Child and Young Person Development
Physical Development from Birth – 19yrs Old 0-3Mths Make movements with their arms and legs. Develop a sleep pattern. Will react to sudden or loud noises. 3-6Mths Make gradually more controlled movements with their arms and legs. Thrive from skin to skin contact. Start to reach for objects and try to touch/hold them. Start teething. 6-9Mths Watches and explores movement of own hands and feet. Start making purposeful movements, often moving from the position/place they were left in. Will interact in their immediate environment using sensory exploration and movement.
Starting to sit up. 9-12Mths Interacts with people, toys and objects using their increasing mobility. Enjoys the different perspectives and freedom that crawling, pulling themselves up or starting to walk bring. Focus on what they want as their mobility increases. Begin to make marks with tools. Able to sit up unaided. 12-24Mths Have biological drive to use every part of their body and develop their physical skills. Shows some awareness of bladder and bowel motions. Develop their own opinions on food, drink and activities. Practise and develop what they can do.
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Use tools and materials for a set purpose. Put together a sequence of actions as in wind the bobbin up. Enjoys sensory experience of making marks in paint, paste or damp sand. 2-5yrs Begin to gain full control of their body and move in and around space and objects near them. Move freely within space around them. All milk teeth have now grown. Fine and gross motor skills should now be developed. 5-8yrs Develop less fat and grow more muscle than in earlier years. Lose their milk teeth and begin to grow their adult teeth that tend to look out of proportion to the rest of their face.
Will experience slow growth of on average 2 and a half inches and 8lbs per year. Uses fine and gross motor skills in sports and other activities. 9-12yrs Enter puberty. Skin becomes oilier and they may develop pimples. Experience a growth spurt with significant weight gain, muscle growth and genital maturation. Increase in sweating and youths may start suffering from body odour. Hair starts to grow under arms, in pubic region and with males on their face. Body proportions change which may cause joints to ache due to rapid growth, females’ hips widen and males’ shoulders broaden. 2-15yrs Females are gradually reaching physical and sexual maturity whilst males are just starting to physically and sexually mature. Experience rapid and sudden increase in weight, height and strength with the onset of adolescence. Acne appears, and is worse in certain skin types. Is concerned with their appearance. Increased likelihood of acting on any sexual desires they have. 16-19yrs Has essentially completed physical maturation. Physical features are shaped and defined. Social, Emotional and Behavioural Development from Birth to 19yrs 0-3Mths Enjoys being around people.
Like to hear parents voices. Sociable from birth. 3-6Mths Develop a close bond and depend on one special person within their environment. 6-9Mths Enjoys interaction with others. Learns from watching those around them. Cry less for general attention and more because want something in particular i. e. food or nappy changed. 9-12Mths Start to build relationships with special people. Use a variety of ways to gain attention and draw others into social interaction. Will make social contact using their developing physical skills. 12-24Mths Can be caring towards others. Start to follow simple instructions.
Look to others for responses that confirm, contribute to or challenge their understanding of themselves. 2-5yrs Learn social skills and enjoy talking to other children and adults. Seek out others to share experiences with. Respond to wishes and feelings of other people. Feel safe/secure and show sense of trust. Form friendships with others. Will demonstrate flexibility and adapt behaviour to different events, situations or changes in routine. Can contribute to own wellbeing and self-control. 5-8yrs Show a strong interest in friends and may prefer to play with friends of the same gender.
Begin to develop self-discipline and become less self-centred. Begin to understand rules but may see right and wrong as an absolute. They begin to compare themselves to others around them. Will often seek an adults approval. More sensitive about other’s needs, but may find it difficult to talk about their own feelings. They may show a fear of something by drawing or “acting out”. 9-12yrs They develop the ability to understand the views and opinions of others. Become able to solve their own social issues like fights with friends or siblings. Their sense of what is important is influenced by friends and school. 2-15yrs They become annoyed by younger siblings. Withdraw from parents who become labelled “old fashioned”. Boys will usually resist any show of affection. Start feeling parents are too restrictive and need less family interaction and companionship. Have less intense friendships with those of the same gender and females will show more interest in the opposite sex than males do. Will usually have a group of friends rather than one close friend. 16-19yrs Sometimes feel that parents are “too interested” and feelings towards parents will range from friendly to hostile.
Will usually have lots of friends, only a few confidants and dates actively. May be strongly invested in a single relationship and even talk of marriage. May enjoy activities with the opposite sex or may be completely opposite and be very uncomfortable at even just the thought. Levels of maturity vary greatly from person to person. Communication and Intellectual Development from Birth – 19yrs 0-3Mths Communicate by crying, but will have slightly different cries for different needs, that generally only parents can distinguish between. May also communicate using gurgling, babbling and squeals.
Will make eye contact when being fed. 3-6Mths Will try to make sounds to interact socially. Are interested in things going on around them. Will listen to, distinguish between and respond to different voices. Plays with own hands and feet. Focuses on, tries to reach for and manipulate objects around them. 6-9Mths Will smile at sight or sound of someone they are close to. Enjoys finger play and listening to familiar sounds, words and songs. Experiments increasingly with using sounds to identify objects/people around them. Enjoys listening to themselves babble. -12Mths Create their own sounds/words as they begin to develop their language. Understand simple meanings conveyed in speech. Enjoys listening to rhymes and stories especially ones with rhythmic patterns. Responds to words and interactive rhymes such as “wave bye bye”. Start bringing together hand and eye co-ordination to fix on and touch objects. 12-24Mths Use single words to convey simple messages. Uses simple signs to communicate. Understands simple sentences I. e. its bed time. Are able to respond to simple requests and grasp meaning from context.
Uses signs with limited speech. Can distinguish between different sounds. Shows interest in play involving sound, songs and rhymes. Will have favourite songs, rhymes and stories. Will make random marks with their fingers or tools and then distinguish between them. 2-5yrs Learn words very rapidly and are able to use them to communicate about things that they are interested in. Will listen to stories with increasing attention to detail and recall. Will have confidence to speak to others about their own interests and desires.
Uses speech to gain attention and will sometimes use actions rather than speech to demonstrate or explain to others. Will use simple grammatical sentences. Begin to use speech in imaginary play. Will recognise rhymes in spoken words and will continue a rhyming string. Uses speech to connect ideas, explain what is happening and what may happen next. Will listen to or join in with stories either one to one or in small groups. Start to understand the concept of a word. Will know that information can be found in both books and computers. Sometimes they will give meaning to marks as they paint or draw.
Will draw lines and circles using their gross motor skills. Begin to form recognisable letters. Use writing as a way of communicating. 5-8yrs Is able to use a good range of vocabulary to form sentences. Should be able to start a discussion and give their opinions. Whilst carrying out a task they should be able to follow further instructions. Move towards independence as they progress into junior school from infant school. 9-12yrs They continue to develop their decision making skills as they move closer towards independence. Move their school learning focus from play-centred to academics.
Begin to look to peers and media for information and advice – friends can be a very big influence. 12-15yrs Need to feel important in the world and believe in something. Thrive on arguments and discussion. May read a lot. May take on increased responsibility such as family jobs or babysitting. Increasingly able to think logically about concepts and plan for the future. 16-19yrs Seriously concerned about their future and begin to integrate knowledge leading to a decision about it. May lack information or self-assurances about their personal skills and abilities.
Influences that can Affect Children and Young People’s Development Child development can be influenced by many different factors, we have some control over some of these factors I. E environmental influences, whereas we have no control over genetic influences. A child is largely shaped by the world around them and the influences that happen in a child’s early years will play a big part of shaping that child’s life. It is known that a nurtured child will achieve better than a deprived child. Some wrongly assume that a more privileged child will naturally do better than a deprived hild, this is not always the case as sometimes the deprived child has more family and love around them which are important factors to the child’s development.
* Health/Illness, Infection & Disease – Sick children may suffer from aches and pains. They may have to visit hospital on a regular basis which means them missing out on important learning time in school. * Geography – A parent’s choice of schools may be limited if they even have a choice, community services available I. E library and parks, access to a good health care service. Environment – Poverty and deprivation, having a nanny/babysitter for most of the day, a lack of stimulation or poor provision for play, water, air and noise pollution depending on location. * Diet – Development can be delayed by undernourishment, but over feeding or eating the wrong kind of foods carries as much risk to a child’s development. Obesity can lead to the increased chances of illness and infections and social or emotional problems. * Background/Social/Cultural – some parents may be poor role models due to the social activities that they participate in, limited social opportunities I.
E no community centre, no after school club or leisure centre, a lack of stable relationships due to parents being separated or death of a parent. Some children may practise a different religion to the majority of the other children in the area and because of this they have different cultural expectations and experiences. * Poverty – children that live in poverty suffer a higher amount of accidents than privileged children, they suffer from poor housing, a poor diet, a general lack of hygiene and a lack of interests and hobbies. Genetic – Examples of genetic influences which are caused by incorrect or damaged chromosomes are; Downs syndrome, Haemophilia A, Sickle cell anaemia, Cystic Fibrosis and Sensory impairment. Transitions Experienced by Most Children and Young People * Moving from their home environment to nursery. * Moving from nursery to infant school. * Moving up from infant school to junior school. * Moving from junior school up to senior school. * Moving from senior school to college or work, depending on the route the young person has chosen. * The birth of a new baby. * Puberty. * Sitting exams such as SAT’s, GCSE’s or A levels.
Moving from home to nursery can affect a child’s behaviour because they feel insecure leaving their parents and familiar surroundings. They are left in the care of adults that they have no bond with and are surrounded by a group of up to 20 or so other children that they have no relationship with. An only child may have no concept of sharing and now has 20 others that want to do the same activity as them. The move to nursery could affect their development in different ways. A child that has been dry at night could start wetting the bed again as they are anxious about attending nursery and being left by their parents.
A child that was thought by their parents to be doing well in their knowledge of things I. E. shapes, colours and letters, may stop showing signs of further progression. Moving from nursery to infant school can affect a child’s behaviour due to them having to make new friends, get used to a new teacher, get used to being at school all day instead of just half the day, so they may become overtired or emotional as they’re not used to being away from their parents for so long. They may also start acting out as they are expected to be more independent and do a lot more for themselves I.
E get dressed/undressed for P. E on their own, eat dinner by themselves and take themselves to the toilet. They may also act out as they have a lot more rules to follow. Again a child that was dry at night could start wetting the bed due to being anxious about having to go to school all day. Moving from infant school to junior school can affect both behaviour and development as the child is expected to be even more independent, they may see this as a chance to mess around and chat with friends instead of getting on with set tasks.
A child may start pretending to be ill or acting out so they can stay off school as they may not like their new teacher as every teacher has a different way of doing things, or they may not like the expected level of work. Moving from junior school to senior school can have a big effect on a child as they have to make new friends, get used to lots of different teachers as they no longer have just one teacher for everything, but a different teacher for every subject, new school rules, are treated more like adults than children and the onset of puberty and hormone changes.
Moving from senior school to college or work depending on the young person’s chosen route can affect their behaviour and development in different ways. A person going to college may struggle to cope with being treated as an adult and not a child. They no longer have teachers chasing and reminding about homework, they’re just given a deadline and it’s expected to be there. They may be influenced by other students as they are trying to make new friends and fit in.
A person going to work is also instantly treated like an adult, they have to be there on time and complete their duties, but it is no longer their parent’s responsibility to ensure this happens, it’s their own! They may struggle to fit in, especially if the majority of the workforce is older than them or if they have a more isolated role such as a receptionist for a large company. The birth of a baby can affect a child’s behaviour and development in different ways depending on their age when it happens.
A child of 2yrs or younger probably won’t show much change, if any, as they are not fully aware of what has happened or what it means. A child over 2yrs though may regress into being more like a baby again as they feel insecure or left out and this is their way of gaining their parents attention. An older child may start acting out as they feel as if the baby is loved more than them and the parents aren’t interested in them anymore because they are busy with the baby. A teenager may even reject the baby and want nothing to do with it because they’re not interested in such things and get annoyed that the baby is all anyone talks about.
They may start skipping school or even try smoking or drinking to get attention from their parents. Puberty can affect a young person’s behaviour and development as they struggle to cope with the hormonal and bodily changes that are happening to them. They may become more interested in the opposite sex than in their schoolwork, they may also become overly concerned about their looks and image compared to that of their friends. Their attitudes may become poor as they try to act grown up and above the rules to impress their peers. Sitting exams can affect a young person for different reasons.
Some people may have been studying that hard for their exams that they become so nervous about doing them that they actually underperform. Others are that non-fussed about doing their exams that they may not even turn up for them and if they do they may just mess about during the exam. Transitions That Only Some Children and Young People Will Experience * Moving to a new house or new area. * Bereavement. * Long term medical conditions. * Becoming a carer for a close family member who is terminally ill or has a long term medical condition. * Separation of parents.
Moving to a new house or area can affect a child’s behaviour and development because they are leaving behind somewhere that they feel secure. They may have to start a new school which means a new teacher, new friends and new rules. Moving can be an anxious time for an adult so it’s to be expected that it deeply affects a child. The child may start refusing to go to school because their friends aren’t there or wetting the bed if they’re a younger child, due to being anxious about their new teacher, rules and friends. They may even blame their parents for them no longer having any friends.
Bereavement will affect every child differently, firstly because every child is their own person and secondly because it depends on whom it is that they have lost and how close they were to them. It’s impossible to say how a child may act due to bereavement because there are so many different ways in which they could handle it. Long term medical conditions will affect a child’s behaviour and development differently depending on what each child’s condition is. Some children may struggle with understanding whilst others may be blind and need braille, others could be deaf and some could have physical conditions.
No matter what the child’s condition they have just as much right to a full education as any other child and they should be given all the help they need. A child becoming a long term carer for someone will affect their behaviour and development because they may be regularly late for school or miss complete days. Their attitude may become arrogant because they feel older and more mature than they actually are and feel that teachers aren’t giving them the respect that they deserve. It may also become poor and their attention in class may fail as they spend their time worrying about the person that they are caring for.
Parents separating may affect a child’s behaviour and development because they feel that they are to blame and that the parent that’s left no longer loves them. They may cry when being left at school because they are scared that no-one will come back for them. They may become shy and withdrawn from friends because they don’t want to have to talk about it or are worried that their friends may make fun of them. They may also start trying to play parents off one another and bring this into school.