Civilization is a word that has been derived from a Latin word Civis. Civilization can be defined as a human society where high level of science, culture, government and industries exists. A civilization takes thousands of years to develop and each of these have distinct culture , moral , values and norms that distinguishes one from other .There are a lot of civilization that we come across each day such has Indus Civilization , Gandhara Civilization , Maya Civilization ,Western Civilization , Greek Civilization , etc( Spielvogel 2008) .
The essence of any civilization is that they have Human societies where people are organized in groups rather than operating separately. By organized in a group and working with each other has many advantages for everyone. People can trade among themselves for compensations and also for acquiring goods and services that are needed by them( Freud & Menand 2005).Specialization by people in diverse areas can also be helpful for the entire society as new and distinct products will be manufacture that can help raise the standard of living . The government also plays an important role in any Civilizations by making life safer for the people and by punishing wrongdoers.
Culture of a society can also identify the civilization it belongs to because each civilization has its own unique culture. The way literatures are written, religion is practiced, etc uniquely identifies the civilization and also describes the majority stages the civilization is at (Crouch 2008).
Each of the well known civilizations of the world is known by their distinct features of elements. Here some of these elements discussed briefly
Culture: Each of the civilization had its own distinct culture , the way of living, the clothing they used , and the kind of foods they ate , are all different for each of the civilizations mentioned earlier. Architecture: Each civilization had its own distinct architecture , the Maya civilization had tall buildings build where as in the Egyptian civilization the pyramid structure still are prominent
Religion: Each of the well established civilizations had well established religion and even some of the civilizations were based totally on religion such as Islamic and Hindu civilization, in both of these civilizations the religion has played a central part. (Adler & Pouwels 2007)
Economics: The trade and commerce of each civilization was different, with almost all of them trading and cultivating
Science and technology : Advancements were made in technology and science to improve the living standards of the people , The people of the established civilizations benefitted with these and their life improved, several renowned scientists can be traced to the Islamic civilization which progressed in the fields of biology, astronomy, medicine etc
Warfare: the advance warfare techniques were developed for the survival of these civilizations
Furthermore each of these civilizations had these features too
Advanced cities - center of trade producing a variety of goods , Specialized work force ,Well established governments, Record keeping for history, taxes, religious records
ARTS AND LITERATURE:
The people of these civilizations produced scripture, music, calligraphy reflecting their needs and their creativity.
Adler, P.J. & Pouwels , R.L., 2007. World Civilizations: Volume I: To 1700. Wadsworth Publishing Crouch, A., 2008. Culture Making: Recovering Our Creative Calling. IVP Books Spielvogel, J.J., 2008. Western Civilization. Wadsworth Publishing