Cocaine in African American
Cocaine Dependence in Africa America
This is a research paper that will be dealing with cocaine dependence in Africa America. In the paper, the effects of Cocaine dependence in Africa America will be discussed such as destruction of family value system.
Arguments are to be supported with reasoned analysis and citations of relevant examples. The minority concern has to be clear in the paper. The major purpose of the paper is to show devastating effect cocaine has cause in African-American
For easier understanding definitions of some of the terms such as cocaine have to be included in the paper, the effect of cocaine dependence among the youth and how the state addresses and the steps they take regarding the intake of cocaine are major issue to be discussed.
Some of the effects of alcohol may be from the media so this paper has to include the way alcohol is advertised and the marketing strategies that are in African – American communities.
The person who becomes addicted to cocaine becomes a patient so ways of treating such a person are also an issue of to discussion.
Other issues to be included in the paper are:
Cocaine, abuse and addiction, how it is administered to an individual and the disorders it causes to the body of the victim who takes it
The scope of the use of cocaine in the U.S.A.
How it produces its effects, the short and long term effects of it to an individual or community.
The medical complications of cocaine abuse and the effective treatment for cocaine abusers. Also scientific information about cocaine abuse and addiction are some of the issues that will be revisited in the research paper.
The paper is supposed to be detailed and should have the introduction, body and conclusion whereby in the introduction a general overview of cocaine will be discussed. In the body all the other aspects mentioned have to be cited out and relevant quotations should be made. In the conclusion, importance and relevancy of the information has to be discussed and also the future research in the area.
The greatest problem that affects the African- American as a country is the addiction and the abuse of cocaine. In the America journal of drug and alcohol abuse, it explains the ideas between the various modalities involved in the study and treatment of drug abuse and alcoholism. In the early 1960’s few percentage such as 0.1 of youths engaged in the cocaine abuse but the percentage became 2.2 in the 1980’s to 1987. This percentage goes on becoming higher as time goes on.
It is well known how this drug affects the brains, how its effects are produced and the reason that makes it addictive.
The scientists through the improved technology can clearly see the changing effects in an individual’s brain who takes it and the changes in the brain that are in a person who has its craving.
When a cocaine addict hears or sees the stimuli of the environment, there are certain parts of the brains that become active and the scientists have away to identity these parts. This becomes difficult for scientists to come up with the proper medications.(Pena, 2000)
There is an organization by the name National Institution on Drug Abuse (NIDA) whose greatest role is to translate the research made by scientist so as to educate the public on the abuse of drugs addiction and their treatment and prevention.
Due to the widespread of crack cocaine use in African – American in the 198o’s the infection of HIV have increased due to the sexual contacts and other sexually transmitted diseases such as syphilis and gonorrhea. The widely affected people age the youth. These youth’s engage in cocaine taking due to peer pressure, frustrations caused by negligence by parents or lack of jobs hence find comfort in these drugs.
Cocaine was consumed by chewing the coca leaves so it ha no processing in South America until later when a European man by the name Albert Nelmann made powder cocaine from the cocaine leaves. Cocaine then started being used in different beverages and medicines products. There are variety forms of cocaine which include: cocaine sulfate, freebase, chewed/eaten, crack cocaine, smoked, injected and many more other forms of it.
According to Joyce N. Lowinson, In African –American, 1.4% of males use cocaine. In the US various stages have been undergone of denial criminalization and acceptance of drug abuse depending on moral inferiority and beliefs.
This is a stimulant that is addictive and it’s powerful and affects the brain directly. Its popularity in the 1980’s and 90’s made it to be labeled as a drug so it is not a new drug. Its first extraction was form the leaf which grows in Bolivia and Peru in the 19th century. Later in the 1990’s it became a stimulant that was main. It could be used to treat illness.
The basic forms of cocaine are the ‘free base’ and hydrochloride salt although there are also other forms such as the ones that were mentioned earlier in the introduction. (Matthew’s, 2001)
In hydrochloride salt it is dissolved in water and when it is abused can be taken through the vein whereby it is injected and it reaches the brain within second or by nose where it is snorted. Through the nose it is smoked by use of pipes that are made form glass tubes. In “Free base” it is smokable preferred and it’s taken through the lungs. Free-base cocaine is insoluble in water.
Cocaine can also be chewed or eaten the leaves and the chewed wad is left in the mouth. Cocaine is a white crystalline powder sold in the street. (Lafree,1999)
This is a freebase form name given in the streets for ready smokable hydrochloride cocaine. It is popular because it is smokable and it is inexpensive and is readily available.
This is the misuse of a drug for the purpose which it was not intended for.
How cocaine is used
The routes are oral, through the veins (intravenous), nose (intranasal) and through inhalation. It is mainly snorted, injected, smoked or chewed.
A combination with heroin and cocaine powder or crack is usually done by the users. The use of cocaine can be taken occasionally or compulsively. A part form medical use no other use of cocaine is safe. Any form of administration causes the toxic cocaine to be observed by the body and this might lead to a sudden death.
Short-term effects of cocaine
There appears after immediate dose and stays within few hours or minutes in the body. The user of cocaine feels energetic, mentally alert euphoric and talkative. The routine that the user for administration determines the duration. When taken fast, the intense becomes high.
The physiological effect of short-term effect are;- dilated pupils, heart rate, blood pressure, constricted blood vessels ad increased temperature. Large vessels and increased temperature. Large intakes may make the user to be erratic, have the user behaviors to be violent and may lead to bizarre.
The experiences these users may have are; vertigo muscles twitches, tremors or parasols.
Some cocaine users have reported feeling of irritability, restlessness and anxiety.
Long term – effect of cocaine
The user becomes addictive although taken in small quantities but frequently or on daily basis. The sensitivity to cocaine becomes high and this may lead to sudden death. Medical complications of abuse of cocaine
Several complications from the use of cocaine may include:-
Cardiovascular effects – these may make one have disturbances in the rhythm of heart and also attacks of the heart.
Gastrointestinal complication – these may include nausea and abdominal pain.
Respiratory effects – such as failure of the respiratory and pain in the chest.
Neurological effects – these are things like headaches, strokes and seizures.
The effect of maternal use of cocaine
Children born of mothers under the use of cocaine during pregnancy usually are delivered prematurely, in length are short, small head circumferences and their birth weights are low.
Having discussed the effects of cocaine abuse and some of the terms used attention will be switched on to the major purpose of the research of the paper which is cocaine dependence in African – Americans. (Randolph, 2007).
In the study of cocaine abusers, system by the name sub typing is being used to study and classify individual who have common characteristics or share. A greater understanding on sub typing alcoholics provides complex interactions between personality, environmental risk factors and the personality. One would like to know what alcoholism is?
Alcoholism – This is a condition where by the individuals has an excessive intake of beverage, beer, or any other kind of alcoholic drinks hence becoming addictive to that thing so that individual feels uncomfortable if he/she has not taken that substance. The effect of alcoholism is the feeling of the sufferer that he/she should drink even in unfavorable times.
Another thing of importance that one would like to be defined is drug addiction.
This is the condition whereby the individuals have a craving for the drug. The process of sub-typing assesses multiple characteristics of the individuals. Cocaine – abusers can be classified into two groups in the sub typing order of group A and group B.
In group A, the problem cause of cocaine taking is more on environmental while in group B it is more genetically. On gender type A female and male are equal but in type B male are more. The sub typing order reveals that the type A abuse substance is mainly influenced by the environment and the social relationship relative to personality and genetic factors. (Booker, 2000)
African-Americans and women are speculated to be more susceptible to the addiction of cocaine development for environmental culturally and socially determined reasons.
These classification procedures according to Dr. Roansaville must be made validated and made simple for the use of routine treatments. He hopes that insight advances for evaluation substance causes in treating the program should be added.
Cocaine dependence in African – American.
According to a journalist Patrick M.Relly and Michael S. Shopshire, says that the individuals who are cocaine independent have intense and frequent episode of anger than those people who can control their anger affectively.
Genetic research of cocaine abuse has been limited relatively among the African – American population.
In the African – American, the users of the substance form the largest group rate. Definition of the social use as low to moderate responsible use with no social legal, consequences, economic, or familiar consequences.
Increase drug tolerance and the symptoms withdrawal when the drug is stopped are the markers present are the development of physical dependence. In the study of African – American the data analysis is longitudinal. African – American use cocaine in various forms. They are over represented in the field of abuse of drugs.
Individuals who are traumatically exposed to events experience feeling of helplessness, horror or intense fear. Research studies have relationships between substances use and past traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
When these people are exposed to distressing stimuli, people with PTSD re-experience traumatic events. Although there are types of PTSD, some events seem more prominent than others. (Brooks, 2003).
In families of those people who take cocaine their usually be mis-understandings those people who take cocaine seems to be frustrated which may make them feel unwanted or un-accepted in the families. Cocaine blocks pain sensation, synoptic re-absorption in the brain and producing increase in heart breath, nervous system, blood pressure and temperature. When a person in the family is affected by these problems and there is no money to take the person to the hospital he/she might feel neglected hence hatred arises in the family members since the person feels neglected. This may also cause strain to the family to make sure the other member receives treatment.
The uses of cocaines in families have led to the increased number of divorces because one partner becomes violent simply because these people feel as if they are very energetic hence can fight anyone and they are also very irritable. Since the cocaine user feels all the time tired, if he/she is the bread winner will not be in a position to provide for the family and this makes the family to breakdown and if there are children in such a family they lack the basic needs such as clothing, food, shelter and education and this may make such children to end up to drugs or other kind of crimes for their survival.
Cocaine dependence in African –American of under oftening the efficiency of treatment maintenance. Patients receive a therapy of cognitive behavioural, occupation therapy and education on drugs. Some of the cause of youths takes cocaine and other drugs so that they can fit in to their other friends. An expert says that inert in and apathy are some of the factors that can make the kid adopt to consumption of cocaine. Also false or insufficient information regarding cocaine makes youth in African – American to take cocaine. Isolation and lack of interest can also be a cause of drug abuse. The minority users of cocaine are women according to researchers. For example the survey done by pounces e al (1996) surveyed 588 individuals who use cocaine. The least number of people to inject themselves are the women
The woman using inject able were introduced it by their sexual – partners. Students at Ontario recorded the highest number of students taking cocaine. According to (Incindi et al 1994), the expense of drugs promotes criminal activities. Those people taking the treatment of cocaine gives out the number of cocaine users. Prolonged use of cocaine makes individuals more vulnerable to develop PTSD.
The value of the family strategy on personality in African is impulsivity low, high harm and sensation seeking. In African – American, the intake of cocaine is for non-medical reasons. The consequences of cocaine use threatens the African – American in the geographic region, educational level, social – economic background, racial and ethnic identity and also affects the disproportionably use of cocaine as a drug.
In the neighborhoods where the market of cocaine is situated, violence and crime attendants are plagued out. (Corvo, 2000)
Those who lack plans for comprehensive health and have plans for comprehensive health and have fewer incomes have the risking of missing treatment programs every family is vulnerable. Cocaine dependence means that the user has strong emotional, physical and psychological argue of taking a drug. Use of cocaine interferes with ones life. The cocaine drug as earlier mention comes of the trees which mainly grow in South America called cola plant. (Caetana, 2001)
Since cocaine is a stimulant, it causes increased breathing, sleeplessness and increased energy. When taken in high dosage it can cause seizures and attacks. Crack has made widespread cocaine abuse because it is cheap cocaine that is smoked instead of snorting.
The sensitivity of some people to cocaine is higher than others. Death of people who are sensitive to cocaine can occur from intake of small amounts. Women taking cocaine during pregnancy are at a risk of miscarriage of their babies. The babies of these women who take cocaine becomes addicted right at birth. The brain chemicals are affected by cocaine that changes emotions and mood. First the user has enhanced steam, feels pleasure and has increased energy. Its can also affect sexual behaviour. A user of cocaine may feel depressed because he/she lacks the chemical messengers since cocaine keeps the brain form using and storing messages that enables a person to have good feelings.
Symptoms of prolonged use of cocaine are; lose of sex drive, makes a person have hallucinations, makes the user have a feeling of disorientation. Cocaine dependence treatment is ongoing and long-term.
Cocaine has a high potential for abuse in today’s world. Doctors can use it as treatment for medical uses like local anesthesia for some ear, throat and eye surgeries. Research has tried to understand how the effect of cocaine is produced and the reasons that make it so addictive. Through the discovery of scientists they have found out that the brain has some regions stimulated basically by rewards and this makes the brain to be affected. It has also revealed the danger of interaction between alcohol and cocaine.
The highest number of cocaine users is men although women and youth also are involved in the act (Bray, 2000)
Due to vulnerability of families to cocaine and other drugs, individuals should be committed to reduce these drugs and this should be the concern for every person.
To the African – Americans most cocaine users take tobacco cigarettes researchers have said that the consequences of cocaine are a chain of problems which may lead to death. Imprisonment, crimes accidents. Cocaine use can lead to the risk of HIV and hepatitis infection. Studies indicate that there is an association between treatment events and hard cores.
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Cite this Cocaine in African American
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