It is clear from several nutrient safety surveies that there are three chief types of jeopardies in nutrient microbiological jeopardies, chemical jeopardies and physical jeopardies ( De Boer et Al. 2005 ; McCarthy et Al. 2006 ; Spais and Vasileiou 2011 ; Yeung and Morris 2001 ) . Milk jeopardies are besides divided in the same classs and these may stay in milk through assorted procedures which carried out for milk processing. Beginnings of initial milk jeopardies may come at primary phase of milk secretion/ milking procedure from milk giving animate being, through inside of bag, bag and nipple surfaces.
Second beginning of jeopardy could be from procedure of milking, response, storage etc. , through milking equipment, milk conveyance line and storage armored combat vehicle. Other beginning of jeopardy could be milking environment, air and H2O and personal hygiene. In add-on to these, chemical jeopardies might be come through cleansing and sanitizing phases ( Braunig and Hall 2005 ) . Presence of any of these nutrient jeopardies shows hapless consequences of milk processing and hygienic patterns.
2.1.1 Biological Hazards
Group of infective micro-organism might be prevailing and responsible for nutrient toxic condition issues. Human organic structure is much more sensitive with higher microbial cell count and consequence in connexion of nutrient disease ( National Mastitis Council 2001 ) . Higher Numberss of microbic cell count have major impacts on human wellness hazard, and it at the same time associated with either hapless nutrient hygienic patterns, residue of antibiotic, infective micro-organism or degrees of toxic components in milk. And it studied that some toxins which have higher stableness to heat interventions e.g. enterotoxins, produced by nutrient pathogens and it consequences in nutrient toxic condition due to septic milk cowss ( National Mastitis Council 2005 ) . The major hazard of higher bodily cell count of milk to human is because of ingestion of natural milk or milk which is gone under partly pasteurisation ( Oliver 2005 ) . In tropical milk farming environment, opportunities of taint and growing of micro-organism in milk are much higher and can non be eliminated from milk until any suited heat intervention.
Microbiological counts were found higher in bulk of urban dairies compared to organized dairy. In urban countries from which milk has been collected, came from husbandmans holding individual to figure of combine strain of animate beings. Higher Numberss of microbic counts convey hapless hygienic status and much opportunities of spoilage doing bugs or pathogens which represent as biological jeopardies for consumers who involved in buying of natural milk straight from husbandmans. Higher figure of bacterial counts consequences due to hapless dairy apparatus procedure and systems ( Iyer et al. 2010 ) . Microbial counts can be minimized or reduced by forestalling initial milk taint and wining good hygienic status at milk farm degree ( Anand et al. 2006 ) .
Bacterias may be classified by the formation of bunchs:
Diplococcic – two coccus shaped cells in mated.
Staphylococci – coccus shaped bacterial cell in clustered signifier.
Streptococci -cocci shaped bacterial cells arranged in concatenation formation.
Raw milk and pasteurized milk has been functioning as major beginning as transportation medium for these bacteriums to human than powder milk. Largely common nutrient toxic condition causes were bacterial. It has been found that Salmonella, Campylobacter coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli are major cause of nutrient toxic condition which been identified by Food Safety Advisory Centre, London ( FSAC 1993 ) , because they grow faster in status where milk been handled in tropical environment for long period of clip without infrigidation and chilling. Opportunities of growing and endurance of these pathogens are largely temperature and clip dependant for which milk and nutrient merchandise been handled as unrefined during supply concatenation.
Bacterial growing can be explained by an addition in entire figure of cells instead than an addition in all cell size. Out of all different the chief procedure by which bacterial cells divides in two cells to reproduce them is known as binary bacterial fission. The entire clip taken by bacteriums from complete cell formation to its starting of cell division is known as bacterial coevals clip ( Ray 2004 ) . The undermentioned stages can be identified ; lag stage, log stage, stationary stage, and decease stage. Bacterial growing largely depend on different growing factors which includes, temperature, food in medium, sum of H2O nowadays, degree of O, sourness of medium etc. , and have tendency to stay in active in natural milk and milk which contaminated ( Boor 1997 ; Johnson et Al. 1990 ) . Bacterial types normally associated with milk ( Hayes and Boor 2001 ) are ;
Bacillus spp. ( anthracis & A ; Cereus )
Campylobacter ( coli & A ; jejuni )
Clostridium ( botulinus & A ; perfringens )
E. coli ( EPEC, ETEC, VTEC )
Enterococcus ( faecalis & A ; faecium )
Mycobacterium ( bovis, TB & A ; paratub )
Streptococcus spp. ( pyogenes, agalactiae, etc )
Vibrio spp. ( cholera, parahaem. & A ; vulnificus )
Yersinia spp. ( enterocolitica & A ; pseudotuber. )
2.1.2 Chemical Hazards
Milk safety is non limited to merely microbic jeopardies, but usage of chemicals in milk farms and milk workss besides leads to chemical jeopardies. Chemical were found in dairy milk samples as a consequence of hapless milk handling patterns and deceitful patterns done on the farm. Majority of milk found as adulterated with chemicals ( BBC News Asia 10 January 2012 ) and found as substandard in countries where people does non cognizant with all such patterns, throughout India. Chemicals have been added badly to deteriorate milk quality ; this consequences in many of samples being found with chemical substances like added detergents, urea, skim milk pulverization, amylum, sugars, vegetable fats, neutralizer etc, which has strong harmful consequence to all populating group in society and on kids. Long-run ingestion of milk with hint sum of urea and detergent might be functioning as chronic upset of the liver, kidney and enteric path ( Lab Saints 12 January 2012 ) . These assortments of chemicals in milk may harm to consumers and particularly to the kids and babies babes for their encephalon developments, their growing and inauspicious consequence on working of organic structure variety meats ( TOI 21 January 2012 ) .These sorts of chemicals can be measured in tolerable day-to-day consumption ( TDI ) or acceptable day-to-day consumption ( ADI ) , for making comparing with degree of these chemicals in nutrient merchandises ( Leblanc et al. , 2000 ) .
Chemical jeopardies are non limited to added substances but besides include H2O contaminated by heavy metals, drugs, antibiotic residue or endocrines. It is non possible to demobilize this type of chemicals in milk by filtration or thermic processing in the same manner as physical and biological jeopardies. Long term ingestion of this chemicals jeopardies consequence in failures of some of organic structure parts, kidney jobs, suppression of immune system, illness of hormone, neurological upset or disease like malignant neoplastic disease ( Mansour 2011 ) . Chemical content can be measured with new engineerings like Temperature Program Micro Sensors ( Meier et al. 2009 ) , usage of Nano-sensors ( Sozer and Kokini, 2009 ) etc. which available to find assorted chemical drosss in nutrient and helps to take necessary action in its bar in nutrient and finally beef uping HACCP to do standard operating process.
ICMR reported that these chemicals cause a scope of effects to human e.g. detergents in milk cause nutrient toxic condition and other GI jobs ; high degree of alkali destroy protein and harm organic structure tissues ; types of man-made chemicals cause bosom job, malignant neoplastic disease or even decease and in long term ingestion of even little measure of debased milk or chemicals consequences in serious issues ( CSE2012 ) .
2.1.3 Physical jeopardies
In milk production system, opportunities of taint of milk with assorted types of foreign stuff or other atom could be risky and consequence as physical jeopardy to milk consumers. Some foreign atoms, such as broken pieces of glass or bantam metals, suppose positive hazard of cutting the consumer ‘s oral cavity, teeth or sometimes more harm to inner organic structure parts if swallowed. Because of these grounds, makers have to take attention of hazard decrease by these physical drosss and its opportunities of decrease in nutrient. In add-on to that glass has been used as boxing stuff of milk and proper attention must be taken to avoid this type of harm and breakage of milk containers. In add-on to other physical jeopardies, pieces of crisp metal, wood or rock can ensue in similar consequence to human organic structure ( Adams and Motarjemi 1999 ) .
These types of difficult object have potential to damage dentitions and human internal organic structure variety meats ; sometimes it consequence in choking largely to the kids when it swallowed. These types of drosss have greater opportunity for milk which is nor processed and passed through showing and micro filtration procedure. Badness of these atoms noted greater in natural and unrefined milk. Milk which processed and packed in organized or processed dairy pant passed through these types of showing and shorting devices such as metal sensors. X-ray machines have besides been installed at treating line to observe physical foreign objects in milk battalion. These types of steps are non able to utilize in loose milk production and merchandising channels or at small town degrees in which husbandmans follow milk merchandising in rural and in urban countries ( Adams and Motarjemi 1999 ) .
2.2 Factors act uponing milk jeopardies
Production of safe and choice milk is a primary demand for consumers. Milk safety must be controlled at each measure from get downing of production to concluding ingestion. Once it is found that any milk is unfit or insecure for ingestion, whether from chemical or physical taint or microbiological testing, it should be removed from the market. Removal of chemical jeopardies and dross is impossible or really hard through processing and at the ambient temperature pathogens and spoilage being can turn faster and impact the consumers, once it consumed. Among all the bugs, some of them are mesophilic and some of them are thermophilic ( Walstra et al 2006 ) .
Milk is an first-class growing medium for some of the micro-organism particularly the mesophilic bacterium that has multiple growing scope base on environing temperature. Many types of bacteriums able to last in milk because of its good nutritionary quality and it may ensue in higher figure of bacterial counts and sum of toxins which produced by infective being, doing it insecure for ingestions.
2.2.1 Sanitary and hygiene factors
Contaminated natural milk is much more capable to convey pathogens to consumers than processed milk. Bacteria which are responsible for this sort of unwellness can be destroyed by thermic processing by pasteurisation, pre-pasteurization, warming of milk at such higher temperature or sterilisation ( Lore 2006 ) . However, processing may increase nutrient cost to consumers. In instance where consumers preferred cheaper altogether or unrefined milk from local husbandmans, they have higher opportunity of bacteriological jeopardies because it sold without initial thermic processing that could cut down biological jeopardy at primary phase before the production of toxic substances.
Once milk is secreted from animate being it must be kept in hygienic and safe status until concluding ingestion. It is necessary to forestall it from beginning of taint and from biological jeopardies by using suited criterions of hygiene and disinfection to the country where animate beings have been kept. The chief factor to keep quality and safety of milk is to avoid direct and indirect taint. It besides depends on how consumers handles milk before the ingestion once it has been purchased – how is it taken place, how is it stored, heat intervention before and after storage and many more ( Valeeva et al. 2005 ) . It besides necessary to follow procedure of safe and clean milk production in which attention should be taken for milk containers which used for milk transit from one to another topographic point and do certain it followed by proper cleansing and sanitizing process. In rural countries, husbandmans who are involved in single milk farming suffer from deficiency cognition and handiness of sanitising and cleaning agents for milk collection and transporting containers. Furthermore, they do non hold cognition of milk nutrient safety and jeopardies. Most of milk has been collected in India from these rural husbandmans via milk roll uping Centres and co-operative societies.
It has been reported that hapless carnal lodging and feeding operation of cowss may impact the good microbic quality of finished milk ( Torkar and Teger 2008 ) . Pre-rinsing and lavation of equipment involve in milking procedure such as machine-controlled milking machine and other accoutrements with ill-defined H2O adds the major causes of microbic count along with nutrient pathogen in unrefined milk ( Bramley and McKinnon 1990 ) . These infective bacteriums in unrefined milk became major job for people who drink unrefined milk and finally ensue in public wellness issues. If fresh milk has been kept at warm temperature without proper hygienic and refrigerated status, so it consequences in higher microbial count and poorer quality. There are many factors which can impact hygienic quality of milk like,
Hygiene of the milk bring forthing animate beings.
Personal hygiene in the dairy.
Hygiene of tools.
18.104.22.168 Hygiene in the dairy
To acquire clean and safe milk production in dairy farm, the status of milking animate being should be decently maintained but in rural countries, it found really difficult to keep for those husbandmans which has merely 1-3 or few cattles. Because o hapless economic fortunes they are non in place to afford suited sanitizing, cleaning chemical and machinery for safe milk production. They do follow cleansing and lavation of animate being organic structure parts like bag, mammillas, wing, belly, atom of the dry guano, land etc. , with H2O. In same instance, dripping may be fall down inside the milk pails during procedure of milking, which might transport considerable bacteriums which responsible for spoilage of natural milk ( Food and Agricultural Organization 1989 ) .
22.214.171.124 Personal hygiene in the dairy
Physical wellness and hygienic status of the dairy cattle or individual involve in milking procedure, has a relationship with hygienic status of fresh milk straight and indirectly. To avoid such thing people who work in milking operation must be fit to work and liberate from disease to avoid taint of milk with harmful bugs ( Food and Agricultural Organization 1989 ) . Forces must be cognizant of all hygiene regulations and ordinance and criterion operating process for working on milk farm. Peoples who worked in milking environment were considered as one of the beginnings of micro-organism and they might be responsible for distributing bacteriological jeopardies ( Lelieveld 2003 ) .
Hygiene of the tools
It is necessary for tools being used for milk handling must be sanitized and clean decently to avoid biological, chemical and physical jeopardies. All different male monarch of equipment which used in milking operation must be sanitized before rhenium utilizing. Chiefly little graduated table husbandmans collect milk in little boiler and merely utilize milk can as manner of conveyance with larger measures. In instance where automated milking procedure used on farm, before milking all machine-controlled machinery must be sanitized or decently disinfected ( Food and Agricultural Organization 1989 ) .
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