Running head: COMMUNICATION AND PERSONALITY IN NEGOTIATION PAPER Communication and Personality in Negotiation Paper MGT/445 University of Phoenix Communication and Personality in Negotiation Paper Negotiation can take place anywhere and at anytime. Negotiations can take place at home, at work, with family members, with friends, and co-workers. “Negotiation is a process by which we attempt to influence others to help us achieve our needs while at the same time taking their needs into account”. (Lewicki, Barry, & Saunders, 2007, chap. 1).
In many cases when people are negotiating they are unaware of the negotiating. Some people may believe that negotiating is hard and others may think it is an easy thing to do. In this paper I will analyze the roles of communication and personality in negotiation and how they contributed or detracted to the negotiations being made. A personal experience of mine pertaining this subject will also be given. When negotiating, communication plays a crucial role because it involves plenty of communication. While negotiating two levels of communication can occur, the pragmatic level and the logical level.
Both these levels are different types of communication and they both can be communication from the opposite party. When negotiating one must know what is being communicated for example, what the other party might be communicating might not be the main point, one must know what is being indirect, intended, and conveyed. As a result, one must be cautious when receiving direct pragmatic messages. “In order to avoid sending the wrong message negotiators must be aware of the potential issues of pragmatic communication”. (Lewicki, Barry, & Saunders, 2007, chap. 1).
Nonverbal communication consists of forms of communication that do not involve speaking or writing. There are different types of nonverbal communication are; body language, physical environment and personal attributes. A person’s body language can show an optimistic expression or a pessimistic expression. An example is if a person crosses their arms they are most likely unsure or not content, if a person has their hand on their hip is a sign of confidence. The Physical environment can send messages about territory and available space involved. Personal Attributes are essages such as; facial expressions, appearance, eye contact. These three types of nonverbal communication can have a great affect on negotiations. Communication is the key of negotiation. When communication is disrupted or distorted negotiations are unsuccessful. Listening skills are crucial in a conflict situation. Through attentive listening, a negotiator can learn what the other party has to say so that an agreement can be reached. Listening well will assist one in assessing and analyzing any situation as a whole. When dealing with negotiations an important factor is asking the proper questions.
Asking the correct questions allows negotiators to obtain valuable information about the other party’s position, supporting arguments or needs (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Open questions allow the listener to express her or himself without any restrictions. This type of question allows for clarification of the issue, acquiring missing information, or pressing for more information about details. Role reversal may improve communication during negotiations also. This technique involves the negotiator putting herself or himself in the shoes of the other party and, then, considering the various parts of the negotiation.
This allows the negotiators to understand the other party’s position by taking an active part in arguing the issue at hand (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Personality in Negotiations The study of personality in negotiation has a variety of predominant traits such as “social value orientation, conflict management, self-efficacy and locus of control, self-monitoring, Machiavellianism, face threat sensitivity, and the “big five” personality factors” (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Conflict Management Style
Conflict management deals with five major styles based on a combination of satisfying one’s own concerns (assertiveness) and the other satisfying the concerns of others (cooperativeness). The five styles of conflict managements are competing style, accommodating style, avoiding style, collaborating style, and compromising style. Each conflict has a unique situation and style to use with each appropriate situation. A negotiator needs to satisfy the interests of both parties involved by implementing his or her knowledge of the five conflict management styles and applying the est method for the issue (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Social Value Orientation Social value orientation is the outcome one may expect when dealing with a particular scenario. When a person is mainly concerned with the outcome on a personal level this is considered pro-self, and when a person is concerned with the outcome of the situation as a whole this is called pro-social or cooperative orientation (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Interpersonal Trust Interpersonal trust is the level in which negotiators trust the other parties.
The other party may be deceptive or deceitful and one must be able to recognize this trait. Interpersonal trust involves one person making himself or herself vulnerable to another person’s behavior (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Self-efficacy and Locus of Control Self-efficacy is the principle that one is competent of performing a certain way in order to reach the outcome. People with this type of personality believe he or she has the capability to perform the required steps to reach the final goal. Locus of control is a behavior lead by rewards and punishments.
A person holds a belief that through certain actions they will receive a reward or punishment thus leading to repetitive behaviors (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Self-monitoring Self-monitoring is a theory in which people control their behavior based on the social scene. High self-monitors are people who modify their behavior to fit into the various social scene or issue whereas, low self-monitors adapt to the current situation. “One can think of self-monitoring as the extent to which people monitor the external social environment for clues about how they are suppose to behave” (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006, p. 94). Machiavellianism The concept of Machiavellianism describes the level to which a person has the tendency to deceive and manipulate others for personal growth. “High Machs tend to take a more removed from others leading to unethical behavior. Low Machs tend to be more personal thus leading to a more submissive personality and agreeable in negotiations” (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006). Face Threat Sensitivity Face is the value in which a person views his or her reputation, public image and status in relation to other people in a situation.
Face is what a person holds himself or herself out to be. “Face is important in negotiation, they argue, because threats to one’s image will make a negotiator competitive in a situation that might otherwise benefit from cooperative behavior” (Lewicki, Saunders, & Barry, 2006, p. 396). The “Big Five” Personality Factors The “Big Five” are five factors of personality traits. These traits are extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness. These factors of personality focus on behaviors one expresses during negotiations.
Each trait reveals different characteristics and many occur in people together. People have the same five factors; however, have differing degrees of these factors in combination, leading to different personalities. Real Estate Transaction When dealing with a real estate transaction a win-win situation is the desired outcome. I had my house for sale and priced approximately 12. 5% over what I originally purchased. The market I was selling at that time had an average increase in home price approximately 8% increases per year. I had my house for sale by owner below market value.
I had several offers that were below my original purchase price and rejected. I finally had an offer made to me by a realtor for approximately 5% over my original purchase price. I pulled comparables and looked at all the sold and current listing prices, and added a counter offer with 10% above the original price. This realtor came back to me with 7. 5% over my original purchase price and cash deal with a closing date less than 30 days. This was a negotiated deal that I accepted. This incident demonstrated that the cooperative style is a more successful and resourceful way.
Conclusion In order to communicate well while negotiating one must know exactly what questions to ask, ask relevant question and listen effectively. Negotiating can occur at any place and time and therefore, to successfully and professionally make the best negotiation for your organization you must communicate well and know how to negotiate properly. Reference Lewicki, R. J. , Barry, B. , & Saunders, D. M. (2007). Readings, exercises, and cases. In Negotiations (p. 5). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.