Cities of Vesuvius: Pompeii and Herculaneum

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Local clay – used to make a variety of pottery containers for wine, olive oil and other products Sheep, milk and goats were raised for their meat, milk, skins and wool Rich marine resources purported a thriving fish and shellfish industry Production of popular fermented fish sauce known as gurus Salt used for preserving food was produced by the evaporation of shallow pools of sea water Plans and streetcars of Pompeii and Herculean Streets of Pompeii vary greatly in width, most are very narrow. From 2. 4 to 4. Meters wide, while the widest is Just over meters The streets and roads divide the town Into neat rectangular blocks called Insular Pompeii roads have deep wheel grooves caused by the constant stream of heavy wagons Harmfulness’s streets by contrast, ere less marked by traffic, had storm drains and an efficient underground sewer Pompeii streets had footpaths but drainage was so poor that stepping stones were placed across roads to allow people to cross Streets In Pommel were paved with large slabs of volcanic stone The roads were raised slightly In the middle so that water could run off to the edges Both cycles obtained their water from aqueducts Public toilets were common but private ones were only afforded by the extremely rich Pompeii and Herculean contained the following public areas and bulldogs Forum Basilica Amphitheaters Theaters Polestar Thermal (public baths) Commercial area Pompeii: earliest areas developed were those around the Forum and the Via Stamina insular and these were heavily influenced by the Greek principles of urban planning. Grid pattern (developed in other early roman towns) was not as precisely applied in Pompeii. Herculean followed the classical layout of Greek towns with narrow straight streets that divide the town into insular City gates were positioned at the end of the main roads e. Marine gate and Herculean gate in Pompeii The names of Pompeii streets are not known and the tourist site provides modern Italian Ames for them. In Pompeii the Via deliberation’s is one of the principal roads Some streets were for pedestrians only. For example, the main street at Herculean was used as its forum. Late 19th century – Fiercely introduced a system to locate houses and buildings on plans of the area Pompeii – divided into 9 regions and each separate block or insult within a region was given a number. Each doorway in an insult was also given a number. Egg. The House of Julia Felix’ became II, 4, 2, that is, located in region II, insult 4, doorway 2. 2. Investigating, reconstructing and preserving the past

Changing methods and contributions of 19th and 20th century archaeologists to our understanding of Pompeii and Herculean The archaeologists who worked at the sites during the 19th and 20th centuries all have made important and different contributions to our knowledge of Pompeii and Herculean. (19TH CENTURY: Positives Negatives Responsible for the mapping system 9 Sections, Insular, Doorway (1, 2, 6) The mapping system was for record keeping, classification and to maintain an ordered archaeological process (seen as a scientific approach) Excavated from the top down instead of horizontal. One section excavated totally before another was started.

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Block by block, room by room Gave street and gates modern names Plaster casts – revealed the final moment of the inhabitants Published his works Put a stop to the removal of items from the site Plaster casts – may have restricted our study of remains, hiding bones and other items Issues of preservation/conservation (lack of) – we must consider that he did not understand this at his time Giving the streets modern names was not so 20th century – 1911 – 1924) His work radically altered out concept of the way the houses and streetcar may eve looked Meticulous excavation methods – focused on the study the site as a whole not Just specific finds Excavations allowed the via deliberation’s to be reconstructed. Also showed how it was buried Excellent published records, photographs and scholarly work Focused on how roman houses operated, looked at the use of water, light and ventilation.

Looked at both levels of houses and tried to reconstruct balconies First to widely photograph the excavations and the site Guessed the functions on the purpose of shops Only excavated southern side of street- this led to the soil on the northern side to SSH out and damage the site Lack of conservation – over mom of the street excavated and left to exposure without much consideration to preservation (we must keep in mind he was being pressured for results by fascist government at the time and was only working with early 20th century knowledge) Too much focus on restoration – creating a faded Changing interpretations: impact of new research and technologies Archaeology at Pompeii and Herculean has changed because Archaeology has changed Archaeology now draws upon more specialists fields than even before

Artists, pathologists, forensic scientists, anthropologists, zoologists, botanists, paleontologists, geologists, geneticists, demonstrability’s and numerous others now take on roles in the archaeological sphere New technologies have also made a huge impact upon archaeology and Pompeii and Herculean. Technology such as: use of computers for storage, recording, drawings, modeling, communication and mapping. Medical imaging through x-rays, CT scanning and MR. scanning have all been used to gain insights into not only human remains but other objects such as papyri. Infra-red imaging, spectral imaging, high resolution photography, CAD or computer aided design have all opened up new information and interpretations.

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