Cognitive development in early childhood - Cognitive development Essay Example
Cognitive development in early childhood
Influence of socio cultural factors, male and female role models, poverty, and violence on the cognitive development of children
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Cognitive development initiates in children at the era of 2 to 4 years. The children start to reason, to build concepts, to observe, to master innovative skills, and to interact with the outer world. They also make enormous leaps in how they progress, exercise and/or amass information.
There are many evidences available that show that cognitive development is immensely influenced by socio cultural, gender and/or ethnic factors. For instance, when Apple introduced the personal computer it largely changed the cognitive processes of children as compared to children prior to introduction of personal computer. An imaginary computer games help children to master the counting skills by interacting with him in the form of on-screen tutor. The influence of ethnicity on cognitive development can be better implicit by this example that American child will be only engrossed in understanding the concepts at superficial level as compared to Japanese child who will be eager to know the niceties. This is because of diverse cultural insights between American and Japanese ethnicities. As the child cross the threshold of preschooler age, the gender biases and stereotype within the family, social world, media, etc influences the child`s cognitive understandings of gender discrepancy. Children start believing that only boys are good at Math or only females can nurture children, etc.
Role models and imitation are quite influential in shaping children`s gender biased cognitive behavior. Whatever children observe at television, either pro social or antisocial behaviors, they will try to emulate those behaviors. Male models are often expose by media as elegant, competitive, stable, rational, authoritative, and ambitious, this will lead children to learn that this is the right way for males to act. Therefore, young females are less likely to cognitively develop industriousness, initiative, and autonomy because they will never see such traits being portrayed in females. Females are more likely to develop the traits of tranquility, indecisiveness, because female models are often publicized as submissive, apprehensive, tender, excellent at cooking or nurturing children, and mostly engaged in the employment of nurse, teachers or psychotherapists, etc. This leads to believing that this is the right occupation or way to behave or adopt for females. Thus these gender biased behaviors are then further reinforced by their outer world such as peers, friends, school, books, and family and continue to perpetuate in their later life.
The absence of parents in the life of children can noticeably affect the cognitive growth of a child. The children who have involved, playful and caring parents are tend to be more healthier, emotionally as well as psychologically, than those children who has one parent missing in their life. For male children, having father as a role model is very important because boys need someone as of their same gender for guidance in many things like how to shave, which a mother cannot teach her young son. Apart from this, young boys without supportive fathers are more likely to fall into the brutal jaws of crime. Similar is the case with female young girls who have to face many difficulties for having no mother in their life. In short, parents play a positive role in the healthier development of a child.
Research has found out that violence and poverty affect the cognitive development in children more significantly than the emotional difficulties. It has been concluded by many psychologists that children living in dangerous and urban areas are more prone to traumatic, hostile and frustrating behaviors than those living in safe and economically advantaged economies. These children often exhibit aggressive, antagonistic, and antisocial behaviors, they are emotionally disturbed, and their educational abilities are not up to the mark due to having dreadful background (Huitt, & Hummel, 2003).
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Educational
Psychology interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University.