Child labour can be defined as any form of work that influence the child’s education, health as well as mental and physical growth, which can turned out to be harmful for the overall development. This kind of problem can be mostly observed in under-privileged countries. Thus, children are instead of sending to schools, are forced to work for the sake of money in order to meet incentives and demands of their families. With globalization, youth is in great demand by the society. Their knowledge, skills and experience should be utilized in a productive manner. According to the survey conducted by UNICEF in 2000 and 2001from the countries like India, Vietnam, South Africa and Nepal, most of the children participate in the market work instead of family business. Thus, illiteracy rate is also inclining in such countries(Edmonds &Pavcnik, 2005).
Poverty and low wages are the driving forces behind the symptoms of poverty. Raising living standards of the low-income countries is a time consuming process. To combat the problem of child labour people should be made aware about the value of education and should be given financial incentives so that they can send children to schools. It can reduce the child labour rate to a much lower extent.
As per our knowledge, the employment of children is a major concern. There are various reasons directly linked to this issue, such as lack of education, poverty, and over-population. It is estimated that there areabout 152 million working people, who are legally too young to work. Nearly 62% of all children, who are working, are boys. The boys are facing more risk than girls as they are doing some very challenging tasks.
Child labour is very sensitive topic if we empathize it. There are various explanations for child slavery. This is not something to turn eye to, which made me and my group to choose this topic. Continuous child labours can also affect countries growth as the ratio of illiteracy rate increase. Parental illiteracy put their child to do labour job. Poverty, crisis, chronic emergency, conflict and demand are some major reasons behind this action going on around the world. Understanding and focusing on those few causes and making efforts to improve them can reduce the concern not among us (our group), rather among all other individual who notice these things around them.
The International Labor Organization (ILO) defines child labor as ‘work conditions where children are forced to work to earn a living for themselves and their families, and as a conclusion they remain away educationally and socially in a condition which is exploitative and harmful to their health and to their physical and mental development. The children whom away from their families, often deprived of educational and training opportunities and they are forced to live like adult (ILO)”.*
**The worst forms of child labor are those conditions where children work more than nine hours in a day; earn less than a minimum wage ; work in hazardous conditions for health and safety; have no access to education; and, work away from their family’s home. Children are the future of a country, they are unsafe due to their age and physical power and they cannot make plan for their future and cannot understand the consequences of any work. So they should be safe from exploitation and should be given opportunities for their physical and mental progress.
The most obvious economic effect of child labor at the family level in the short run is to rise household revenue. All researchers and practitioners agree that poverty is the main key of child labor supply, and that child labor significantly increases the revenue and the probability of survival of the family.
Although parents may act rationally by sending their children to work in order to expand their probability of survival, they may not perceive the long run negative conclusions of child labor for their own family. Since child labor competes with school attendance and proficiency, children sent to work do not accumulate (or under-accumulate)human capital, missing the opportunity to improve their productivity and future earnings capacity. This decreases the wage of their future families, and increases the probability of their children being sent to work. In this way poverty and child labor is passed on from one generation to other.
A review of the theoretical and empirical literature on child labor shows the identification of at least six ways through which child labor might have a negative effect on long term growth: lower human capital accumulation, higher fertility, worse health, slower investment and technical change, higher income and gender discrepancy. It should be reminded that some of these channels- namely human capital, health and discrepancy – are important guidelines of a country’s level of social progress. Child labor can push down long term growth and social progress through decreased human capital accumulation. A decreased human capital accumulation also has a direct negative outcome on the level of social progress.
While looking around on this issue world-wide, it foundprominent in developing countries where there is high poverty and illiteracy ratio exist. What shocking is that, it even seen in developed countries as well where they have strict acts against child labour. The authors and researchers of the journal of Economic perspectives described the term child labour very broadly. On the basis of survey, data is enumerated in the article. Poverty, unemployment and low wages are different factors, which are causing the problem of child labour. Diminishing the problem of child labour is very well explained .The most powerful tool for vanishing child labour seems to be education. Improving education system will enhance the growth of children towards the schools.