Communicating Across Cross Culture Essay
The impact of communicating across cross culture at MegaMart Shana-kaye Mills 18090222 Sherica Smith 11090066 Kimberly Miller 18100317 Dave McKenzie Yanique Clarke 60090206 Sean Taylor 18085307 Dave Bartley 18110574 NORTHERN CARIBBEAN UNIVERSITY Dr - Communicating Across Cross Culture Essay introduction. Sashin Pilli Author Note Research conducted by Shana-Kaye Mills, Kimberly Miller, Dave McKenzie, Yanique Clarke, Sean Taylor, Sherica Smith and Dave Bartley, College of Business and Hospitality Management, Northern Caribbean University.
This paper is for the partial fulfillment of the course BSAD301: Business Communication. Special Thanks to the Manager at Mega Mart, Mandeville Manchester and their staff for their contribution to this research. Table of Contents Chapter 1: Introduction Background to the Problem3 Statement of the Problem4 Purpose of Study4 Significance of the Study4 Limitation/ Delimitation5 Definition of Terms7 Organization of Study7 Chapter 2: Literature Review8 Communication and culture9 How culture difference affect business communication12
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Language and Barriers13 Non- Verbal langauage in cross culture at Mega mart13 Chapter 3: Methodology of the Research Research Design16 Sample Selection16 Instrumentation17 Data Collection Procedures17 Data Analysis18 Ethical Issues19 Summary21 References22 Background of the study Jamaica, “motto out of many one people”, like the other countries that make up the world, Therefore, we the Jamaica society, ask “how can we understand the different cultures” or “is it just a waste of time and energy” what are the reason of communication barriers?
Our society is now filled with so many communication barriers, but what we need to understand and research the different cultures. Is communication important today? The answer is yes, no what where we go we have to encounter with different people who has different culture. This chapter seeks to outline the basis on which the study will be carried out. This foundation is critical for the successful completion of this extensive research on impact of communicating across cross culture at mega mart.
The background to the problem which gives a brief description on the problem, there is the statement of problem which briefly states and explains the research topic, the purpose of study which reveals why the research will be carried out and justifies its uses, the research questions these are the three most important questions from which all other questions will flow, Theoretical Framework which is used to guide a research study, the significance of the Study which states how the findings of this study will be of value to different stakeholders such as the employees, limitations of the study will outline constraints that will hinder the study, delimitations which involves describing the boundaries of the study or how this study will be narrowed down in terms of the scope and definition of terms which will seek to make the reader aware of the important meanings of key words within the project and finally a brief overview of the entire chapter. Statement of Problem Using interpersonal skills, performance and knowledge to improve communicating across cross culture between employee and customers at mega mart Mandeville is not just the aim of study but also necessary in the global world. Base on the fact that numerous of people go to mega mart to shopping and it a convent store where you can find everything you will find that the demand at this store is high.
Different people visit with different culture therefore it important that employee possess good interpersonal skills, research about the different cultures in other for the performance to be very good. It is my sincere and unchanging beliefs that, if employee are knowledgeable about the different cultures then performance will maximize and much easier and fun, regardless of the socio-economic backgrounds of our customers. Purpose of the Study The purpose of this study is to inform the public (anyone who takes up a copy of the proposal) of the diverse cultures which exist within the workplace across the country and how the process of communication takes place across the various cultures.
Therefore the purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of communicating across the cross culture that exist within the workforce at Mega Mart located in Mandeville Jamaica. Significance of the Study This study will be a significant endeavor in analyzing how communication is taking place across cross cultures within the workplace and how globalization is carving a new multicultural, corporate landscape. Thus, this study will explore how globalization has drawn individuals from near and far, placing them in one environment and creating a culturally rich and diverse global village in the workplace. Whereby, they all work, communicate and interact together and learn about each other’s’ culture while conducting business together in ways they have never experienced in before.
Furthermore, this study in looking at the diversification of cultures in workplace, in particularly at Mega Mart will explore how managers have to undertake the many challenges that arise in the workplace due to difference in culture. Whereby, workers have multiple perceptions of reality and are the product of various societal norms, values and personal belief systems. Thus, the significance of the research is to highlight the phenomenon of communicating across cross cultures in the workplace and the challenges faced when working in a multicultural environment. Limitations and Delimitations There were several problems encountered when conducting this research.
These problems include lack of availability or access to information needed. Searching books and newspaper articles from conventional libraries consumes a lot of time and effort. After conducting the research other expenses may arise including, the printing, laminating and binding. This research faces many obstacles in terms of the organization that was used. The employees were of great help but were limiting the amount of information that was given. Persons limited the amount of information they gave. Also, the amount of time in which this research is to be done was also an obstacle due to the short period of time in which the research was to be completed there were limitations on the length of the research.
If the time in which this research was to be accomplished was longer, most of the information that was left out would have been compiled and added. Limitation of the Study This is a proposal, and not an actual research being conducted, the pretest we did will not be reflective in its entirety, therefore an individual who takes up a copy of this proposal without knowing that it is not a thorough research will find that most of the information will be lacking and if they were to conduct the research, they would most likely to find that some of the results we had obtained slightly are off. Within this copy of the work there will be no findings, because the research was not actually conducted.
If an individual wants to do a similar research to this, and wants to use this as a guideline, and during the process they would have realized that the methodology we stated are not in accordance to the outcome it would have been through a contribution that we did not utilized all the methods stated during our pre-test. Therefore we were unable to find out if all will work effectively. In terms of methodology we decided not to utilize the method of survey because it was only one organization that was our main focus. Similarly we decided not to use descriptive statistical analysis of data for two reasons: Firstly our research was more of a qualitative nature than a quantitative and we only agreed to use quantitative because we want to give a graphical view of the types of ethnic groups in that the organization entails.
If we decide to use a descriptive statistic to analyze that data if a research was actually conducted it will be vague because it will not convey all the necessary details that it should. These includes statistics showing what the data look like, where there are centered as well as the midpoint and the correlation between the two variables (productivity and ethnicity), and our research would have to be more of a quantitative than a qualitative which is not the case. Definition of terms Communication – Two-way process of reaching mutual understanding, in which participants not only exchange (encode-decode) information, news, ideas and feelings but also create and share meaning. Business dictionary 2010) Culture- is the systems of knowledge shared by a relatively large group of people. (Edward Tylor 1871) Organization. An organized group of people, such as business, charity, government department et. (The Oxford Dictionary, 2012). Impact- the effect or influence that an event, situation etc has on someone or something (longman dictionary) Organization of the study This consists of three chapters. In any study it is of mass importance to have a guideline. Without a guide line there would be no coherence and the research would confuse any person, as such it is critical to have a proper outline and hence a smooth flow.
Chapter 1 of this study introduced the problem statement and described the specific problem addressed in the study as well as specific and detailed design components which will help to narrow the research topic and guide the research parameters. Chapter 2 presents a review of literature which helps to set a base line for the topic and is a source of relevant research associated with impact of across cross culture. Chapter 3 goes more in-depth and outlines the specifics of how the research will be conducted over the timeline. This chapter has the methodology and research design, population selection, sampling method, data collection methods, data analysis methods and ethical issues addressed in the study. Literature Review Mega Mart is a well-organized established department store that offers goods and services to the public; it is located on Manchester road Mandeville.
The literature review that is written is the summary of all the journal articles that have been use to accomplish this study, we uses books newspaper clippings and other documents that describe the how across communication culture affect and benefited communication in Mega Mart, it organize the literature into topics and the documents needed for the proposed of this topic. Some of the way we accomplished our information are the internet (NCU Library), magazines, journals, brochure, pamphlet, word of mouth (interviews) and newspaper. This information that was established was relevant effective reliable and efficient towards the thought of the researcher to accomplish him or her goals.
Communication across languages and cultures is a markedly complex issue, and translation is more than just a careful linguistic transfer: it is a purposeful action designed to achieve the most effective result in a target group. Few studies have discussed the role of communicative intent in translation, and this paper is a small step towards filling the gap. The conceptual framework adopted in this study is Skopostheorie (Vermeer, 1989), a functionalist approach with an emphasis on communicative Skopos (purpose or aim), target texts and audiences. Using a method of contrastive comparison among effective, ineffective and controversial brand name translations from English to Mandarin Chinese, a systematic analysis is conducted regarding four translation strategies: phonetic appeal, suitable meaning, socio-cultural adaptation and consumer acceptance.
The findings demonstrate that any effective communication strategy needs to be in accordance with the communicative purpose of achieving an optimal impact upon the target group, and a successfully translated brand name should function in a target culture as effectively as the original name in a source culture. They suggest that a function oriented approach, rather than a source-text oriented approach, holds the key for a successful outcome. The most important thing is that translated brand names suit the needs of Chinese consumers. This study is significant in that it challenges the traditional sound/meaning based approach, and provides enriched understanding of the importance of achieving communicative purposes and optimal functional impact in a target group.
The insights gained from this study add a vital conceptual dimension to the study of translation, and cross-cultural communication in general. In addition, the findings of this study may also provide practical assistance for an effective outcome in translation, and have pedagogical value in the teaching of translation. While the discussion in this study is based on Chinese data, the findings have implications for the translation of other languages. Communication and Culture What is communication? “Communication may be defined as giving, receiving or exchanging information, opinions, or ideas by writing, speech or visual means, so that the message communicated is completely understood by the recipient(s)”. Tylor, 2006) Many businesses today including Mega Mart operate on a global scale, and our culturally diverse workforce is made up of people from different countries, ethnic backgrounds, races, religions and family structures. If you are to communicate effectively with all these different people, it is important to keep an open mind and try to learn as much as possible about their various cultures, and to be sensitive to them. (Tylor, 2006) (Please refer to Figure 1: The Four A’s of Successful Communication. ) (Tylor, 2006) Let’s look at what culture is, According to Taylor 2006, “Culture is a shared system of beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations and norms of behavior. Members of a culture often have similar beliefs and theories on how people should behave, think and communicate, and they all tend to act on those beliefs in much the same way. At Mega Mart Jamaica, the work force is mixed with people from different backgrounds who have different believes and attitude. Upon our investigation of this research, the group has found out that there are employees at Mega Mart that come from different countries. Figure below looks at the checklist for communicating effectively across cultures. (Tylor, 2006) “Today’s workplace is constantly changing, so learning more about effective communication across cultures will help us all adapt to our changing environments. ” (Tylor, 2006) How Cultural Differences Affect Business Communication at Mega Mart Jamaica Customs “When doing business with an ffiliate from another country, consider the cultural differences that may be presented. This includes basic customs, mannerisms and gestures. ” (Brown, 2006) At Mega Mart when an employee has knowledge of a customer’s cultural background, then his words, body language and actions can all be adapted to better suit those of the customers. This in turn may lead to being better liked by the customer, ultimately increasing the amount of goods the customer purchase, on the other hand, the same could go for the a sales representative that is aware of a client’s cultural background and based on how he presents himself, he could easily close a deal. Language Barriers
According to Brown 2006, “When interacting with people from different cultures, speaking in a neutral tone and making a conscious effort to be considerate of others’ input, even if it is given in a manner to which you are not accustomed, can help foster effective business communication. ” Here in Jamaica, especially Mega Mart when conducting businesses, the right way to go is to speak politely and neutral. Not everybody is from the same cultural background; therefore, speaking neutral is the right way to go. Upon conducting any business and if you are spoken to in a harsh manner, you will not want to conduct any further business. “Many people assume that other people’s attitudes and lives are like our own, but this is not so.
Your aim should be to try to treat people not in the way you wish to be treated, but rather in the way they want to be treated”. (Tylor, 2006) Target Audience Advertising plays a very important role in every business because if a company decides to advertise, it must be in a language or context that everyone from different culture should be able to understand. “When launching a marketing campaign or advertising to members of a different culture, always research the target market prior to beginning the campaign. Levels of conservatism, gender views and ideologies can vary greatly between cultures. Presenting a campaign that is not in line with specific cultural norms can insult the target audience and greatly hinder the campaign.
Being aware of cultural norms can also help your company narrow down the target audience. ” (Brown, 2006) Non-verbal Language in Cross Culture at Mega Mart According to Hopkins 2005, “When selling to customers, your non-verbal communication skills – such as active listening and interpreting non-verbal cues – are just as important as what you say. Developing these skills will help you understand what your customers want, so you can offer them the most suitable products and services. ” At Mega Mart, customers are their number one priority therefore it is in the best interest of the managers to ensure that each customers are treated the best way possible, especially people from different cultural backgrounds.
There are some skills that a manager and also employees should have when communicating across culture in the service industry. The first skill should be the listening skill. At mega Mart the employee listens to each and every customers query. If there is a case where the person cannot speak proper English, that individual is taken to the manager who is better able to attend to the customers need. This situation is often solved by asking the people to talk slowly or get an employee who have an idea of a different language to help interpret. At no time is an employee left unattended. “Listening to your customer to discover their needs helps you suggest appropriate products or services to meet those needs. (Hopkins, 2005) Active listening is the process of confirming what you think your customer has said, and meant, by observing their verbal and non-verbal cues. Hopkins pointed out that to be a good active listener you should: * focus your full attention on your customer * briefly summarize your understanding of what your customer has said * take notes if necessary * use appropriate non-verbal cues such as nodding your head, inclining your body forward and maintaining eye contact * Note your customer’s non-verbal cues – are they eager, reluctant, impatient? * Use appropriate, well-timed probing questions and summary confirmation questions.
At Mega mart, these were evident since mega mart is a very large shopping center, people from all over the world goes there, especially in tourist attraction areas such as Montego Bay branch and Kingston branch. The next skill focuses on Understanding non-verbal cues. This can be established by interpreting customer’s non- verbal signals and behaviours. This however, allows you to read their attitude and better understand their needs. “Projecting the right non-verbal cues yourself can help your customer feel at ease. ” (Hopkins, 2005) Here are some positive and negative examples of non-verbal cues used by Mega Mart. Facial expressions includes: good – smiling, raised eyebrows, relaxed mouth. Bad – wrinkling the nose, furrowing the brow or rolling the eyes.
People often feel offended when an employee behave in certain manage towards them while on the other hand, certain mood are adaptable. For example, if a person smiles at you, you automatically smile back. However, employees who are rude are always punished. Another non-verbal cue used by Mega Mart is Eye contact. The good side is looking back to your customer’s face and at your products; the bad side is avoiding your customer or looking outside your sales space. It is always polite to great customers with a smile, never look like there are problems are all around you. Body gesture is just as important as facial expression. Beginning with the Hands, at Mega Mart, at no times should an employee arms be folded to the chest or near the face.
Their hands should be moving freely, relaxed and if a customer is enquiring about a product, their hands should be touching the product. This shows the customer that you are interested in helping them to find their products. Not every culture is the same, certain gestures that might be acceptable to our culture might not be accepted to another, and therefore it is bad to close arms, it is better to open arms. Do not nod heads because people from different culture might take it different. Posture is also very important. It is always polite to stand up straight and no slouching. Finally, at mega mart position is emphasized, it is inappropriate for an employee to move too close to a customer.
For some culture or even in our very own culture, people will take it as sexual harassment. The better thing to do is to observe personal space because it accommodates culture differences. Research Design of the Study This chapter describes the research methodology, including the conceptual and operational definitions of the variable used in the study population selection and data collection instruments used in this study. In addition, the design of the study includes methods to maintain validity and reliability that are also described. This study investigated impact of communicating across cross culture at mega. This chapter addresses the following in the order in which they appear.
First, the research design indicates the research approach and the reason why such an approach was selected. Second, the population selection and sampling method section outlines the sources and number of participants used. It states the reason why a small sample was used to conduct the research. Third, the instrumentations section describes the instruments used. Fourth, step-by-step procedure for the implementation of the research design was discussed. Fifth, the data analysis section highlights the research questions and the analytical techniques used for each research question. A rationale is included as to why such a technique was chosen. The sample The design of the research is in a questionnaire approach.
According to the oxford dictionary it’s a list of research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed to extract specific information. It serves four basic purposes: to (1) collect the appropriate data, (2) make data comparable and amenable to analysis, (3) minimize bias in formulating and asking question, and (4) to make questions engaging and varied to extract specific information. A sample of fifty (50) individuals will be randomly selected from a population of about one hundred and fifty individuals (150) shopping at Mega-mart, Mandeville, Jamaica. The individuals that will be participating will do so freely. This research will be done in two stages.
The first part is to survey the customers about how aware they are in communicating with individual from other cultures. What are challenges you encounter when communicating with other individual from different culture? Interviews were impromptu, and participants were chosen using the systematic approach. All interviews will be recorded in a closed, secluded and control area. The interview will last two weeks, and are scheduled from Monday to Friday at 2pm at customer’s services desk. Each interview used the same five questions to guide the discussion and the answers are recorded in real time. Instrument Design The instruments for data collection were interviews and questionnaires.
The data collection instrument will be design in such a way that data that is required to complete the survey can easily be obtained from the response of the customers that are participating in the survey. The objective of this study is the impact of communication across culture at Mega-mart in Mandeville. Data Collection Procedures Data collection refers not only to what information is recorded and how it is recorded, but also to how a particular research project is designed. The steps of data collection will include will possess consistency and systematically reliable data. The current research is a part of a research conducted to identify the impact of communicating across cross culture at mega mart Mandeville.
Approximately 50 questionnaires were issued to the customers of Mega-mart. Allow with the questionnaires, about ten (10) persons will be interviewed; five (5) from management and the other five (5) will be persons whose native language is not English. Each person will be interviews using the following question: 1. Does the organization employee individuals that don’t speak English or partially speak English? 2. Do you have customers that are native English speakers? 3. Does this organization implement strategies to aid in communication between non-English speakers? 4. What impact does the language barrier have on this organization (Mega-mart)?
Data Analysis Data analysis is a process of inspecting, cleaning, transforming and modeling data with the goal of highlighting useful information. This involves the use of mean and standard deviation, to ensure accuracy, the information will be presented in a tabular form and each participant will be coded for ease of identification. Research Questions | Data Source (%)| 1. Does the organization employee individuals that don’t speak English or partially speak English? | | 2. Do you have customers that are native English speakers? | | 3. Does this organization implement strategies to aid in communication between a non-English speaker? | | 4.
What impact does the language barrier have on this organization (Mega-mart)? | | Ethical and Legal Consideration Ethical Issues While conducting this research, it will be essential for the researchers to consider ethics. The relevant categories of this research will be: (1) Ethical issues concerning research participants, and (2) ethical issues relating to the researcher. The primary concern of this research will be the safety of the research participant. This will be accomplished by carefully considering the risk/benefit ratio; using all available information to make an appropriate assessment and continually monitoring the research as it proceeds.
Certain types of information are regarded as sensitive and or confidential by some people, thus the researcher will seek not to invade these participants privacy and avoid these questions as much as possible. Participants, including individuals and institutions, will be given sufficient time to decide if they want to participate, without any inducement. It is unethical to conduct a research without the participant’s consent therefore the researchers will obtain informed consent from each research participant, giving the participants an opportunity to carefully consider the risks and benefits and to ask any pertinent questions in regard to this research. Another ethical issue will be the issue of incentives.
While conducting this research, the researchers will ensure that there will be no incentives provided to people to participate in this study. This will be a deliberate objective for the researchers as we endeavor to escape the possibility of anyone feeling as though they are being bribed. The level of anonymity will be very crucial to this research consequently; sharing information about a respondent with others will not be done; individual’s responses, the names and the information provided by respondents will be kept anonymous. Ethical issues as it relates to the researchers conducting this research. It is of vital importance to avoid bias. Bias is a deliberate attempt to either hide what was found in a study, or highlight something disproportionately to its true existence.
Falsification is the practice of omitting or altering research materials, equipment, data, or processes in such a way that the results of the research are no longer accurately reflected in the research record. Fabrication is the practice of inventing data or results and recording and/or reporting them in the research record thus the issue of fabrication and falsification will also be avoided as the integrity of this research depends on the integrity of the data and the data records. Faulty data-gathering procedures, the researchers will seek to ensure that the appropriate research methodology will be used to ensure accuracy of findings and credible results, the researchers will also ensure that the researchers do not use any method or procedure known or assumed to be inappropriate, the continuity of data collection that will not meet the equirement of this research will be eliminated. Another ethical issue the researcher will consider will be plagiarism. All information that will be used from secondary sources will be appropriately cited and referenced. For this study, no identifying information will be entered onto the questionnaires and will it will be numbered only after data collection. Confidentiality will be maintained by keeping the data to be collected private and by not revealing respondents’ identities in the reporting or publication of this study. Summary It is very important for a research of this magnitude to have a solid plan of action and that is what this chapter is all about.
This chapter described the research design, population selection, sampling method, data collection methods, validity, reliability, data analysis methods and ethical issues. The five selected factors that contribute to overcoming corruption in the financial sector were addressed as well as the timeline and budget of how much cost was incurred. Reference Adler, N. J. and Jelinek, M. (1986) Is Organization Culture Culture Bound? , Human Reseource Management. Vol. 25, No. 1, 73-90 Adler, N. J. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. 4th edition. Cincinnati: Southwestern, 2002 Audia, P. G. and Tams, S. Goal setting, performance appraisal and feedback across cultures. Brown, M. J. (2006). How cultural Differences affect Business Communication. Demand Media Gannon, M. J. , & Newman, K. L. (Eds. Handbook of Cross-Cultural Management: 143-154. Oxford: Blackwell, 2002 Hopkins, L. (2005). Nonverbal Communication in Business. Ezine Aricle . Robbins, S. P. Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 7nd edition, Pearson Education, Singapore, 2003 Silverthorne, C. P. Organizational psychology in cross-cultural perspective. New York: New York University Press. 2005. Singh, J. P. (1990) Managerial Culture and Work-related Values in India, Organization Studies 11/1, 75-101. Sinha, J. B. P. Multinationals in India: Managing the Interface of Cultures. Sage publication Tylor, S. (2006). Communicating Across Cultures. British Journal of Administrative Management , 12-13. www. Megamartja. com