Child and young peoples development

Learning outcome 1:
1.1 Describe the expected pattern of children and young people’s development from birth to 19 years. As a teaching assistant it is important to acknowledge different aspects of child development. Babies and children may reach significant milestones at different ages, for example some babies will learn to crawl earlier than others, which are less advanced and often require nurturing. Therefore it is important to remember that development is a holistic process and that each child is unique and will develop in their own way and at different rates. Milestones give a broad average of development for when children may expect to reach a particular stage. Some pupils stand out from others because they have reached a particular milestone ahead of or later than them. Sometimes if children’s growth patterns are very different from their peers, this can have an effect on their behaviour. If this is the case then there may need to be additional provisions made for them. The table below shows a child and young person development and should be seen as a guide to give an overall idea of the different stages. Years

Physical development
Communication and Intellectual development
Social, Emotional and Behavioural development
0-2 years
When first born there is fast development and babies have little control over. Series of reflexes in order to survive (for example, sucking, grasping). Gradually more control so by 12 mths most will be able to crawl or roll. By the age of 2 start to walk. Use hands for pointing and holding objects, start to dress and feed themselves, also enjoy climbing. By the age of 3 have more control over pencils and crayons; enjoy looking at and turning pages in books. Able to use a cup and feed themselves. Will walk and run with more confidence and will explore. Adults communicate with babies as not yet able to understand what is said. They will listen to the language and enjoy songs and games. Will try to speak at around 12 mths, pronunciation unclear. Between 1-2 years start to put words together and vocabulary will increase to about 200 words. Between 2-3 years will use negatives and plurals, vocabulary will increase still and will make some
errors in grammar when speaking, for example, “I drawed it.” Will start to find out about their own identities. Will need to form a strong attachment, which will be their parents and carers. If in a nursery this would be their allocated key worker. May start to have tantrums through frustration and will want and need to do everything for themselves.

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3-7 years
Children will be able to carry out more coordinated movements and will grow in confidence. They refine skills developed so far and have more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. Children start to use familiar phrases and expressions when they become more social and have wider experiences. They will ask numerous questions and be able to talk about things in the past and future tenses with confidence. They become more skilled at aspects of number and writing; also continue to learn about their world. Still look for adult approval and start learning to read. Children will still be developing their identities and play with their peers and socialise using imaginative play. This will help to develop their concept of different roles in their lives. It is important for them to learn to understand the importance of boundaries and why they are necessary. Also respond well to being given responsibility and will need adult approval. 7-12 years

Continue to grow, develop and refine many of their skills. Start to have hobbies and interests in areas, for example, sport or dance. Have controlled finer movements such as required for playing an instrument or sewing. Girls show early signs of puberty from the age of 10 or 11. For boys puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of rapid physical growth. By this stage, most children will be fluent speakers of a language, and will be developing and refining their skills at reading and writing. Their language skills will enable them to think about and discuss their ideas and learning in more abstract terms. They will be developing their own thoughts and preferences, and will be able to transfer information and think in a more abstract way. Children’s friendships become more settled and will have groups of friends. They will need to have the chance to solve problems and carry out activities which require more independence. Continue to need
praise and encouragement, and increasingly aware of what others may think of them. 12-19 years

During adolescence (12-16 years), young people will be growing stronger. Boys will be starting to go through puberty and many girls will have completed the process and have regular periods. Between these ages there can be a great variety in height and strength. At the stage of 16-19 years young people are adults, although many girls have reached physical maturity, boys continue to grow and change until their mid-20s. Young people during 12-18 yrs will usually have their favourite subjects and activities and will be motivated in these areas. They will be selecting and taking GCSEs and A levels which they are able to achieve. They may lack confidence or avoid situations in which they have to do less popular subjects, to the extent that they may truant. It is important to teenagers that they feel good about themselves and that they belong. Between 16-19 yrs they leave school at the age of 18, where they will be thinking about career and university choices and continue to develop. At the stage of 12-16 yrs self-esteem can be very vulnerable. Their bodies will take on the outer signs of adulthood, but still need guidance. They will want to be independent of adults and spend time with their friends, but may display childish behaviour. They can find themselves under pressure of growing up and expectations of them and unsure of how to behave in situations. During 16-19 yrs they enter adulthood but may need advice and guidance from adults. They will lack experience and individuals will vary in emotional maturity and the way in which they interact with others.

Learning outcome 1:
1.2 Describe with examples how different aspects of development can affect one another.

Different aspects of development can affect one another. Children and young people’s development is divided in to different areas, but it is important to remember that these areas are interconnected and link with one another. For example, a pupil developing physically and refining physical skills also affects their ability to socialise, become independent, and grow in
confidence. When planning or thinking about activities to carry out with pupils I would need to think about the interconnections and links in term of the broader picture. Many activities will stimulate interest and encourage pupils to develop skills in different areas. For example, an activity such as cooking will develop a range of skills according to Burnham and Baker (2010).

Learning outcome 2:
2.1 Describe with examples the kinds of influences that affect children and young people’s development including: background, health and environment.

A pupil’s development is influenced by a wide range of factors, such as: their background
their health
the environment in which they are growing up.
These factors all have an impact on the different areas of development. As a teaching assistant it is important to acknowledge and have an awareness of some of these factors so that I know how pupils may be affected.

Pupil’s background and family environment
Pupils will come from a range of different family environments, cultures and circumstances. Many families got through significant changes in the time the pupil is at school. These may include family break-up or the introduction of a new partner, bereavement, illness, moving house or changing country. Any of these can affect a pupil’s emotional and /or intellectual development.

Pupil’s health
If pupils suffer from poor health or a physical disability or impairment, this may restrict their developmental opportunities. For example, a pupil who has a medical condition or impairment may be less able to participate in some activities than other children. This may initially affect physical development, but may also restrict social activities, for example, in the playground. The pupil’s emotional development may also be impacted depending on their awareness of their needs and extent to which they are affected.

Poverty and deprivation
Poverty and deprivation are likely to have a significant effect on a pupil’s development. Statistics show that children who come from deprived backgrounds are less likely to thrive and achieve well in school, as parents will find it more difficult to manage their needs, which will in turn impact on all areas of development. This will affect the way in which pupils are able to respond in different situations.

Personal choices
The personal choices of children will affect their development as they grow older, as they decide on friendship groups, extra-curricular activities, and academic involvement and so on. They may need advice and support from adults to enable them to make the choices which are right for them.

Looked after/care status
If a pupil is looked after or in care, this may affect their development in different ways. However, they will usually be monitored closely and there will be regular meetings with the school to ensure that they are making expected levels of progress. If there are any concerns/issues, then these will be addressed straight away.

In some cases pupils may come to school without any previous education, for example, if they are from another country where formal education may begin later. Alternatively they may come from a home schooling environment or a different method of schooling, so the way in which they have been taught may be different. They may need to have some additional support until they become settled. The different circumstances, or environment, to which pupils are exposed during their childhood and teens, will also affect their development. Many families go through significant changes or transitions such as: illness

moving house
family break-up
changing country
These circumstances will have an impact on the way pupils are able to respond in different situations. It is important that adults in school are aware of how pupils may be affected by these kinds of conditions and circumstances, so that they can support them by ensuring that they are included as far as possible.

Learning outcome 2:
2.2 Describe with examples the importance of recognising and responding to concerns about children and young people’s development

If there are concerns which I may have about a pupil’s development in any area, I would need to share them with others. In the case of primary pupils, I would need to refer to the class teacher, followed by the SENCO (Special Educational Needs Co-ordinator). In secondary schools I may go straight to the latter. Even if concerns have already been noted by in my setting, it is still worth me raising them, as my observations will also be taken in to consideration. I should include dates and example of reasons for my concerns, if possible, so that they can be backed.

Learning outcome 3:3.1 Identify the transitions experienced by most children and young people At some stage, whilst supporting an age group in a setting, I will be working with children or young people who may be going through a transition phase. The term transition is applied to different situations in which children and young people pass through a period of change. As well as the more obvious school-based transitions such as starting school, changing classes or key stages or passing on to secondary school, children will pass through other periods of transition which may be long or short term. Those may include changes in personal circumstances or experiences, passing through puberty, or simply a change in timetable or their activity in the classroom. Transitions include those that are common to all children and young people, such as moving school and puberty and those that are particularly only to some, such as bereavement. When a child comes to times of change and transition, I should give every opportunity to talk about what is going to happen so that they are prepared for it. In some cases such as bereavement, this may not be possible.

3.2 Identify transitions that only some children and young people may experience e.g. Bereavement Transitions will happen which children and young people are not prepared for, and these can be difficult to manage and deal with. If I notice a pupil who is behaving uncharacteristically, I should ensure to inform other members of staff. The kinds of transitions which are likely to happen at some stage include the following: Bereavement-whether expected or not, the death of a close family member or friend may be very traumatic. The school should have procedures in place ready for this eventuality and be able to support all staff in helping pupils deal with bereavement. Parental separation-at some stage it is likely that I would be supporting a pupil whose parents are separating. This can affect pupils in different ways and I would need to be sensitive in speaking with the parents. Parental change of partner-this can have a very big impact depending on the amount of contact the pupil has with the absent parent and the way in which a new partner was introduced. Again, speaking to the parents I would need to be sensitive. New sibling-very young children can find this the most difficult to cope with, as they may be competing for parental attention for the first time. Older children can too be affected by the arrival of a new sibling. Moving house-if the pupil remains in the same area or at the same school, this can be an exciting event, although it may be a little unsettling. If the pupil moves away from the school or has just arrived from a distance, they may need some additional support in order to settle in to the school environment. Changing of carer-pupils who are in care or have had a numerous amount of different homes, they may find it difficult to manage a change of carer. The school should have support and advice from social services and should work closely together to ensure that these transitions go smoothly. Illness or injury-pupils may be affected by illness or injury and may need to come to terms with a change in circumstances, whether they may be of their own or of a loved one.

3.3 Describe with examples how transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development During periods of transition it is important for children to have positive relationships, as they will need to feel secure in other areas of their lives. I should make sure that there are
opportunities for the pupil to be able to talk to someone about how they are feeling. If I were to have advance notice that a child or group of children will be going through a period of change, then this would give me the opportunity to plan how I would support them. Transitions may affect children and young people’s behaviour and development in different ways. They may: Become quiet and withdrawn

Be very anxious
Start to demonstrate uncharacteristic behaviour
Become attention seeking
If the pupil was not to receive any support, then their social and emotional development may also be affected, as transition can potentially be traumatic for children.

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