We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy

See Pricing

What's Your Topic?

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

What's Your Deadline?

Choose 3 Hours or More.
Back
2/4 steps

How Many Pages?

Back
3/4 steps

Sign Up and See Pricing

"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Back
Get Offer

Coaching Model for school Improvement

Hire a Professional Writer Now

The input space is limited by 250 symbols

Deadline:2 days left
"You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy"
Write my paper

1.0 Introduction

            In the recent past, education research has concluded that staff development through workshops and conferences is not effective any more. This has bee the traditional method used in the education sector and even teachers have agreed that the method no longer offers the sustained opportunities for collaboration, feedback or even the much needed reflection that would be essential in changing the classroom practice.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Coaching Model for school Improvement
Just from $13,9/Page
Get custom paper

            This has necessitated and seen to the emergence of a new method of professional learning in school institutions.

Instead of conferences and workshops that were previously used, institutions have now employed school-based staff developers. Peer coaching has been adopted as a method for peer coaching. San Diego and Boston School districts are examples of the pioneers of the methodology, though they are just two of the many school districts using the method now.

            The shift from the traditional method to peer coaching has been dictated by a number of factors. Research in education institutions has shown that this is the effective method for staff development as it meets the needs of the teachers and is successful in shaping classroom practice.

It is clear from this research that the workshops and conferences which constitute the traditional method of staff development do not provide enough time, activities and content that is necessary for promotion of change. Only a small percentage of staff implements what they learn from the traditional methods in their classroom practice. The teachers do not acquire necessary skills and knowledge for the implementation of the new knowledge and attempts to do so are thwarted by a lack of feedback. Staff needs to have time to evaluate new strategies reproduced in the classroom besides an opportunity to use learnt skill for the implementation of learning activities.

2.0 Coaching for school improvement

            Coaching might be the most successful way in which teachers who are reluctant can be turned into passionate users of new technology. In order for a coaching program to be launched, a school district sets aside some funds for full time coaches. A coach can have a team of about 20 to 30 teachers under him. The main goal is to reach out to as many teachers as possible. For every coaching project, there is a planning session. The coach and the teachers identify the main areas of interest that would require the services of the coach. Both parties then develop a strategy for execution of the plan[1][2].

School-based coaching has been found to be consistent with the standards set for effective development of staff by the National Staff Development Council (NSDC)[3]. Coaching was one of the recommendations by NSDC. According to the council, coaching benefits the students, the curriculum as well as the teachers[4].

            Coaching, as has been written by Showers and Joyce, has the best advantage at changing the behavior of teachers as compared to other learning strategies for adults[5]. There are several coaching programs and some are seen to be more effective than others. In order for a coaching program to be successful, there are a number of factors to be considered.

2.1 Framework for coaching model

2.1.1 Factors associated with coaching success

Effective monitors
In any learning environment, learning is enhanced if the learners are at ease. The most effective coaches begin by putting their partners at ease. School leaders might be tempted to employ the services of the most experienced and qualified coaches. However, this would not work as well as if the coaches hired are diplomatic, tactful and relate well with their subjects. These qualities build trust in the partners who are working together with the coaches. Leaders are therefore advised to be cautious about promoting teachers on the basis of their performance and attitude. This could result in jeopardizing the relationship they have with their peers[6].

Planning
In any coaching program, the coach must involve the peers in planning for it. More often than not, classroom teachers look at the coach as a person who should teach the students in the classroom. Consequently, instead of participating fully in the design as well as the delivery of the program they might find it more appropriate to sit at the back of the classroom as silent listeners while the coach goes about offering their scheduled reprieve to the only too willing students. They lack the understanding that even in the presence of the coach, they are still the classroom teachers.

Job description
The performance of coaches is enhanced if there is a job description in print which can be handed to the partners in a program. The principle should also have a copy of the job description. Since this is not a common program, there are school districts that have not yet been exposed to it. In this case, if the program is introduced to a school district, there might be misunderstanding on the purpose the program is aimed at serving. With a clear job description though, it is possible to lay out the map on what the coach does. The job description will also spell out the role of the partners in the program. In some school districts, the job description also shows what the coach is not expected to do. The map is therefore a useful tool that assists in the development of a good working relationship between the coach and his partners[7].

Team work
In an institution where the services of a coach are employed, there are obviously subject teachers. The coach does not come to replace the teachers in any way. They are partners and not substitutes for the present teaching staff. The coach and the teachers therefore should share the classroom responsibilities. The two parties participate actively in developing and testing out the lessons at the learning institution. Both are teachers as much as they are inventors in the program[8].

Respect
Most of the time, teachers reject the services of a coach because of the attitude of the latter. This is an area that McKenzie cautions about. He says that many of the teachers in the learning institutions are very effective in what they do and are talented professionals. He therefore puts it forth that if coaches think of themselves and play their role as correcting insufficiencies, there is little chance that they will succeed in creating a good partner relationship with their peers. It is therefore necessary to be on the same level with the teaching staff if any successful progress is to be made.

Time
By joining the time required to invent in the program and implement it, shared ownership and a feeling of partnership is increased. McKenzie says that the coach and the teachers often need time way from the classroom in order to plan and strategize. Without such a provision to plan time together, there is every possibility that the coach will step in and get into the classroom with a planned lesson which the partner has not participated in developing.

Clear expectations
In a coaching program, nobody is exempted and all the parties should participate actively. The school districts often clarify the expectations for every level of the curriculum where the teaching staff is expected to translate the expectations into reality in the classroom[9]. Annual professional growth plans make this commitment to learning formal and this is shared between the teaching staff and the principal or school leader. The most important issue is when and how a teacher will participate in the program.

Support for the program
In a coaching program, the coach and the partners both have responsibilities and duties to play. The coach is needed for the encouragement he provides to the staff. He also contributes knowledge that is aimed at helping the partner to find new ways for the achievement of success in the classroom. On the other hand, it is the duty of the coaching partner to provide curriculum know-how and the experience he has to guide the process. There are two professionals involved and both aim at finding the best ways to deliver to the students.

Customization
New methods are often difficult to implement. In order for the coaching methodology to be successful, the coaching experience should be well matched with the style which the partner has been using as well as the partner’s characteristics. The coach can not force the partner to teach in his way and style. The classroom teacher definitely has his way too. The role of the coach is to introduce ways that will work together with the style of the classroom teacher without disrupting the norm. The method which is shown by a coach should only help the teacher to broaden his own style and make it better. For example, a teacher might be used to a style of direct instruction and come to find that students are actually more comfortable with a student learning style[10].

Deliverance
The coach delivers what he has to but ultimately, the goal is to pass on the responsibility for the continued success of the classroom to the coaching partner. The coaching program is only a support program for staff development. It in no way replaces or substitutes classroom teaching. The coach works with a group for a certain period of time but then moves on to another group and leaves the staff to go on with the implementation of the new-gained knowledge. The coaching partner then continues with the extension of the strategies learnt to other lessons. The coach might return to the same group of teachers but it is only to carry on a different unit of the coaching program and not to repeat a previous one.

Assessment
Like in any activity where progress is expected, the coaching program has to be assessed for progress. There has to be a system that evaluates change. Failure to follow up on the implemented methodology might result in ineffectiveness. The coach should take it upon himself to make regular reports to school administration on the progress being made. This is compared with the curriculum expectations to determine whether it is a worthy course or not.

2.1.2 John P. Kotter’s 8-step change model

            Heraclitus, the Greek philosopher said that change is the only constant. John Kotter came up with a model for the powerful and successful implementation of change. This is what is called Kotter’s 8-step change model. In order to implement change, there is need to consider a number of factors. Among them is who to involve in the process of change, where to start and how to go about the whole process. Many theories have been developed concerning the implementation of change. Kotter is one of the proponents of the theories. He is a professor at the Harvard Business School and an expert at change. His model of change is introduced in his book ‘Leading Change’. The model involves eight steps[11].

Step 1: Create urgency

            Change takes place if the whole of the involved institution is interested. There is therefore need to develop some sense of urgency within the institution for the need for change. This helps in initiating and speeding the process of change. The school administration has a duty here to open dialogue with the teaching staff concerning the competition from other institutions. Having ignited the debate, people might begin to see the need for this change and therefore will welcome the idea.

            It is necessary in sparking the need for change to identify potential threats and also show the teaching staff the possibility of those threats in the future. In addition, it helps to examine the opportunities that can be exploited before starting honest debate on the giving solid reasons for people to embrace the change. According to Kotter, change will only be successful if three quarters of the institution begins to see the need for change. Preparing to initiate change is the most difficult process and if the wrong steps are taken, the whole process could end up being a failure. In this case, introducing a new person who is seen as coming to threaten the career of other teachers could be resisted from the word go.

Step two: Creating a powerful alliance.

            This involves convincing staff on the need for change. This requires a powerful leadership and evident support from the powerful members of staff. There has to be a leader in the process of change. Change does not have to be initiated by the administration. There are other influential people in the school institutions and districts. All the initiator of change needs to do is establish a support team made up of influential people in the institution. Positions of influence could stem from status, expertise in the field and even the job title. After establishing the need for change, the support team needs to work as one. At this point, the group can identify a leader; someone who can organize and show the way. The group should then work on tem building. The coach and the partners in this case are the key players. They identify the weak areas in the school and ensure that the people they are working with are from various departments and different levels. Change will then be effective if this is done.

Step 3: Creating a vision

            The thought of change draws out very many ideas and solutions. The many concepts ought to be linked and made into an overall vision for the group. Here, it is not just the responsibility of the coach to come up with ideas. The partners are also required to participate and contribute to the invention of a vision that will aid in the implementation of change. To note is the fact that this change involves everybody. The vision should be one which the clients and the coach can grasp and comprehend with ease.

            A clear vision helps every person involved to understand why they are required to do things differently. It aids the people involved to see for themselves what they are being asked to do and what they will eventually achieve. The decree then appears to make more sense to them. In the founding of a vision, it is essential to determine those values that are most important for change to occur. The group also needs to come up with a summary of the main perception of the goal for the learning institution. The group requires a strategy for the execution of that vision and regular reminder of that vision.

Step 4: Communicating the vision

            The vision can not achieve the goals of the team without working towards it. While the message may be opposed on a daily basis within the learning institution, there is need to communicate it as often as possible to the group. The vision should be entrenched in the daily activities of the institution. This does not mean that there should be meeting now and then to communicate the vision.  It means that the coach should take every chance to talk about it to the rest of the staff. The vision should be used to make decisions and solve daily problems. Keeping it fresh in the minds of the clients makes them remember and respond[12].

            Besides talking about it, it is necessary to act according to the vision. People will believe the coach more if what he does parallels what he preaches. Demonstration will elicit desired response[13][14]. This also has to show positive results or else people will despise the idea. The coach should address the concerns staff has over the program openly and honestly. Leading by example is the most effective tool.

Step 5: Getting rid of obstacles

            To get to this level, it would only prove that one has been able to maneuver through all the other four stages. It implies that the coach as well as the initiators of change at the institutions have frequently communicated the vision and also built support from the various departments in the learning institution. The staff might want to buy the idea and continue with its implementation.

            However, there are always people wanting to resist change for whatever reason. The coach and his team should constantly check for obstacles in the implementation of the coaching program. By getting rd of the barriers, the people involved in the program are empowered to carry on with the venture. This is an advantage to the execution of change.

            The coach should identify leaders of change. These people will work closely with him to ensure that the activity is a success. The set vision should agree with the job description and the set school structure. In order to promote change, those who are involved should be rewarded so that they are also encouraged. This works in reducing the possible barriers. In line with this, the resistors of change should be identify and assisted to see the sense in change. Hesitating in removing barriers could complicate the process and even slow down change.

Step 6: Creating short-term wins[15]

            Rewards motivate people. However, success is a better motivator. In the early period during the process of change, the institution should be given a taste of eventual success. The teaching staff, who are the partners in the coaching program, want to know that their efforts are fruitful. If this does not happen, they might join the resisting team.

            For this reason, it would be wise to have short-term goals. Every small target set should be easy to achieve with little room for failure. The little successes motivate the team to go for the ultimate goal. The set targets should be easily affordable and the team should be able to analyze the pros and cons.

Step 7: Building on the change

            Sometimes people tend to think that they have success too early in the process. This leads to failure. Even when the short-term wins have been made, there is still the ultimate goal to be achieved. The vision set should guide in getting there. Improvements should be marked every so often to gauge the progress being made. The small successes should enable one to analyze what needs to be changed and what is right. Integrating new ideas helps to improve the process.

Step 8: Attach the changes to the existing culture

            Once change has been successful, it is important to make it permanent. The values that were in the vision should be visible in the daily routine at the learning institution. The change should therefore be monitored. The administration has a duty to support the change and pass it on to succeeding leaders.

            The coach has a lot to do to ensure that the institution is changed successfully. Planning makes implementation easier and the chances for success are improved. Patience also works with not being excessively expectant.

            To summarize the 8-step process, the coach should lead his team to create a sense of urgency for change, establish a practicable vision and talk it, get rid of obstacles, create short-term goals and then work towards the success of the project[16].

3.0 Effects of peer coaching

3.1 Academic performance

            Peer coaching is mainly aimed at development of staff. It therefore raises concern over whether it had any effect on academic performance among the students. As it improves the staff performance, peer coaching should also be seen to produce results in academic achievement. Research has shown that it actually does affect student learning. Richard notes that peer coaching produced academic results in San Diego School District[17]. Guiney agrees with this and cites Boston Public Schools. He looked into the impact of literacy coaching in the schools and came to the conclusion that most of the district’s schools had shown remarkable improvement in the state tests. The improvement was attributed to the teachers work through their coaches[18]. Branigan confirms this by adding that the EMINTs program in Missouri which includes computer technology, an approach based on inquiry and extensive development of professionalism produced remarkable results in the Missouri Assessment Program.[19]

            In spite of the research findings however, there is no evidence yet that coaching alone can produce impressive academic results. Researchers however agree that coaching is the reason for increased instructional capacity of the teachers as well as the schools. This increases learning. This finding is almost unanimous.

3.2 Effect on teacher practice

            On the other hand, it has also been found out that coaching improves the ability of teachers in the adoption and implementation of new teaching as well as learning practices. Joyce and Showers compared teachers who had worked with coaches to those who had not and found out the following on the former[20]:

They implemented new strategies more often and with greater skill
The teachers retained and enhanced the skills they had
They expressed a vivid comprehension of the function and purpose of new strategies more
According to the two researchers, traditional methods of staff development when combined with the coaching method saw teachers implementing new strategies in the classroom. Teachers need to be provided with an opportunity for discussion and reflection in order to enable change in the classroom practice. Coaching provides such an opportunity for collaboration. It provides teachers with opportunities to participate in discussion, planning, observation of other professionals, observation by others and feedback[21]. According to Showers and Joyce, teachers in the same school who are involved in coaching have a chance to discuss concepts and skills as well as the problems that come up with the experiences in professional development. They can share materials and requirements for evaluation.

3.3 Integration of technology

            Peer coaching helps teachers to integrate technology into their teaching practices besides improving teachers in a variety of other ways. Teachers have previously depended on technical support in their use of new technology. However, they also need instructional support for the sustenance of projects and interdisciplinary instruction[22]. Peer coaching provides this support.

4.0 Challenges faced in coaching

            Introducing coaching in school districts can be very challenging beginning with the fact that it faces resistance from the teaching staff. This is despite the fact that the program has been vouched for in many school districts. On the part of the coach, it takes a lot of effort, talent and persistence to maneuver through the many barriers that are likely to come up whenever a coach is employed as a resource with the aim of supporting the development of staff. The barriers might not be observable but they often work against the influence which coaching programs are supposed to have in a school institution. McKenzie says that some of the challenges completely bar any efforts to implement the program[23].

Concerns over privacy
Teaching is often accompanied by some form of job privacy. This is enjoyed by a majority of people in the profession. The privacy comes with the ability to lock out another adult in the classroom where one is carrying out their instruction. Some teachers find it valuable to welcome visitors into their private space which in this case is the classroom. They welcome the idea of new methods and a break from the norm. However, others are very stubborn about invasion of their privacy. These do not welcome the idea of another adult within their sphere of influence.

A feeling of intimidation
In most of the learning institutions, there is a class structure which is not influenced by the skills one may have. If one teacher is therefore presented as better than others in the same teaching staff, conflict may arise. Such conflicts are likely to destabilize the value of teaching. Branigan says that if a coach is for instance younger than the rest of the staff as well as talented, others may teach him a few things about being in power[24]. The partners are likely to resent the need fort help and even go to the extent of chastising the coach for going against the established order.

Ego
In the teaching profession, there are obviously people who have been employed for many years. They have spent all their time trying to create an image as professionals in their field. They are therefore reluctant to let go of this image they have spent years creating for nay reason at all. Years of learning and reflective learning might be signs of professionalism and mastery in the field. For this reason, coaching is despised as mutilation of the built career and an embarrassment. Coaching is a threat to the ego these people have and might therefore be resisted.

Comfort zone
Like threatening the ego, coaching is a cause for discomfort. While the teacher in the classroom has gone through a teaching course and qualified as a professional in the field, some may look at coaching as an intimidating venture questioning one’s professionalism. A coach more often than not demands that the partners leave their comfort zones and welcome new territory. The offer of support provided by the coach may be seen as threatening and not as reassuring as it is meant to be.

Professionalism
Coaching programs should provide coaches and their team of partners with opportunities to look at the change process from a distance. This is the moment to evaluate those strategies that seem to work and those that should be turned away from. It is also a chance to think of ways to involve the administration in the program. With time, there are also new inventions and this moment is appropriate to think of integrating new ideas. At this point, it is possible for the coaching partners to reject the whole idea as a waste of time[25]. It is the duty of coaches to evaluate and come up with strategies to overcome barriers in the coaching programs.

5.0 Conclusion

            Peer coaching is becoming increasingly popular in American schools. Research has showed that is it a methodology which has been proved to be effective in changing teacher practice in the classroom. The experience that the schools that have implemented the methodology have had show that it is a tool that ought to be put into place as a foundation for the success of teaching and learning. Coaching can however only be effective if its implementation is integrated with the educational goals of a school, the resources in that particular learning institution as well as the school budget. The methodology is a powerful tool for improving instruction and by extension the performance of students.

            For any coaching program to be effective therefore, there are a number aspect of to remember. Coaches should not appear to be directive or pushing their partners to the wall. In their role, they should be facilitators. Their aim is to help learning institutions to identify their own goals, values, approaches and opportunities and work towards achieving them. In addition, the coach should take it upon themselves to learn the process of the school improvement. This will help them to go into a situation and identify quickly the position of the school and therefore the appropriate steps to take. More to this is the need to aim at working for themselves out of a job. The coach should, in the process of coaching, build capabilities within the learning institution. This will lead to the emergence of new leaders that are capable of sustaining improvement. Again, coaches ought to be very clear about the roles they are playing. This applies both within themselves as well as with the clients they are working with.

Effective coaches are always confident with themselves and about what they are doing. They are committed to collaboration in a team and helpful in achieving the goals of the program. Besides, they are inspired and passionate about acquiring new knowledge and ideas. They also seek to build confidence in their clients. They are experienced in using information and are comfortable asking questions where they do not know. They are patient but portray a character of persistence. More to this is the fact that they are assertive in their work, self-motivated and curious.

Reference:

Branigan, C. (2002). Study: Missouri’s ed-tech program is raising student achievement.

eSchool News Online.  Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www. Eschoolnews.com/news/showStory.cfm?ArticleID=3673

Carey, N., & Frechtling, J. (1997). Best practices in action: Follow-up survey on teacher

enhancement programs. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

Darling-Hammond, L. (1997). The right to learn: A blueprint for creating schools that

work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Guiney, E. (2001). Coaching isn’t just for athletes: The role of teacher leaders. Phil Delta

Kappan, 82 (10). This is also the view held by McKenzie as he writes in his book: How teachers learn technology best.

Joyce, B. & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through professional development.

In B. Joyce & B. Showers (Eds.) Designing training and peer coaching: Our need for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for supervision and curriculum development.

Kotter’s 8-step change model: Implementing change powerfully and successfully.

Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_82.htm . The following eight steps are got from Kotter’s 8 step model of change

Lieberman, A., Saxl, E. & Miles, M. (1988). Teacher leadership: Ideology and practice.

In A. Lieberman (Ed.),  Building a professional culture in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.

McKenzie, Jamie. (1999). How teachers learn technology best.

Porter,A. (1986). Teacher collaboration: New partnership to attract old problems.

Kappan, 69 (2), 147152.

Richard, Alan. (2003). Making our own way: The emergence of school-based staff

developers in America’s public schools.

Robertson, J. M. Coaching leaders: The path to improvement. In Robert, J. M. (1999).

Principals working with principals: Keeping education at the centre of practice. Research Information for teachers, 1 (9).

Russo, A. (2004). School-based coaching. Harvard Education Letter Research Online.

White, N., Ringstaff, C. &Kelley, L. (2002). Getting the most from technology in

schools. Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/kn-02-01.pdf.

[1] Lieberman, A., Saxl, E. & Miles, M. (1988). Teacher leadership: Ideology and practice. In A. Lieberman (Ed.),  Building a professional culture in schools. New York: Teachers College Press.
[2] Porter,A. (1986). Teacher collaboration: New partnership to attract old problems. Kappan, 69 (2), 147152.
[3] NSDC has conducted research for more than ten years on professional development with an aim at improving the quality of professional development of teachers.
[4] Russo, A. (2004). School-based coaching. Harvard Education Letter Research Online.
[5] Joyce, B. & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through professional development. In B. Joyce & B. Showers (Eds.) Designing training and peer coaching: Our need for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for supervision and curriculum development.

[6] McKenzie, Jamie. (1999). How teachers learn technology best: Chapter 12: Coaching for a change.
[7] McKenzie, Jamie. (1999). How teachers learn technology best.
[8] Guiney, E. (2001). Coaching isn’t just for athletes: The role of teacher leaders. Phil Delta Kappan, 82 (10). This is also the view held by McKenzie as he writes in his book: How teachers learn technology best.
[9] McKenzie says that in America, teachers are given two to three years to translate the expectations of a coaching program into a classroom reality.
[10] McKenzie, Jamie. (1999). How teachers learn technology best.

[11] Kotter’s 8-step change model: Implementing change powerfully and successfully. Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_82.htm . The following eight steps are got from Kotter’s 8 step model of change
[12] Kotter’s 8-step change model: Implementing change powerfully and successfully. Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_82.htm
[13] Guiney, E. (2001). Coaching isn’t just for athletes: The role of teacher leaders. Phil Delta Kappan, 82 (10).
[14] This is illustrated also in Kotter’s model.
[15] Kotter’s 8-step change model: Implementing change powerfully and successfully. Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_82.htm
[16] Kotter’s 8-step change model: Implementing change powerfully and successfully. Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newPPM_82.htm
[17] Richard, Alan. (2003). Making our own way: The emergence of school-based staff developers in America’s public schools.
[18] Guiney, E. (2001). Coaching isn’t just for athletes: The role of teacher leaders. Phil Delta Kappan, 82 (10).
[19] Branigan, C. (2002). Study: Missouri’s ed-tech program is raising student achievement. eSchool News Online.  Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www. Eschoolnews.com/news/showStory.cfm?ArticleID=3673
[20] Joyce, B. & Showers, B. (2002). Student achievement through professional development. In B. Joyce & B. Showers (Eds.) Designing training and peer coaching: Our need for learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for supervision and curriculum development.
[21] Other researchers such as Carey and Frechtling, Darling-Hammond and Loucks-Horsley also concur with this finding.
[22] White, N., Ringstaff, C. &Kelley, L. (2002). Getting the most from technology in schools. Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www.wested.org/online_pubs/kn-02-01.pdf.
[23] McKenzie, Jamie. (1999). How teachers learn technology best.
[24] Branigan, C. (2002). Study: Missouri’s ed-tech program is raising student achievement. eSchool News Online.  Retrieved May 20, 2009 http://www. Eschoolnews.com/news/showStory.cfm?ArticleID=3673
[25] McKenzie, Jamie. (1999). How teachers learn technology best.

 

Cite this Coaching Model for school Improvement

Coaching Model for school Improvement. (2016, Sep 24). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/coaching-model-for-school-improvement/

Show less
  • Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay
  • Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself
  • Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay
  • Do not copy and paste free to download essays
Get plagiarism free essay

Search for essay samples now

Haven't found the Essay You Want?

Get my paper now

For Only $13.90/page