Civilization- Case Study: Ur in Sumer
What made the task of farming easier?
new tools- hoes, sickles, and plow sticks
What did ancient people do in larger villages to cultivate more land and produce extra crops?
What did food surpluses allow villagers to do?
pursue other jobs and skills other than farming
name some examples of specific craftsperson jobs:
pottery, metal objects, woven cloth
What two important inventions enabled transportation?
the wheel and the sail
What became more clearly defined socially when cities grew?
What changes occured with religion during the New Stone Age?
worshiped gods who they believed had power over forces of nature
List the five characteristics of a civilization.
1) Advanced cities
2) Specialized workers
3) Complex institutions
4) Record keeping
5) advanced technology
What determines a city from a town?
not population alone. It is that a city is the center of trade for a much larger area
the development of skills in a specific kind of work
skilled workers who make goods by hand
a long lasting pattern of organization in a community
examples of complex institutions are:
govenment, religion, economy
What id the Sumerian’s believe religious-wise?
that every city belonged to a god who governed the city’s activites
What purposes did the temple serve in Sumer
hub of government, religion, and economy
What are three examples of government record keeping
tax collections, laws, storage of grain
What are two examples of Religious record keeping
calendar and rituals
What are two examples of merchant record keeping
accounts of debts and payments
professional record keepers
wedged shaped Sumerian writing with pictographs
What form of writing was made by a sharpened reed with a wedge point called a stylus making imprints into clay. The writing was then baked in the sun to be preserved.
What other reasons besides record keeping would people write?
dramatic events- wars, nat disasters, reign of kings
What civilization made the first potter’s wheel?
time when people started using bronze to make tols
Where did the bronze age begin?
What was the earliest Sumerian cities and where was it located
Ur, along the Euphrates River
What provided Ur with food surpluses and kept the economy thriving?
Describe the city setup in Ur
wide dirt road leads from the field s to the city wall. Windowless one story box like tightly packed houses. Some live in two story houses w/ a courtyard
Was money invented at the time of Ur?
trading goods and services w/out money
pyramid shaped monument
Describe the ziggurats usage in daily Sumerian life
city within a city surrounded by a heavy wall. 1oo stairs lead to the top and a priest will climb up it. There is also grain woven fabric and gem storage for the city’s gods
What did the Sumerians believe you went after your life was over
to an afterlife