal societies, sociologists can see fluidity in gender, which helps us see that the boundaries within our own system of gender
b. may not be stable
According to your text, hijras in India are a group of men who opt to have their penises surgically removed and renounce sexual desire and practice. Which of the following statements is NOT true according to your text?
a. The hijra identity is secret, and no one can tell who is or isn’t a hijra.
In Navajo tribes, there are three genders. Which of the following is NOT one of their gender categories?
In the seventeenth century, Rubenesque women were considered beauties because when food was scarce, a plump woman was a sign of good health, wealth, and attractiveness. What was the catalyst that made food plentiful and changed the standard of beauty for women?
Michael Kimmel found that in the eighteenth century, the ideal man was very different than the modern-day ideal man. The ideal man in the 1700s was:
d. a quiet and “nerdy” intellectual who enjoyed writing poetry.
Which of the following would NOT be considered a “positive” trait or characteristic for a man within today’s hegemonic masculinity?
c. emotional sensitivity
Hegemonic masculinity can best be described as:
c. the dominant, privileged, and often invisible category of men at any point in history.
Sociologist Cynthia Fuchs Epstein coined the term deceptive distinctions to refer to the behavioral differences between men and women that arise because of the:
b. different roles they come to occupy
Anthropologist Michelle Rosaldo believed women were usually lower in the stratification system because of their identification with what?
d. domestic life
Under the sex/gender system, men universally perform the kinds of tasks that:
b. are accorded higher value than those done by women.
Which theory might argue that “it is beneficial for society as a whole when men and women stick to their ‘normal’ roles”?
a. Parson’s sex role theory
According to Talcott Parsons, the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern society because it fulfills the function of reproducing workers and the division of labor ensures a stable society. What did Parsons call this theory?
a. sex role theory
Freud describes a boy’s experiences starting with heterosexual love for his mother, but soon realizing that he will be castrated by his father if he continues to have romantic feelings toward her. To resolve this, the boy rejects his mother and emulates his father. Freud referred to this as:
b. oedipus complex
Feminist psychoanalyst Nancy Chodorow believes that if men share mothering with women, then:
c. egalitarian relationships will be possible.
Carol Gilligan found that boys and girls played differently on the playground. In comparison to boys, girls tended to:
c. play more cooperative and people-based games.
Which theoretical perspective argues that gender is a product of social interactions, and that by “doing gender” men and women create and contribute to the gendered patterns we see?
d. symbolic interactionism
Black feminists essentially argue all of the following EXCEPT that:
b. all women are in a similar boat and faced with the same hegemonic masculinity.
According to Robert Merton, “middle-range” theories are useful because they:
a. connect our day-to-day experiences to larger social forces.
What is the term that refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior?
Prison rape is usually about power, and a man who commits a homosexual act within prison:
b. does not necessarily view himself as a homosexual.
For the Sambia, taking in semen of older men by performing fellatio is the only way to:
c. become “real” men
In cultures where scant resources are available, homosexuality is practical because:
d. it keeps down the birthrate.
Until 1973, the American Psychiatric Association and the American Psychological Association listed homosexuality as:
d. a mental disorder
Opponents of gay and lesbian couplings claim that homosexuality is “unnatural” because they believe sex should only be about:
What percentage of teenagers over the age of 14 admit that they have had sexual intercourse?
c. just under 50%
What policy did the Bush administration and the group True Love Waits advocate for abstinence in teens?
a. virginity pledge
Your text mentions several reasons why American teenagers are rapidly spreading STDs. Which of the following is NOT one of the reasons?
b. Teens believe if they don’t climax they will not get an STD.
What term best describes a behavior or attitude where a person’s sex is the basis for prejudicial discrimination and where sex may matter more than a person’s performance or merit?
Harvard president Larry Summers stated that at the highest levels of performance, men might have an innate advantage over women in scientific aptitude and that genetic differences could explain the scarcity of female “hard” scientists at elite universities. Journalists termed this:
Which statement is NOT true about girls as compared to boys?
d. Infant females are at greater risk of death
Although women now outnumber men in terms of college enrollment, men still dominate which fields?
b. math and physics
In comparison to boys, girls are more likely to:
b. smoke cigarettes
In the classroom, compared to girls, boys are:
a. more likely to interrupt (and to get away with it).
In the classroom, compared to boys, girls:
a. are expected to better at reading
Jobs that have been feminized, such as teaching or secretarial work, are also referred to as:
b. pink-collar jobs
What argument do Reskin and Roos use to support the reason women end up in lower-paid jobs?
c. these jobs are not attractive to men
When token men enter feminized jobs, they enjoy a quicker rise to leadership positions. This is referred to as:
b. glass escalator
Inappropriate jokes on the job and sexual bartering are both examples of:
c. sexual harassment
What term refers to the invisible barriers women face when they enter more prestigious corporate worlds?