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Codex General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars

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CODEX GENERAL STANDARD FOR FRUIT JUICES AND NECTARS (CODEX STAN 247-2005) 1. SCOPE This Standard applies to all products as defined in Section 2. 1 below. 2. 2. 1 DESCRIPTION PRODUCT DEFINITION 2. 1. 1 Fruit Juice Fruit juice is the unfermented but fermentable liquid obtained from the edible part of sound, appropriately mature and fresh fruit or of fruit maintained in sound condition by suitable means including post harvest surface treatments applied in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Codex Alimentarius Commission.

Some juices may be processed with pips, seeds and peel, which are not usually incorporated in the juice, but some parts or components of pips, seeds and peel, which cannot be removed by Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) will be acceptable.

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The juice is prepared by suitable processes, which maintain the essential physical, chemical, organoleptical and nutritional characteristics of the juices of the fruit from which it comes.

The juice may be cloudy or clear and may have restored 1 aromatic substances and volatile flavour components, all of which must be obtained by suitable physical means, and all of which must be recovered from the same kind of fruit.

Pulp and cells 2 obtained by suitable physical means from the same kind of fruit may be added. A single juice is obtained from one kind of fruit. A mixed juice is obtained by blending two or more juices or juices and purees, from different kinds of fruit. Fruit juice is obtained as follows: 2. 1. 1. 1 Fruit juice directly expressed by mechanical extraction processes. . 1. 1. 2 Fruit juice from concentrate by reconstituting concentrated fruit juice defined in Section 2. 1. 2 with potable water that meets the criteria described in Section 3. 1. 1(c). 2. 1. 2 Concentrated Fruit Juice Concentrated fruit juice is the product that complies with the definition given in Section 2. 1. 1 above, except water has been physically removed in an amount sufficient to increase the Brix level to a value at least 50% greater than the Brix value established for reconstituted juice from the same fruit, as indicated in the Annex.

In the production of juice that is to be concentrated, suitable processes are used and may be combined with simultaneous diffusion of the pulp cells or fruit pulp by water provided that the water extracted soluble fruit solids are added in-line to the primary juice, before the concentration procedure. 1 2 Introduction of aromas and flavours are allowed to restore the level of these components up to the normal level attained in the same kind of fruit. For citrus fruits, pulp or cells are the juice sacs obtained from the endocarp.

This Standard supersedes individual standards for fruit juices and related products, as indicated below: Fruit juices preserved exclusively by physical means: orange juice (CODEX STAN 45-1981), grapefruit juice (CODEX STAN 46-1981), lemon juice (CODEX STAN 47-1981), apple juice (CODEX STAN 48-1981), tomato juice (CODEX STAN 49-1981), grape juice (CODEX STAN 82-1981), pineapple juice (CODEX STAN 85-1981), blackcurrant juice (CODEX STAN 120-1981) and General Standard for Fruit Juices not covered by Individual Standards (CODEX STAN 164-1989).

Concentrated fruit juices preserved exclusively by physical means: concentrated apple juice (CODEX STAN 63-1981), concentrated orange juice (CODEX STAN 64-1981), concentrated grape juice (CODEX STAN 83-1981), concentrated labrusca type grape juice, sweetened (CODEX STAN 84-1981), concentrated blackcurrant juice (CODEX STAN 121-1981) and concentrated pineapple juice (CODEX STAN 138-1983). Concentrated fruit juices with preservatives for manufacturing: concentrated pineapple juice (CODEX STAN 139-1983).

Fruit nectars preserved exclusively by physical means: apricot, peach and pear nectars (CODEX STAN 44-1981), guava nectar (CODEX STAN 1481985), non-pulpy blackcurrant nectar (CODEX STAN 101-1981), pulpy nectars of certain small fruits (CODEX STAN 122-1981), nectars of certain citrus fruits (CODEX STAN 134-1981), General Standard for Fruit Nectars not covered by Individual Standards (CODEX STAN 161-1989) and liquid pulpy mango products (CODEX STAN 149-1985). Guidelines: Guidelines for Mixed Fruit Juices (CAC/GL 11-1991) and Guidelines for Mixed Fruit Nectars (CAC/GL 12-1991).

CODEX STAN 247 Page 2 of 19 Fruit juice concentrates may have restored 1 aromatic substances and volatile flavour components, all of which must be obtained by suitable physical means, and all of which must be recovered from the same kind of fruit. Pulp and cells2 obtained by suitable physical means from the same kind of fruit may be added. 2. 1. 3 Water Extracted Fruit Juice Water Extracted Fruit Juice is the product obtained by diffusion with water of: – Pulpy whole fruit whose juice cannot be extracted by any physical means, or – Dehydrated whole fruit.

Such products may be concentrated and reconstituted. The solids content of the finished product shall meet the minimum Brix level for reconstituted juice specified in the Annex. 2. 1. 4 Fruit Puree for use in the manufacture of Fruit Juices and Nectars Fruit puree for use in the manufacture of Fruit Juices and Nectars is the unfermented but fermentable product obtained by suitable processes e. g. by sieving, grinding, milling the edible part of the whole or peeled fruit without removing the juice.

The fruit must be sound, appropriately mature, and fresh or preserved by physical means or by treatment(s) applied in accordance with the applicable provisions of the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Fruit puree may have restored 1 aromatic substances and volatile flavour components, all of which must be obtained by suitable physical means, and all of which must be recovered from the same kind of fruit. Pulp and cells2 obtained by suitable physical means from the same kind of fruit may be added. 2. 1. Concentrated Fruit Puree for use in the manufacture of Fruit Juices and Nectars Concentrated fruit puree for use in the manufacture of Fruit Juices and Nectars is obtained by the physical removal of water from the fruit puree in an amount sufficient to increase the Brix level to a value at least 50% greater than the Brix value established for reconstituted juice from the same fruit, as indicated in the Annex. Concentrated fruit puree may have restored 1 aromatic substances and volatile flavour components, all of which must be obtained by suitable physical means, and all of which must be ecovered from the same kind of fruit. 2. 1. 6 Fruit Nectar Fruit Nectar is the unfermented but fermentable product obtained by adding water with or without the addition of sugars as defined in Section 3. 1. 2(a), honey and/or syrups as described in Section 3. 1. 2(b), and/or food additive sweeteners as listed in the General Standard for Food Additives (GSFA) to products defined in Sections 2. 1. 1, 2. 1. 2, 2. 1. 3, 2. 1. 4 and 2. 1. 5 or to a mixture of those products.

Aromatic substances, volatile flavour components, pulp and cells2 all of which must be recovered from the same kind of fruit and be obtained by suitable physical means may be added. That product moreover must meet the requirements defined for fruit nectars in the Annex. A mixed fruit nectar is obtained from two or more different kinds of fruit. 2. 2 SPECIES The species indicated as the botanical name in the Annex shall be used in the preparation of fruit juices, fruit purees and fruit nectars bearing the product name for the applicable fruit.

For fruit species not included in the Annex, the correct botanical or common name shall apply. CODEX STAN 247 Page 3 of 19 3. 3. 1 ESSENTIAL COMPOSITION AND QUALITY FACTORS COMPOSITION 3. 1. 1 Basic Ingredients (a) For directly expressed fruit juices, the Brix level shall be the Brix as expressed from the fruit and the soluble solids content of the single strength juice shall not be modified, except by blendings with the juice of the same kind of fruit. b) The preparation of fruit juice that requires reconstitution of concentrated juices must be in accordance with the minimum Brix level established in the Annex, exclusive of the solids of any added optional ingredients and additives. If there is no Brix level specified in the Table, minimum Brix shall be calculated on the basis of the soluble solids content of the single strength juice used to produce such concentrated juice. (c) For reconstituted juice and nectar, the otable water used in reconstitution shall, at a minimum, meet the latest edition of the Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality of the World Health Organization (Volumes 1 and 2). 3. 1. 2 Other Permitted Ingredients Except as otherwise provided, the following shall be subject to ingredient labelling requirements: (a) Sugars with less than 2% moisture as defined in the Standard for Sugars (CODEX STAN 212-1999): sucrose 3 , dextrose anhydrous, glucose 4 , fructose, may be added to all products defined in Section 2. 1. (The addition of ingredients listed in Section 3. . 2(a) and 3. 1. 2(b) applies only to products intended for sale to the consumer or for catering purposes). (b) Syrups (as defined in the Standard for Sugars), liquid sucrose, invert sugar solution, invert sugar syrup, fructose syrup, liquid cane sugar, isoglucose and high fructose syrup may be added only to fruit juice from concentrate, as defined in Section 2. 1. 1. 2, concentrated fruit juices, as defined in Section 2. 1. 2, concentrated fruit puree as defined in Section 2. 1. 5, and fruit nectars as defined in Section 2. 1. 6.

Honey and/or sugars derived from fruits may be added only to fruit nectars as defined in Section 2. 1. 6. (c) Subject to national legislation of the importing country, lemon (Citrus limon (L. ) Burm. f. Citrus limonum Rissa) juice or lime (Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. )) juice, or both, may be added to fruit juice up to 3 g/l anhydrous citric acid equivalent for acidification purposes to unsweetened juices as defined in Sections 2. 1. 1, 2. 1. 2, 2. 1. 3, 2. 1. 4 and 2. 1. 5. Lemon juice or limejuice, or both, may be added up to 5 g/l anhydrous citric acid equivalent to fruit nectars as defined in Section 2. . 6. (d) The addition of both sugars (defined in subparagraphs (a) and (b)) and acidifying agents (listed in the GSFA) to the same fruit juice is prohibited. (e) Subject to national legislation of the importing country, the juice from Citrus reticulata and/or hybrids with reticulata may be added to orange juice in an amount not to exceed 10% of soluble solids of the reticulata to the total of soluble solids of orange juice. (f) Salt and spices and aromatic herbs (and their natural extracts) may be added to tomato juice. (g) For the purposes of product fortification, essential nutrients (e. . vitamins, minerals) may be added to products defined in Section 2. 1. Such additions shall comply with the texts of the Codex Alimentarius Commission established for this purpose. 3. 2 QUALITY CRITERIA The fruit juices and fruit nectars shall have the characteristic colour, aroma and flavour of juice from the same kind of fruit from which it is made. The fruit shall retain no more water from washing, steaming or other preparatory operations than technologically unavoidable. 3 4 Termed “white sugar” and “mill sugar” in the Standard for Sugars (CODEX STAN 212-1999).

Termed “dextrose anhydrous” in the Standard for Sugars (CODEX STAN 212-1999). CODEX STAN 247 Page 4 of 19 3. 3 AUTHENTICITY Authenticity is the maintenance of the product’s essential physical, chemical, organoleptical, and nutritional characteristics of the fruit(s) from which it comes. 3. 4 VERIFICATION OF COMPOSITION, QUALITY AND AUTHENTICITY Fruit juices and nectars should be subject to testing for authenticity, composition, and quality where applicable and where required. The analytical methods used should be those found in Section 9, Methods of Analysis and Sampling.

The verification of a sample’s authenticity/quality can be assessed by comparison of data for the sample, generated using appropriate methods included in the Standard, with that produced for fruit of the same type and from the same region, allowing for natural variations, seasonal changes and for variations occurring due to processing. 4. FOOD ADDITIVES Food additives listed in Tables 1 and 2 of the General Standard for Food Additives in Food Categories 14. 1. 2. 1 (Fruit juice), 14. 1. 2. 3 (Concentrates for fruit juice), 14. 1. 3. 1 (Fruit nectar) and 14. 1. 3. 3 (Concentrates for fruit nectar) may be used in foods subject to this Standard. . PROCESSING AIDS – Maximum Level of Use in line with Good Manufacturing Practices Function Antifoaming Agent Substance Polydimethylsiloxane Adsorbent clays (bleaching, natural or activated earths) Adsorbent resins Activated carbon (only from plants) Bentonite Calcium hydroxide 6 Cellulose Chitosan Colloidal silica Diatomaceous earth Gelatin (from skin collagen) Ion exchange resins (cation and anion) Isinglass 7 Kaolin Perlite Polyvinylpolypyrrolidone Potassium casseinate7 Potassium tartrate6 Precipitated calcium carbonate6 Rice hulls Silicasol Sodium caseinate7 Sulphur dioxide6, 8 Tannin 5

Clarifying Agents Filtration Aids Flocculating Agents 5 6 7 8 10 mg/l is the maximum residue limit of the compound allowed in the final product. Only in grape juice. Use of these processing aids should take into account their allergenic potential. If there is any carry over of these processing aids into finished product, they are subject to ingredient declaration in accordance with Sections 4. 2. 1. 4 and 4. 2. 4 of the of the General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods. 10 mg/l (as residual SO2). CODEX STAN 247

Page 5 of 19 Function Enzyme preparations 9 Packing gas 10 6. 6. 1 Substance Pectinases (for breakdown of pectin), Proteinases (for breakdown of proteins), Amylases (for breakdown of starch) and Cellulases (limited use to facilitate disruption of cell walls). Nitrogen Carbon dioxide CONTAMINANTS PESTICIDE RESIDUES The products covered by the provisions of this Standard should comply with those maximum residue limits for pesticides established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for these products. 6. 2 OTHER CONTAMINANTS

The products covered by the provisions of this Standard should comply with those maximumm levels for contaminants established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission for these products. 7. HYGIENE 7. 1 It is recommended that the products covered by the provisions of this Standard be prepared and handled in accordance with the appropriate sections of the Recommended International Code of Practice – General Principles of Food Hygiene (CAC/RCP 1-1969), and other relevant Codex texts such as Codes of Hygienic Practice and Codes of Practice. . 2 The products should comply with any microbiological criteria established in accordance with the Principles for the Establishment and Application of Microbiological Criteria for Foods (CAC/GL 21-1997). 8. LABELLING In addition to the General Standard for the Labelling of Prepackaged Foods (CODEX STAN 1-1985), the following specific provisions apply: 8. 1 CONTAINERS DESTINED FOR THE FINAL CONSUMER 8. 1. 1 The Name of the Product The name of the product shall be the name of the fruit used as defined in Section 2. 2.

The fruit name shall be filled in the blank of the product name mentioned under this Section. These names may only be used if the product conforms to the definition in Section 2. 1 or which otherwise conform to this Standard. 8. 1. 1. 1 Fruit Juice defined under Section 2. 1. 1 The name of the product shall be “_____ juice” or “juice of _____”. 8. 1. 1. 2 Concentrated Fruit Juice defined under Section 2. 1. 2 The name of the product shall be “concentrated ____ juice” or “____ juice concentrate”. 8. 1. 1. 3 Water Extracted Fruit Juice defined under Section 2. . 3 The name of the product shall be “water extracted_____ juice” or “water extracted juice of _____”. 8. 1. 1. 4 Fruit Puree defined under Section 2. 1. 4 The name of the product shall be “ ______ puree” or “Puree of _______”. 9 10 Enzyme preparations may be used as processing aids provided these preparations do not result in a total liquefaction and do not substantially affect the cellulose content of the processed fruit. May also be used e. g. , for preservation. CODEX STAN 247 Page 6 of 19 8. 1. 1. 5 Concentrated Fruit Puree defined under Section 2. 1. The name of the product shall be “concentrated ______ puree” or “ ______ puree concentrated”. 8. 1. 1. 6 Fruit Nectars defined under Section 2. 1. 6 The name of the product shall be “ ____ nectar” or “nectar of ____”. 8. 1. 1. 7 In the case of fruit juice products (as defined in Section 2. 1) manufactured from two or more fruits, the product name shall include the names of the fruit juices comprising the mixture in descending order of proportion by weight (m/m) or the words “fruit juice blend”, ” a fruit juice mixture”, “mixed fruit juice” or other similar wording. . 1. 1. 8 For fruit juices, fruit nectars and mixed fruit juice/nectar, if the product contains or is prepared from concentrated juice and water or the product is prepared from juice from concentrate and directly expressed juice or nectar, the words “from concentrate” or “reconstituted” must be entered in conjunction with or close to the product name, standing out well from any background, in clearly visible characters, not less than 1/2 the height of the letters in the name of the juice. 8. . 2 Additional Requirements The following additional specific provisions apply: 8. 1. 2. 1 For fruit juices, fruit nectars, fruit puree and mixed fruit juices/nectars/purees, if the product is prepared by physically removing water from the fruit juice in an amount sufficient to increase the Brix level to a value at least 50% greater than the Brix value established for reconstituted juice from the same fruit, as indicated in table of the Annex, it shall be labelled “concentrated”. 8. 1. 2. For products defined in Sections 2. 1. 1 to 2. 1. 5, where one or more of the optional sugar or syrup ingredients as described in Section 3. 1. 2(a) and (b) are added, the product name shall include the statement called “sugar(s) added” after the fruit juice or mixed fruit juice’s name. When food additive sweeteners are employed as substitutes for sugars in fruit nectars and mixed fruit nectars, the statement, “with sweetener(s),” shall be included in conjunction with or in close proximity to the product name. 8. 1. 2. Where concentrated fruit juice, concentrated fruit puree, concentrated fruit nectar or mixed concentrated fruit juice/nectar/puree is to be reconstituted before consumption as fruit juice, fruit puree, fruit nectar or mixed fruit juices/nectars/purees, the label must bear appropriate directions for reconstitution on a volume/volume basis with water to the applicable Brix value in the Annex for reconstituted juice. 8. 1. 2. 4 Distinct varietal denominations may be used in conjunction with the common fruit names on the label where such use is not misleading. . 1. 2. 5 Fruit nectars and mixed fruit nectars must be conspicuously labelled with a declaration of “juice content __%” with the blank being filled with the percentage of puree and/or fruit juice computed on a volume/volume basis. The words “juice content __%” shall appear in close proximity to the name of the product in clearly visible characters, not less than 1/2 the height of the letters in the name of the juice. 8. 1. 2. 6 An ingredient declaration of “ascorbic acid” when used as an antioxidant does not, by itself, constitute a “Vitamin C” claim. . 1. 2. 7 Any added essential nutrients declaration should be labelled in accordance with the General Guidelines on Claims (CAC/GL 1-1979), Guidelines on Nutrition Labelling (CAC/GL 2-1985) and the Guidelines for Use of Nutrition Claims (CAC/GL 23-1997). For fruit nectars in which a food additive sweetener has been added in order to replace wholly or in part the added sugars or other sugars or syrups, including honey and/or sugars derived from fruits as listed in Sections 3. 1. (a) and (b), any nutrient content claims related to the reduction in sugars should conform to the General Guidelines on Claims (CAC/GL 1-1979), Guidelines for Use of Nutrition Claims (CAC/GL 231997) and Guidelines on Nutrition Labelling (CAC/GL 2-1985). 8. 1. 2. 8 A pictorial representation of fruit(s) on the label should not mislead the consumer with respect to the fruit so illustrated. CODEX STAN 247 Page 7 of 19 8. 1. 2. 9 Where the product contains added carbon dioxide the term “carbonated” or “sparkling” shall appear on the label near the name of the product. . 1. 2. 10 Where tomato juice contains spices and/or aromatic herbs in accordance with Section 3. 1. 2(f), the term “spiced” and/or the common name of the aromatic herb shall appear on the label near the name of the juice. 8. 1. 2. 11 Pulp and cells added to juice over that normally contained in the juice shall be declared in the list of ingredients. Aromatic substances, volatile flavour components, pulp and cells added to nectar over that normally contained in the juice shall be declared in the list of ingredients. . 2 NON-RETAIL CONTAINERS Information for non-retail containers not destined to final consumers shall be given either on the container or in accompanying documents, except that the name of the product, lot identification, net contents and the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor or importer, as well as storage instructions, shall appear on the container, except that for tankers the information may appear exclusively in the accompanying documents.

However, lot identification, and the name and address of the manufacturer, packer, distributor or importer may be replaced by an identification mark, provided that such a mark is clearly identifiable with the accompanying documents. 9. METHODS OF ANALYSIS AND SAMPLING CODEX STAN 247 Page 8 of 19 PROVISION Acetic acid (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity) 11 Alcohol (ethanol) (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. Authenticity)11 Anthocyanins (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Ascorbic acid-L (Section 4 Additives) Ascorbic acid-L (Section 4 Additives) Ascorbic acid-L (Section 4 Additives) Ash in fruit products (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Beet sugar in fruit juices (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Benzoic acid as a marker in orange juice (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. Authenticity)11 Benzoic acid and its salts Benzoic acid and its salts; sorbic acid and its salts C13/C12 ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 METHOD EN 12632 IFU Method No. 66 (1996) IFU Method No. 52 (1996) IFU Method No. 71 (1998) IFU Method No. 17a (1995) AOAC 967. 21 IFU Method No. 17 ISO 6557-2:1984 ISO 6557-1:1986 AOAC 940. 26 EN 1135 (1994) IFU Method No. 9 (1989) AOAC 995. 17 AOAC 994. 11 ISO 5518:1978 ISO 6560:1983 IFU Method No. 63 (1995) NMKL 124 (1997) JAOAC 79, No. , 1996, 62-72 PRINCIPLE Enzymatic determination Enzymatic determination High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Indophenol method Fluorescence spectrometry Gravimetry Deuterium Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (Deuterium NMR) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Spectrometry High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Stable isotope mass spectrometry TYPE II II I II III IV I II III III II II 11 See Section 3. 4 – Verification of Composition, Quality and Authenticity. CODEX STAN 247

Page 9 of 19 PROVISION Carbon dioxide (Sections 4 Additives and 5 Processing aids) Carbon stable isotope ratio of apple juice (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Carbon stable isotope ratio of orange juice (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Carotenoid, total/individual groups (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Cellobiose Centrifugable pulp (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Chloride (expressed as sodium chloride) (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. Authenticity)11 Citric acid 12 (Section 4 Additives) Citric acid12 (Section 4 Additives) Essential oils (Scott titration) (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Essential oils (in citrus fruit) (volume determination)13 (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Fermentability (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 METHOD IFU Method No. 42 (1976) PRINCIPLE Titrimetry (back-titration after precipitation) Stable isotope mass spectrometry TYPE IV AOAC 981. 09 – JAOAC 64, 85 (1981) II AOAC 982. 21 EN 12136 (1997) IFU Method No. 9 (1991) IFU Recommendation No. 4 October 2000 EN 12134 (1997) IFU Method No. 60 (1991) EN12133 (1997) IFU Method No. 37 (1991) AOAC 986. 13 EN 1137:1994 IFU Method No. 22 (1985) AOAC 968. 20 IFU Method No. 45b 13 ISO 1955:1982 IFU Method No. 18 (1974) Stable isotope mass spectrometry II Spectrophotometry Capillary gas chromatography Centrifugation/% value Electrochemical titrimetry High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Enzymatic determination (Scott) distillation, titration Distillation and direct reading of the volume determination Microbiological method

I IV I III II III I I I 12 13 All juices except citrus based juices. Because there is no numerical value in the Standard, duplicate Type I methods have been included which may lead to different results. CODEX STAN 247 Page 10 of 19 PROVISION Formol number (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Free amino acids (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Fumaric acid (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Glucose and fructose – Determination of glucose, fructose and saccharose (Section 3. 1. Permitted ingredients) Glucose-D and fructose-D (Section 3. 1. 2 Permitted ingredients) Gluconic acid (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Glycerol (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Hesperidin and naringin (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 High Fructose Corn Syrup and Hydrolized Inulin Syrup in apple juice (Section 3. 1. 2 Permitted ingredients) Hydroxymethylfurfural (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Hydroxymethylfurfural (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. Authenticity)11 Isocitric acid-D (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Lactic acid- D and L (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 METHOD EN 1133 (1994) IFU Method No. 30 (1984) EN 12742 (1999) IFU Method No. 57 (1989) IFU Method No. 72 (1998) EN 12630 IFU Method No. 67 (1996) NMKL 148 (1993) EN 1140 IFU Method No. 55 (1985) IFU Method No. 76 (2001) IFU Method No. 77 (2001) EN 12148 (1996) IFU Method No. 58 (1991) JAOAC 84, 486 (2001) PRINCIPLE Potentiometric titration Liquid Chromatography High performance iquid chromatography (HPLC) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Enzymatic determination Enzymatic determination Enzymatic determination High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Capillary gas chromatography (CAP GC Method) High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Spectrometry Enzymatic determination Enzymatic determination TYPE I II II II II II II II IV IFU Method No. 69 (1996) ISO 7466:1986 EN 1139 (1999) IFU Method No. 54 (1984) EN 12631 (1999) IFU Method No. 53 (1983/1996) II III II II CODEX STAN 247 Page 11 of 19 PROVISION L-malic/total malic acid ratio in apple juice (Sections 3. Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Malic acid (Section 4 Additives) Malic acid-D Malic acid-D in apple juice Malic acid-L Naringin and neohesperidin in orange juice (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Pectin (Section 4 Additives) pH-value (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 pH-value (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Phosphorus/phosphate (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Preservatives in fruit juices – (sorbic acid and its salts) Proline by photometry – non-specific determination (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. Authenticity)11 AOAC 993. 05 METHOD PRINCIPLE Enzymatic determination and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Enzymatic determination and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Enzymatic determination High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Enzymatic determination High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Precipitation/photometry Potentiometry TYPE II AOAC 993. 05 EN 12138 IFU Method No. 64 (1995) AOAC 995. 06 EN 1138 (1994) IFU Method No. 21 (1985) AOAC 999. 05 IFU Method No. 26 (1964/1996) NMKL 179:2005 EN 1132 (1994) IFU Method No. 11 (1989) ISO 1842:1991 EN 1136 (1994) IFU Method No. 0 (1983) ISO 5519:1978 EN 1141 (1994) IFU Method No. 49 (1983) III II II II III I II Potentiometry Photometric determination Spectrometry Photometry IV II III I CODEX STAN 247 Page 12 of 19 PROVISION Quinic, malic and citric acid in cranberry juice cocktail and apple juice (Section 3. 1. 2 Permitted ingredients and 4 Additives) Relative density (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Relative density (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Saccharin Sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium in fruit juices (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. Authenticity)11 Soluble solids Sorbitol-D (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Stable carbon isotope ratio in the pulp of fruit juices (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Stable carbon isotope ratio of sugars from fruit juices (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Stable hydrogen isotope ratio of water from fruit juices (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Stable oxygen isotope ratio in fruit juice water (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 METHOD PRINCIPLE High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

TYPE AOAC 986. 13 EN 1131 (1993) IFU Method No. 1 (1989) & IFU Method No. General sheet (1971) IFU Method No. 1A NMKL 122 (1997) EN 1134 (1994) IFU Method No. 33 (1984) AOAC 983. 17 EN 12143 (1996) IFU Method No. 8 (1991) ISO 2173:2003 IFU Method No. 62 (1995) ENV 13070 (1998) Analytica Chimica Acta 340 (1997) ENV 12140 Analytica Chimica Acta 271 (1993) ENV 12142 (1997) ENV 12141(1997) III Pycnometry II Densitometry Liquid chromatography Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy III II II Indirect by refractometry I Enzymatic determination Stable isotope mass spectrometry II II Stable isotope mass spectrometry II

Stable isotope mass spectrometry Stable isotope mass spectrometry II II CODEX STAN 247 Page 13 of 19 PROVISION Starch (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Sucrose (Section 3. 1. 2 Permitted ingredients) Sucrose (Section 3. 1. 2 Permitted ingredients) Sugar beet derived syrups in frozen concentrated orange juice ? 18O measurements in water (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Sulphur dioxide (Section 4 Additives) Sulphur dioxide (Section 4 Additives) Sulphur dioxide (Section 4 Additives) Tartaric acid in grape juice (Section 4 Additives) Titrable acids, total (Sections 3. Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 METHOD AOAC 925. 38 (1925) IFU Method No. 73 (2000) EN 12630 IFU Method No. 67 (1996) NMKL 148 (1993) EN 12146 (1996) IFU Method No. 56 (1985/1998) AOAC 992. 09 Optimized Monier Williams AOAC 990. 28 IFU Method No. 7A (2000) NMKL 132 (1989) ISO 5522:1981 ISO 5523:1981 NMKL 135 (1990) EN 12137 (1997) IFU Method No. 65 (1995) EN 12147 (1995) IFU Method No. 3 (1968) ISO 750:1998 PRINCIPLE Colorimetric TYPE I High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Enzymatic determination II III Oxygen isotope ratio analysis I

Titrimetry after distillation Titrimetry after distillation Enzymatic determination High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Titrimetry II III III II I CODEX STAN 247 Page 14 of 19 PROVISION Total dry matter (vacuum-oven drying at 70°C)13 (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Total nitrogen Total solids (Microwave oven drying) 13 (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Vitamin C (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. 3 Authenticity)11 Vitamin C (dehydro-ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid) (Sections 3. 2 Quality Criteria and 3. Authenticity)11 METHOD EN 12145 (1996) IFU Method No. 61 (1991) EN 12135 (1997) IFU Method No. 28 (1991) AOAC 985. 26 EN 14130 (2004) AOAC 967. 22 PRINCIPLE Gravimetric determination Digestion/titration Gravimetric determination High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) Microfluorometry TYPE I I I II III CODEX STAN 247 Page 15 of 19 ANNEX MINIMUM BRIX LEVEL FOR RECONSTITUTED JUICE AND RECONSTITUTED PUREE 15 O AND MINIMUM JUICE AND/OR PUREE CONTENT FOR FRUIT NECTARS (% V/V) AT 20 C Minimum Brix Level for Reconstituted Fruit Juices and Reconstituted Puree ( * ) 16 11. 12. 8 17 It is recognized that in different countries, the Brix level may naturally differ from this value. In cases where the Brix level is consistently lower than this value, reconstituted juice of lower Brix from these countries introduced into international trade will be acceptable, provided it meets the authenticity methodology listed in the General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars and the level will not be bellow 10? Brix for pineapple juice and apple juice. 14. 5 14. 5 7. 5 ( * )16 (*) 16 14 Botanical Name Fruit’s Common Name

Minimum Juice and/or Puree Content (% v/v) for Fruit Nectars ( * )16 25. 0 Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev. ) C. F. Liang & A. R. Kiwi Fergoson Anacardium occidentale L. Cashewapple Ananas comosus (L. ) Merrill Ananas sativis L. Schult. f. Pineapple 40. 0 Annona muricata L. Annona squamosa L Averrhoa carambola L. Carica papaya L. Chrysophyllum cainito Citrullus lanatus (Thunb. ) Matsum. & Nakai var. Lanatus Citrus aurantifolia (Christm. ) (swingle) Citrus aurantium L. Soursop Sugar Apple Carambola / Starfruit Papaya Star Apple Water Melon Lime Sour Orange 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 ( * )16 40. According to the legislation of the importing country 50. 0 8. 0 8. 017 ( * )16 14 15 16 17 For the purposes of the Standard the Brix is defined as the soluble solids content of the juice as determined by the method found in the Section on Methods of Analysis and Sampling. If a juice is manufactured from a fruit not mentioned in the above list, it must, nevertheless, comply with all the provisions of the Standard, except that the minimum Brix level of the reconstituted juice shall be the Brix level as expressed from the fruit used to make the concentrate. No data currently available.

The minimum Brix level of the reconstituted juice shall be the Brix level as expressed from the fruit used to make the concentrate. Acid corrected as determined by the method for total titratable acids in the Section on Methods of Analysis. CODEX STAN 247 Page 16 of 19 Botanical Name Fruit’s Common Name Minimum Brix Level for Reconstituted Fruit Juices and Reconstituted Puree 8. 017 10. 017 10. 0 11. 817 11. 8 – 11. 2 17 and consistent with the application of national legislation of the importing country but not lower than 11. 2. It is recognized that in different countries, the Brix level may naturally differ from this range of values.

In cases where the Brix level is consistently lower than this range of values, reconstituted juice of lower Brix from these countries introduced into international trade will be acceptable, provided it meets the authenticity methodology listed in the General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars and the level will not be below 10? Brix. 5. 0 8. 0 7. 5 10. 0 11. 2 (*) (*) 16 Minimum Juice and/or Puree Content (% v/v) for Fruit Nectars According to the legislation of the importing country 50. 0 50. 0 50. 0 Citrus limon (L. ) Burm. f. Citrus limonum Rissa Citrus paradisi Macfad Citrus paradisi, Citrus grandis Citrus reticulata Blanca

Lemon Grapefruit Sweetie grapefruit Mandarine/ Tangerine Citrus sinensis (L. ) Orange 50. 0 Cocos nucifera L. 18 Cucumis melo L. Cucumis melo L subsp. melo var. inodorus H. Jacq. Cucumis melo L. subsp. melo var. inodorus H. Jacq Cydonnia oblonga Mill. Diospyros khaki Thunb. Empetrum nigrum L. Eribotrya japonesa Eugenia syringe Eugenia uniflora Rich. Ficus carica L. 18 Coconut Melon Casaba Melon Honeydew Melon Quince Persimmon Crowberry Loquat Guavaberry Birchberry Suriname Cherry Fig 25. 0 35. 0 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 40. 0 25. 0 ( * )16 ( * )16 25. 0 25. 0 6. 0 16 ( * )16 6. 0 18. 0

This product is ‘coconut water’ which is directly extracted from the coconut without expressing the coconut meat. CODEX STAN 247 Page 17 of 19 Botanical Name Fortunella Swingle sp. Fragaria x. ananassa Duchense(Fragaria chiloensis Duchesne x Fragaria virginiana Duchesne) Genipa americana Hippophae elaeguacae Hipppohae rhamnoides L. Litchi chinensis Sonn. Lycopersicum esculentum L. Malpighia sp. (Moc. & Sesse) Fruit’s Common Name Kumquat Strawberry “Genipap” Sea Buckthorn Buckthornberry = Sallow-thornberry Litchi/Lychee Tomato Acerola (West Indian Cherry) Minimum Brix Level for Reconstituted Fruit Juices and Reconstituted Puree ( * )16 7. 17. 0 (*) 16 Minimum Juice and/or Puree Content (% v/v) for Fruit Nectars ( * )16 40. 0 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 20. 0 50. 0 6. 0 11. 2 5. 0 6. 5 11. 5 It is recognized that in different countries, the Brix level may naturally differ from this value. In cases where the Brix level is consistently lower than this value, reconstituted juice of lower Brix from these countries introduced into international trade will be acceptable, provided it meets the authenticity methodology listed in the General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars and the level will not be bellow 10? Brix for pineapple juice and apple juice. 5. 4 ( * )16 13. 5 (*) 16 25. 0 Malus domestica Borkh. Apple 50. 0 Malus prunifolia (Willd. ) Borkh. Malus sylvestris Mill. Mammea americana Mangifera indica L Morus sp. Musa species including M. acuminata and M. paradisiaca but excluding other plantains Passiflora edulis Pasiflora edulis Sims. f. edulus Passiflora edulis Sims. f. Flavicarpa O. Def. Crab Apple Mammee Apple Mango Mulberry Banana Yellow Passion Fruit Passion Fruit 25. 0 ( * )16 25. 0 30. 0 25. 0 ( * )16 ( * )16 1217 ( * )16 25. 0 CODEX STAN 247 Page 18 of 19 Botanical Name Passiflora quadrangularis Phoenix dactylifera L.

Pouteria sapota Prunus armeniaca L. Prunus avium L. Prunus cerasus L. Prunus cerasus L. cv. Stevnsbaer Prunus domestica L. subsp. domestica Prunus domestica L. subsp. domestica Prunus domestica L. subsp. domestica Fruit’s Common Name Passion Fruit Date Sapote Apricot Sweet Cherry Sour Cherry Stonesbaer Plum Prune Quetsche Minimum Brix Level for Reconstituted Fruit Juices and Reconstituted Puree ( * )16 18. 5 (*) 16 Minimum Juice and/or Puree Content (% v/v) for Fruit Nectars ( * )16 25. 0 ( * )16 40. 0 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 50. 0 25. 0 25. 0 40. 0 40. 0 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 ( * )16 40. 0 30. 0 30. 0 30. 30. 0 30. 0 30. 0 40. 0 40. 0 30. 0 40. 0 30. 0 25. 0 11. 5 20. 0 14. 0 17. 0 12. 0 18. 5 12. 0 10. 5 10. 5 6. 0 8. 5 12. 0 (*) 16 Prunus persica (L. ) Batsch var. Nectarine nucipersica (Suckow) c. K. Schneid. Prunus persica (L. ) Batsch var. Peach persica Prunus spinosa L. Psidium guajava L. Punica granatum L. Pyrus arbustifolia (L. ) Pers. Pyrus communis L. Ribes nigrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes rubrum L. Ribes uva-crispa Ribes uva-crispa L. Ribes uva-crispa L. Rosa canina L. Rosa sp. L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Rubus chamaemorus L. Morus hybrid Rubus fruitcosus L. Rubus hispidus (of North America) R. aesius (of Europe) Sloe Guava Pomegranate Aronia/Chokeberry Pear Black Currant Red Currant White Currant Red Gooseberry Goosberry White Goosberry Cynorrhodon Rosehip Cloudberry Mulberry Blackberry Dewberry 12. 0 11. 0 10. 0 10. 0 ( * )16 7. 5 (*) (*) 16 16 9. 0 9. 0 ( * )16 9. 0 10. 0 CODEX STAN 247 Page 19 of 19 Botanical Name Rubus idaeus L. Rubus strigosus Michx. Rubus loganobaccus L. H. Bailey Rubus occidentalis L. Rubus ursinus Cham. & Schltdl. Rubus vitifolius x Rubus idaeus Rubus baileyanis Sambucus nigra L. Sambucus canadensis. Solanum quitoense Lam. Sorbus aucuparia L.

Sorbus domestica Spondia lutea L. Spondias tuberosa Arruda ex Kost. Syzygiun jambosa Tamarindus indica Theobroma cacao L. Theobroma grandiflorum L. Fruit’s Common Name Red Raspberry Loganberry Black Raspberry Boysenberry Youngberry Elderberry “Lulo” Rowanberry Sorb “Caja” “Umbu” Pome Apple Tamarind (Indian date) Cocoa pulp “Cupuacu” Minimum Brix Level for Reconstituted Fruit Juices and Reconstituted Puree 8. 0 10. 5 11. 1 10. 0 10. 0 10. 5 ( * )16 11. 0 (*) 16 Minimum Juice and/or Puree Content (% v/v) for Fruit Nectars 40. 0 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 25. 0 50. 0 ( * )16 30. 0 30. 0 25. 0 25. ( * )16 Adequate content to reach a minimum acidity of 0. 5 50. 0 35. 0 30. 0 40. 0 25. 0 50. 0 Adequate content to reach a minimum acidity of 0. 5 25. 0 10. 0 9. 0 ( * )16 13. 0 14. 0 9. 0 7. 5 10. 0 10. 0 16. 0 Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton Cranberry Vaccinium oxycoccos L. Vaccinium myrtillus L. Vaccinium corymbosum L. Vaccinium angustifolium Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. Vitis Vinifera L. or hybrids thereof Vitis Labrusca or hybrids thereof Bilberry/Blueberry Lingonberry Grape Other: High acidity Other: High pulp content, or Strong flavour Other: Low acidity, Low pulp content, or Low/medium flavour 50. 0

Cite this Codex General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars

Codex General Standard for Fruit Juices and Nectars. (2016, Sep 18). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/codex-general-standard-for-fruit-juices-and-nectars/

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