Child Development Research Paper Physical Mental Essay

Child Development Essay, Research Paper

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Physical, Mental, Emotional and Social Development in Children

By Kaitlyn Saunders

ENG 101

11.27.00

Babies grow at a really rapid rate during the first one and a half old ages of life - Child Development Research Paper Physical Mental Essay introduction. Development is non merely physical, but mental, emotional, and societal. This development provides a strong background for farther development in life.

Physical development refers to a babe? s increasing accomplishment at using assorted organic structure parts. During development, there are three basic developmental regulations: ? Rule one provinces, that babe? s develop in the caput part foremost, followed by the upper organic structure, followed by the bole part, and in conclusion the legs and pess. For illustration, a babe can keep up their caputs foremost before they can catch an object with their manus. The 2nd regulation refers to drive accomplishments. Motor accomplishments are the kid? s ability to command motion. The two basic categorizations in motor accomplishments are big motor accomplishments and all right motor accomplishments. Large motor accomplishments trade with all the big musculuss, whereas fine motor accomplishments trade with smaller musculuss in the organic structure. The 3rd developmental regulation is encephalon development. As the encephalon develops a kid responds more and more to spy and sound, which prepares them for farther development ( Langer, 172 ) . ?

At birth an baby? s vision is limited by the immatureness of the encephalon, beyond 7-12 inches an baby? s universe is a entire fuzz. Infant? s eyes unlike ours do non incorporate a fovea ( Langer, 86 ) . A fovea is the country of the retina in which the images are focused. Their oculus motions are really slow and are jerky at times. They are able to see colour but prefer the sharper contrast of black and white. Although babes can? t see little objects that are far off, they can see big objects that are up near. An grownup? s perfect vision is estimated to be 20/20 and infant? s vision is estimated to be about 20/600 ( Langer, 204 ) . By the terminal of the first twelvemonth a babe? s vision about matches that of a adult grownup ( Langer, 204 ) . Newborns actively use their senses from the clip that they are born. When they are small, a kid? s attending span is really limited. In the first two months, they can merely concentrate on an border of an object, nevertheless by the terminal of the 2nd month they can scan an object as a whole. This is of import because it shows that a babe? s attending span is really limited and they are non able to concentrate on an object for a long period of clip ( Cole, 53 ) .

At the clip of birth neonates can hear soft voices every bit good as loud voices and can besides detect the difference between different sounds that are made. Babies are non able to listen or hear selectively. When babes hear address they tend to open their eyes wider and look for the talker. Babies love the sounds of kids since their voices are higher in pitch. This is why they like to hear? babe talk? which is used by most grownups all over the universe ( Baldwin, 121 ) .

In the first two hebdomads after birth, babies have developed some physiological reactions. Babies begin to research their grasping physiological reaction where they can keep tightly to an object. Many of these behaviours evolved because they are of import for a kid? s endurance, without these a kid would non be able to physically develop decently. The absence of physiological reactions in a newborn are signals of possible jobs in encephalon development ( Baldwin, 136 ) . Neonates are brought into this universe holding some kind of physiological reactions in order for them to accommodate to their milieus. One of the most basic physiological reaction is the rooting physiological reaction. This physiological reaction helps an infant bend its caput to any object that stimulates a cheek, such as a babe bottle for feeding. A neonate besides will hold a really strong grasping physiological reaction. If you place your finger in a babe? s finger, by and large anyplace from one-week old and on, a babe will hold a really strong clasp. Motor accomplishments besides allow a babe to sit, crawl, base, and walk. Some motor accomplishments such as sitting up come a batch earlier than walking.

Cognitive development relates to the logical thinking and logic of an baby. Jean Piaget among all research workers dedicated his life to a hunt for the thoughts behind cognitive development. He was the first individual to chart the journey from the simple physiological reactions of the neonate to the complex stripling ( Piaget, 47 ) . Piaget believed that all kids? s thought progresses through the same phases, in the same order without jumping, or edifice onto old phases. He besides believed that the thought of babies is different from the thought of kids and the thought of kids is different from that of an stripling ( Piaget, 88 ) .

To explicate how babies move to higher criterions of understanding and cognition, Piaget

introduced four phases of cognitive development: sensorimotor ( 0-18 months ) , pre-operational ( 2-7 old ages ) , concrete operational ( 7-11 old ages ) , and formal operational ( over 11 old ages ) ( Piaget, 160 ) . The first 18 months of development is the sensorimotor. In this phase infants develop scheme or basic units of cognition. During this phase babies can organize schemas merely of objects that are present. They can non believe about absent objects because they can? t act on them. The key to the sensorimotor intelligence is the outgrowth of what Piaget called the object construct, or the construct of object permanency ( Piaget, 78 ) . Harmonizing to Piaget, a really immature baby does non look to acknowledge that objects have a lasting being outside of his or her interaction with it. Early in babyhood, from birth to around four months of age, babes will of course look at a plaything, follow it with their eyes and seek to hold on it. Equally shortly as the object is out of sight babes mentally think it know longer exists. They do non hold the construct of cognizing it? s at that place, if it? s out of sight.

Babies will get down to develop object permanency at around four months. Besides, at this clip they are get downing to larn that a vanishing object may still be. Babies between 4- 8 months non merely get down to turn their caputs to follow a moving object, but continue to look along it? s way after it has vanished, nevertheless they will non seek for it. From about 8-12 months babies for the first clip will seek manually for an

object that disappears out of their sight. When kids reach this phase they can follow all the seeable motions of an object ( Cole, 306 ) .

Social and emotional acquisition is an of import construct for parents to be cognizant of. A nurturing environment can construct tracts that encourage emotional stableness, while repeated emphasis may make many jobs in farther development. Babies learn from the people around them. Babies larn how to manage a state of affairs through what other people are making. During the first hr after birth an emotional tie begins between the babe and those environing him or her. From an early age babies are receptive to the people around them. They prefer to look at kids and more at attractive faces ( Cole, 307 ) .

Babies besides socially communicate through their feelings, non merely by shouting and shouting, but more subtly. Turning off and sucking their pollexs can be an indicant that they want to be left entirely. A babe that is smiling and looking about is by and large demoing marks that they want to interact with others. Not reacting to an baby? s emotional mark can decelerate down their societal development. It? s at this point that they besides develop a sense a trust. This strong sense of trust is the foundation for a life-time. Without this a babe may hold jobs pass oning with others subsequently on in their development.

Frequently at the age of five through seven months babies besides develop a? fright? or? shyness? of aliens. This is wholly natural and frequently is a consequence of the development of object permanency. Babies at this age will sometimes cleaving to their parents and non desire to be touched by people who they see as being unfamiliar ( Westman, 23 ) . From 0-4 months babes show the bulk of their emotions through shouting. They have many calls in which they show different emotions. Over clip parents can state the difference between calls and cognize what the kid wants from each call.

From 4-8 months babies begin to show a wider scope of emotions. Pleasure, felicity, fright, and defeat are shown through gurgles, cools, and laments. They besides show motions such as kicking, arm wave, swaying and smiling. From 8-18 months a kid develops a sense of ego. They begin to acknowledge their image in a mirror and start to go more and more independent. Babies at this phase have a broad scope of emotional provinces. One minute they might be happy and playing and the following minute they will be kicking and shouting in choler ( Westman, 54 ) .

Moral development begins early in an baby? s life. An infant enters this universe as an immoral being. Moral development depends on the type of preparation and attending an infant gets through its parents. If the kid is disciplined at an early age, they will turn up cognizing the difference between right and incorrect. Children most probably will first larn to react to the words such as? no? and? hot? . If a parent ignores a kid and lets them believe that his or her bad behaviour is acceptable, so they may turn up holding no ethical motives taught through their parents.

Constructing onto Piaget? s work, Lawrence Kohlberg believes that there are three phases to moral development. The phases are pre-conventional, conventional, and post-conventional. Harmonizing to Kohlberg, moral development begins with pre-conventional thought in which kids obey in order to avoid penalty. What determines a kid? s place in these phases is non whether they choose whether what they have done is right or incorrect, but by what concluding he or she uses to do the pick. Kohlberg believes that all kids go through all three phases of moral development in sequence and that if one phase is skipped, development can be stunted ( Power, 33 ) .

There are many factors that besides contribute to the development of a kid. Turning up in a healthy life environment, strong instruction, ever utilizing positiveness as a agency of motive, and ageless love and dedication to a kid are all ways to guarantee proper development. A few things that can decelerate down the development of a kid are, low birth weight, premature birth, disregard, and drug usage. Birth weight is an of import factor associated with an baby? s overall development and wellness. Childs who were born under 5? lbs are more likely to hold serious medical jobs and to besides hold developmental holds ( Baldwin, 99 ) .

In making important research I have come a decision that is non uncommon to most, if non all, of the developmental psychologists I studied. Like the professionals I researched, I besides believe that a kid? s development is the individual most of import phase in life. In order for a kid to turn up healthy and strong, he or she must develop physically, mentally, emotionally and socially.

Arbib, M. A. & A ; Hill, J. Explaining Language Universals. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988.

Baldwin, Alfred L. Behavior and Development in Childhood. New york: Dryden Press, 1955.

Cole, M. & A ; Cole, S.R. The Development of Children. New York: W.H. Freeman & A ; Co, 1989.

Cruttenden, A. Language in Infancy and Childhood. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1979.

Erikson, E.H. Dimensions of a New Identity. New York: Norton, 1974.

Hoffman, Lois W. & A ; Hoffman, M. Review of Child Development Research. June 1997, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.library.yale.edu/socsci/subjguides/psychology/psyc425.htm, ( November 16, 2000 ) .

Langer, Jonas. Theories of Development. New york: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969.

Neubauer, Peter. The Procedure of Child Development. Dec 1992, hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ex.ac.uk/Psychology/docs/develop.html. , ( November 19, 2000 ) .

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Power, F.C. , Higgins, A. & A ; Kohlberg, L. Lawrence Kohlberg & # 8217 ; s Approach to Moral Education. New York: Columbia University Press, 1989.

Sroufe, L.A. & A ; Cooper, R.G. Child Development, It? s Nature and Course. Feb 1995, hypertext transfer protocol: //server.bmod.athabascau.ca/html/aupr/developmental.shtml, ( November 3, 2000 ) .

Westman, Jack C. Individual Differences in Children. New york: John Wiley and Sons, 1973.

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