Communication and Professional Relationships with Children, Young People and Adults Essay
Communication and professional relationships with children, young people and adults. 2. 3:1. 1 Describe how to establish respectful, professional relationships with children and young people. (Sourced from teaching assistants handbook level 2): Ten ways to develop positive relationships with pupils: 1. Remembering children’s names and pronouncing them correctly. 2. Being approachable and willing to listen to pupils 3. Listening and responding to pupils in ways which let children feel they are understood. 4.
Giving time to pupils as individuals within the school. 5. Avoiding stereotype judgements about individual pupils concerning race, gender, ability or religion.
6. Getting pupils own explanation concerning behaviour before critciising them; do not jump to conclusions. 7. Communicating with pupils I n a sensitive way, e. g. do not interrupt them rudely or talk over them. 8. Showing pupils that they are valued and important people. 9. Being alert to children’s feeling. 10. Looking at the world from a child’s point of view.
It is essential to show a genuine interest in the child’s welfare from a nurturing and educational perspective, being aware of confidentiality when working with children in your local community.
2. 3:1. 2 describe with examples how to behave appropriately for a child or young person’s stage of development. With every age group and remembering all children will have their own unique development it is important to get the basics right – “remember their frame of reference” – at the point of communication/instruction form the TA is the child/young person able to understand, carry out, think out a solution etc. t is important to remember also the developmental milestones discussed in section 2. 1 and alter behaviour accordingly. However there are differences in behaviour dependent upon leaners age, i. e. Children who are 3-5 years old need to have their welfare considered as a priority and a warm, safe play environment provided. These children will struggle to articulate their needs/wants appropriately. The TA’s role is to support the child’s expression and to guide the child in achieving appropriate age related milestones.
As the child gets older the more independent the child becomes in terms of, gross and fine motor skills, cognitive development, communication and language, emotional, social and personal development; therefore the behaviour of the TA has to alter accordingly. Children and young people need to have their own ability and points of view heard, their education and knowledge respected in the classroom. However structure and rules in the classroom are important to give a foundation for a warm supportive atmosphere.
Another example of this will be to awareness by the TA that from the age of 8 children will have a developmental milestones regarding personal, emotional and social development; so children can become sensitive to criticism, puberty changes and their idea of self-becoming more defined. The TA needs to encourage physical activity, allow them to talk freely or be aware of children needing alone time or privacy. * 0-18 months – A warm soft tone in voice, with soft friendly facial expressions; when preparing dinner and guiding the young child to either eat food or drink milk etc. he adult’s behaviour should be gentle and encouraging through eye contact, demonstration and praise. * 2-3 years – verbal communication with tone, body language becomes more important as the child starts to understand more words. With the situation of giving safety instructions to a child then the adults behaviour should reflect the importance of the instruction whilst ensuring the child feels safe and capable of following it, such as, holding hands whilst crossing the road.
I would ensure that I made eye contact with the child, positive friendly tone to voice and be at their level and then hold out my hand and state that when crossing the road we must hold hands and walk carefully across the road. This instruction is one often repeated on a daily basis when out and will develop as the child becomes older in terms of road safety – aware of traffic movements. * 5 8 years old – verbal instruction, participation, body language, discussion; these are all valuable at this age dynamically.
When involved in a task with children of this age, I would allow a greater freedom of involvement/contribution from the child using my own facial expressions to encourage this, such as, guided reading in a group – recently I experienced this where I encourage the children to ask each other questions, deciding how they would respond appropriately in the group environment. I found that this approach generated a good productive learning environment and they seemed to enjoy it. * 12 – 16. This age group needs a greater recognition for independence and knowledge. I would endeavour to use a more conciliatory attitude with this age group.
I would ensure that my body language was positive and accepting, such as, if involved with a group activity I would facilitate their ability to achieve a positive outcome by asking questions; these questions may relate to group dynamics, resolution of activity and how could the situation be improved. * 17-19 years old. This age group I would behave hopefully showing respect through my tone/body language. My verbal communication would be relevant and respectful allowing an openness of opinion within the learning environment. 2. 3:1. 3 Describe how to deal with disagreements between children and young people.
In the teaching assistants handbook there is a sentence which states, “to develop positive relationships every child needs: S – Security P – Praise E – Encouragement C – Communication I – interaction A – Acceptance L – Love The “special” example could be discussed in class by the learners and from there the discussion could be guided to discuss conflict situations. The learner through discussion and role play would become aware of passive, aggressive, submissive and assertive actions and realise the affect in a conflict situation if these traits where displayed.
In an actual event depending upon the severity it is important that both parties are heard with witness statements where appropriate and in line with the schools policy/legal/confidentiality constraints, if appropriate the issue resolved at time with a mutual agreement, such as an apology or where necessary moving into schools disciplinary policy. e. g. If a child of five kept annoying a fellow class mate and disrupting a task, then they might be asked to stop, sit on their own and placed on the class room” cloud”! , or if a child using physical violence and or swearing then this would be a matter or the teacher/head teacher to become involved in instigating school policy. 2. 3:1. 4 Describe how own behaviour could * Promote effective interactions with children and young people. * Impact negatively on interactions with children and young people Effective interactions: 1. Encouraging children to sort out their problems together. E. g. Conflict in playground could be resolved by asking the children/young persons to discuss what happened giving each time to state their opinion and then asking questions to aid the children overcoming the problem; do you agree with this?
And how would you progress the situation now? 2. Being a good role model; I would ensure that my own behaviour is appropriate and I would endeavour to demonstrate organically good manners, politeness and fairness. The class rules state to, “Care and Share”. 3. Allowing children to set their own ground rules/ agreeing a strategy with a child/children/ negotiating solutions with children * : in class the children established their own ground rules for behaviour, these were then written out onto a large poster and the children coloured in the words and decorated the poster.
The poster is now displayed in the class room for all to see, they then all signed it to say they agreed to act accordingly. 4. Talking to a child who has behaved inappropriately, away from others but still remaining in sight. I experienced a situation whereby a child had pushed another child which caused the other child to fall over and hurt themselves; the child that was hurt was quite upset and I felt that the child that had caused the accident needed to be spoken to about their behaviour.
I ensured the hurt child was ok and was settled and then I asked the other child to move to the other side of the class rooms – I was in sight of other children and teacher. I then asked why that behaviour has happened, we discussed the situation in light of the class rules that had been written and agreed and then the child agreed to apologise to the to the other child and I ensured that both children felt the issue had been resolved. 5. Thanking children for the help and support. I feel it is very important that a good example is set by my own behaviour and positively pointing out when they forget to say please and thank you.
At school there is a series of doors that breaks up the corridors between classrooms; children are encouraged to keep open the door whilst other people go through them. The children are asked to take note of those children who thank the child opening the door. In cases of exceptionally good behaviour “house” points can be given. Also year 2 to year 4 are encouraged to become good role models for the younger children, especially reception children; the teachers and teaching assistants always thank the older children for their help.
Impact negatively: 1. Shouting at children: In all ages, including adults shouting at them has little positive effect. In babies and younger children, shouting would cause extreme fear and only result in upsetting them severely. As children get older the initial fear reaction will still be there however the child may become confused, aggressive themselves as they will tend to mimic the way they are being communicated with. It can be the case of trying to motivate a child/young person through fear rather than interest.
An exception may be when immediate danger, such as crossing the road or prevent an accident. 2. Invading children’s private space: It is important recognise a child’s personal space, at all ages it is important when in any caring, supportive and educational role with children that their personal space is not violated. In my personal experience I always ask my daughters permission to help undress/dress her; even when she was a baby I would talk through what I was about to do and why I was doing it, such as changing her nappy or feeding her.
I wanted her to understand that I do not have any rights to just invade her space without telling her what I was doing and now as she can do most things herself I will ask her if she needs help etc. before doing g it. In school I would always ensure that I would ask the child if it’s ok to help, such as during break time first aid cover – letting them know what I was doing for their care. 3. Teasing a child. Nobody likes to be teased even” in fun”!! – I feel humour is in important but a child’s emotional development has to be recognised as to what is appropriate humour to use.
A child of 5 would generally not understand sarcasm and could feel unsettled by its use; however when dealing with young people in some cases sarcasm may be appropriate as a 2. 3:2. 1 know how to interact with and respond to adults. Describe how to establish respectful, professional relationships with adults: It is very important when dealing with adults that appropriate forms of communication are used. Verbal, nonverbal, symbolic and written, using these with integrity and appropriateness will generate a positive start to forming professional relationships with adults.
This is important because it helps to maintain a positive learning environment that benefits everyone. 2. 3:2. 2 describe the importance of adult relationships as role models for children and young people. When a child or young person sees an adult behaving in a certain way, communicating with other adults it shows them how they could/should behave. It is important that adults are good role models for children and young adults because it shows them how to behave. Children and young people will often mimic the communication techniques of their family environment consciously or subconsciously. . 3:3 know how to communicate with children, young people and adults. 2. 3:3. 1 and 3. 2 Describe how to communicate with children and young people differs across different age ranges and stage of development. Describe the main differences between communicating with adults and communicating with children and young people. * 0-18 months – at this age and development the adult’s display of body language, facial expression, eye contact, tone of voice and verbal communication needs to be soft and reassuring to the baby. The baby needs to feel loved, warmth, well fed, well rested and played with.
Gently singing voices, soft toys and basic language such as food descriptions – milk, water, yes, no, hot and cold. * 2-3 years – at this age and development the child needs the points described above but now there ability to understand language is greatly developed; they will be able to understand a lot more and communicate back what their likes, dislikes, wants and needs. They will be asserting themselves – “the terrible twos”!! As some people call them. Then need to know boundaries such as safety boundaries but they ill understand basic explanations as to why as well. Often techniques such as the reflective chair is needed, naughty step etc. as at this age children their emotional development will tend to be yes or no, wrong or right, however praise and recognising when the child has behaved well is vital in achieving good communication with them. * 5-8 years old – again at this age and development the adult needs to recognise the child greater ability to understand verbal communication such as sarcasm, storytelling, and factual information.
They will need a lot of emotional support as they will have gone through some important transitions such as starting school, new role models in the lives – teachers etc. , new friends, an awareness of social status at school – these will need support from their carers and learning environment. This age group will be able to understand written communications better; the concentration spans will be longer enabling them to take in more information, such as in lessons. 12-16 years old – this age and development will be actively seeking communication with their peers and subjects of interest such as animal rights, poetry, music etc. They may find it difficult to talk to their carers/educators as they may feel that there is little similar interest etc. They will be using social media hopefully under parental guidance. They will be able to write extensively and express opinions about factual information. Their imagination will be able to create their own ideas and express them in their own unique way – such as photography.
The adults need to communicate effectively showing respect to the young person but ensuring safety is paramount. * 17-19 years old – at this point the young person is nearly an adult and will have a wide ranging vocabulary to use, be able to express ideas/opinions in a variety of ways. They will be able to retain large amounts of information and then communicate it all at exam times under a great deal of pressure. There emotional development however may still need maturing and therefore the adult needs to be aware of this as frustrations may be shown through confrontational behaviour.
Emotional and intellectual support will need to be communicated by the responsible adults at this time. * Adults – at this point the communication status should be relatively equal. There will be exceptions as respect has to be given for knowledge and position in society and this comes from a knowledge that can be taught through observations – how adults communicate with one another as a child develops and maturity – through experience, such as a doctors, police people, fire brigade etc. The difference being that there should be : 1. Appropriate body language . Tone of voice 3. Eye contact 4. Active listening 5. Correct emotional, intellectual response This is a dynamic process changing as the form of communication develops,i. e communication via text will have none of the above just written information but when talking to someone face to face , all of the above will be involved plus memory of previous conversations and there content etc. 2. 3: 3. 3 Identify examples of communication difficulties that may exist. 3. 4 Describe how to adapt communication to meet different communication needs.
Communication Difficulty| Strategies to use| English as a second language| Use visual cards with the word and the picture associated with it. Use their own language against our language on picture cards, source IT solutions such as translating documents/reading books so they have both to compare – may need translator for a time. | Hearing problems| Sign language, ensure eye contact is made. Sit at front of class – made need specialist support, medical, support teaching – also specialist hearing programmes on IT. Cultural differences| Embrace the difference; ask guardians if the class can explore their culture – read books in class, bring in objects etc. with culture to discuss – “show and tell”. | Stammer/Stutter| Ensure confidence in child, take time and don’t interrupt, made need specialist support, include in reading| Personality Clash| Don’t label child/young person – try and find common ground and try and get them to work together on a project – explain challenges to them and see if they would like to work together to overcome them. Shy/lacks confidence| Look at what they enjoy and give lots of praise when they take part without embarrassing them, involve as much as possible at their comfortable level| Forceful personality| Look at structuring their involvement; discuss other people’s characters and how they respond in situations and look at pros and cons – ask them to role play difference scenarios. | Additional points: Scenarios: 1. 2 children aged three years old are playing chase; one child has had enough and starts to get fractious about it when the other persists on carrying on the game.
I would initially see for a very short time if the issue could resolve itself on its own, however if I had to come in this is what I would do: * Make sure I was at their height level * Ask them both what was wrong in front of one another ensuring the children did not interrupt one another – by stating that we should listen and respect one another. * I would then see if they could play together doing something else. * I would express open body language; my tone of voice would be soft but reassuring.
I would try to ensure that the children were friends and played together, if not that they both felt at ease. 2. 4 children aged 7 are working on a project together creating a large scale model of a dinosaur from clay, one of the children keeps breaking the model in places as he has Dyspraxia and has poor coordination and manipulative skills and the others are getting frustrated. Initially I would ensure that the children were calm by asking them to speak one at a time to tell me what the problem was.
I would then ask the child with Dyspraxia what they felt the problem was; I would then ask the other children if there was one part that could be made by the other child. It would be important to ensure that the child with Dyspraxia felt included and I would do this by body laugauge and eye contact so that they were involved in the decision making process. 3. 2 ten year old boys are arguing about who has made the best picture for a school competition and it is now starting to get out of hand.
At this point a the situation needs to calm down so that would be my first priority and I would do this by asking them both to stop talking at each other and tell me one at a time what was the problem. Ensuring I was actively listening to them and had good eye contact. At this point how the conversation would go is difficult to say as I would suspect that in a few cases humour would be good to resolve, or a discussion on difference of opinion and the respect to agree to disagree etc. – could be used as a good learning opportunity for communication development. .
4 girls aged 15 have been short listed for the main role in the school’s annual production. There are roles for them all but they all want the leading part and tensions is clearly mounting amongst them to the point where they are picking fault with each other and highlighting the fact that one wears glasses, one is too “ fat” and one is Asian so couldn’t possibly play the leading part in Grease. This situation is a great opportunity to discuss diversity, cultural and social difference, empathy and acceptance of difference.
I would bring all the girls together and let them express what strengths they feel they have for the role in front of the other girls and then guide the conversation to who they felt best would suit the role, allowing difference of opinion be expressed but ensuring respect was maintained. My goal would be for the girls to choose themselves who would play lead. It may be important to carry on this situation by visiting/seeing performances which different to the normal expectations such as a modern Romeo and Juliet play etc. 2. 3:3. 5 Describe how to deal with disagreements between: The practioner and children and young people * The practioner and other adults If there was a disagreement between myself and a child/young person I would hope that the situation could be resolved between us. I would ensure that the environment we were in was conducive and that we were not on our own and that the child/young person was safe. I would initially say to them that I am sorry if I have upset them and that I really want to sort the issue out for everyone, I would ensure that my body language was appropriate, my tone of voice friendly and my language appropriate for their age.
I would ask them to tell me what they felt was wrong and ask how that makes them feel, if I thought it would help I would offer an explanation and then ask if they felt this had resolved the issue. If the issue was not resolved I would ask that another adult such as the teacher be involved to help come to a resolution. It is important to ensure that they child/young person has felt that their point of view has been heard no matter the outcome. In a case where safety is a risk then the child/young person might not be allowed to climb the outside of the school building!
But their wish has been expressed and heard and may be a trip to a rock climbing centre could be arranged. If there was a disagreement between myself and another adult I would wish to discuss the problem and ensure that it got resolved. I would actively listen, use appropriate body language and respond with respect. If the situation could not be resolved then I would ask for another adult to arbitrate the situation. 2. 3:4. 1 know about current legislation, policies and procedures for confidentiality and sharing information, including data protection.
Identify relevant legal requirements and procedures covering confidentiality, data protection and the disclosure of information. Data protection act 1998 covers 8 enforceable principles of personal data: 1. Fairly and lawfully processed 2. Processed for limited purposes 3. Adequate, relevant and not excessive 4. Accurate 5. Not kept longer than necessary 6. Processed in accordance with data subjects rights 7. Secure 8. Not transferred to countries without adequate protection
Individual rights are protected by Freedom of Information Act 2000; this allows individuals to ask any public sector organisation for all recorded information they have. Also; * Public authorities are obliged to publish certain information about their activates * Members of the public can request information from public authorities. Any personal data such as health records, credit checks etc. are governed by the Data Protection Act 1998. Also the school will have their own policies and procedures outlining their confidentiality mandate for the school.
The teachers and teaching assistants must ensure that these are followed. At school there will be records held about all pupils and these records are protected by these laws. However there will be general information that everyone needs to be aware of such as health issues, allergies, exclusion from religious education or physical education. Also if there are any confidential matters those teachers/assistants need to be aware of such as transitions that happening at home and child welfare issues. Also emergency contacts have to be available.
There will also be the information shared between colleagues at school that must be treated confidentially and discussed only ever in a professional manner, the parameters for these conversation may be outlines in the schools confidentiality policies. 2. 3:4. 2 describe the importance of reassuring children, young people and adults of the confidentiality of shared information and the limits of this. Any information shared amongst colleagues, children and young people with reference to others at their school must have a purpose and be non – detrimental to the individual concerned.
There is an obvious need for the knowledge of allergies to be known, such as nut allergies. The school needs to issue a policy so everyone is aware of what to do in such circumstances and what not to do to prevent an event. The parents of all children may need to be issued with a ban on nuts at school etc. There may be an incident where I am asked for specific information relating to another child by a parent, such as an address for a birthday party invitation. This is not a reason to state personal data to another and the parent should be asked to contact the appropriate parent themselves.
Another situation that could arise is whereby private information needs to be isolated before seeing to an issue that has is just arisen; in the case of completing school achievement records of a child/young person these should not be left if a first aid incident needed to be dealt with. The records could be placed out or reach or placed in a draw quickly before attending issue. If I had any concerns of a child’s welfare I would speak to the teacher about the issue before discussing it with anyone else. If appropriate I would speak to head teacher/safe guarding officer as well in such cases the teacher was implicated.
I would write my own notes and then give them to the head teacher and monitor the situation. If a child raised an issue with me and I felt that their safety was at risk I would have to let them know that I have a duty of care to inform the safe guarding officer at school of what I have been told. However I would do my upmost to ensure that the child/young person was looked after treated with respect and the situation dealt with care. 2. 3:4. 3 identify the kinds of situations when confidentiality protocols must be breached. I would breach confidentiality of a child/young person if I felt that their safety/welfare was at risk.