Communication Paper Stefanie Gonzalez University of Phoenix Communication paper No matter what we do, we are communicating whether we intend to or not - Communication Paper introduction. Communication goes far beyond talking, nonverbal communication, in its many forms, gives off certain messages to people of different genders and cultures. When communicating, one must understand the importance of effective communication in diverse environments. People communicate in various ways but it comes down to two forms verbal and nonverbal communication. Verbal communication is spoken words among individuals.
Verbal communication has three functions, task ordering, process orientation, and narrative. Task ordering ‘involves cognitive meaning that focuses on either/or choices and creates an understanding about the groups purposes and processes’ (Harris, Thomas E, & Sherblom, John C. , 2008). Process orientation allows us to address successfully conflicts that arise in the group and last but not least, narrative refers to the way we speak of our group. Our verbal expressions of the group will reflect in the way we act and feel towards the group.
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Nonverbal communication includes facial expressions, body language, paralanguage, proxemics, and chronemics, along with many other things. Facial expressions refer to eye contact or a smile on ones face. Body language is the message we send with the movement of body parts. Paralanguage is the meaning perceived with the words used to express the message. Proxemics is the individual boundaries people draw. Chronemics is the study of the use of time. Research estimates that between 65% (Birdwhistell, 1970) and 93% (Mehrabian, 1981) of communication is nonverbal.
When communicating between genders there is always some sort of challenges. Sociolinguist Deborah Tannen, who has written a book called You Just Don’t Understand: Women and Men in Conversation, shows that the differences between the communication styles of men and women go far beyond mere socialization, and appear to be inherent in the basic make up of each sex. Tannen observed that, “For males, conversation is the way you negotiate your status in the group and keep people from pushing you around; you use talk to preserve your independence.
Females, on the other hand, use conversation to negotiate closeness and intimacy; talk is the essence of intimacy, so being best friends means sitting and talking. For boys, activities, doing things together, are central. Just sitting and talking is not an essential part of friendship. They’re friends with the boys they do things with. ” When a woman is expressing her feelings about a particular situation the male will try to provide a solution because of their instinct to fix things, but the women just wants him to listen which causes her to think he is brushing her off.
Every country has its own way of saying things. The important thing is that which lies behind people’s words. – Freya Stark, The Journey’s Echo. Communicating across cultures can be very difficult due to the different meanings of one’s actions and words In the Hispanic culture one greets with a hug and in America the standard greeting is the handshake. Depending on cultural backgrounds one will set standards for appropriate communication. When communicating in different cultures put aside personal feelings and perspectives, certain remarks can offend someone.
Understanding different cultures can be imperative to travelers to communicate effectively and conduct business. When in diverse environments effective communication can be to listen and interact with people in a manner that you just don’t know the answer. When speaking to other cultures people say ‘oh I know how they are or I know how that is’ and so they don’t take the time to listen to the message. They already have it set in their mind that they have the right answer and they completely miss the important part of the message.
People must put aside all opinions and listen to the meaning of the message being expressed. A person must take into consideration a person’s background, religious beliefs, and morals. All solutions or suggestion must represent the many different perspectives and come to a compromise. In conclusion, verbal and nonverbal communication, communication between genders and across cultures, and communicating effectively in diverse environments are all important aspects of communication one must develop to successfully conduct business, at any level. Reference Harris, Thomas E. & Sherblom, John C. (2008). Small Group and Team Communication (4th ed. ). , : Allyn & Bacon. Birdwhistell, R. L. (1970). Kinesics and context: Essays on body motion communication. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Mehrabian, A. (1981). Silent messages: Implicit communication of emotions and attitudes (2nd ed. ). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth (1990). You just dont understand. Retrieved October 12, 2009, from http://www. homestar. org/bryannan/tannen. html (). Communicating Across Cultures. Retrieved October 13, 2009, from http://www. hodu. com/across. shtml
Week One Assignment CJA 304 Simone Communication is the process of exchanging messages, which are either verbally and nonverbally - Communication Paper introduction. In order to communicate there must be a sender. The sender is the person who sends the message. The sender encodes the message for the recipient to interpret and receive. The message is the key idea that the sender is trying to communicate. The recipient is the person who is receiving the message. This individual has to decode the message in which they interpret or make out what the sender is trying to communicate to them.
Verbal communication consists of the words a sender chooses to use for their message. An effective verbal message should be brief and organized. If a sender is rambling or unorganized it will be difficult for the receiver to understand the message. A verbal communicator has to have the right tone and establish credibility in the beginning. An individual must give and receive feedback. When verbally communicating you have to speak objectively, clear, and consistently. Nonverbal communications is shown through feelings, emotions, attitudes, body movements, gestures, eye contact and more.
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For example, a person may communicate with people through facial expressions. An individual face expression can help a receiver to understand the tone of the conversation. A person’s face is a huge displayer of emotions. The eyes tell a lot about emotions as well. Posture can also tell a receiver how a sender is feeling. Feelings, emotions, attitude and more are displayed nonverbally through body movement, gestures, and eye contact. Its not necessarily what a person says that matters, it is how they say it and how they display it. (Nonverbal Communication 2008) In order to be a good communicator you have to listen well.
Listening is defined as concentrating on hearing someone or something. While listening you have to pay attention in order to really take something into account. When you perceive sound then you are hearing but that is not the same as listening. A person has to be conscious in order to listen. In addition, the individual has to actually concentrate so their brain can process the message. When a person listens they first have to receive the message. Then the individual will focus on the message and interpret the meaning. Following that once the person understands the essage they can evaluate it and decide how they want to respond. If an individual is distracted by anything it can affect their listening abilities. When a person is listening their body language will reflect that they are listening. When listening effectively a person will be able to paraphrase what the sender has stated and give feedback. A person who is listening and not just hearing will be able to identify key points and will ask questions to clarify. In addition, they will be able to eliminate any distractions in order to give their undivided attention to the speaker.
In order to listen a person cannot be talking. If they are talking then they will be thinking about their next sentence and hearing the speaker but not listening to the message. In order to listen the receiver has to consciously focus their attention on the sender. Moreover, a listener’s body language must reflect that they are interested in the message. For example, a listener should make eye contact with the speaker so they know that they have the listener’s attentiveness. A big part of listening and not just hearing is paying attention to gestures, body language, facial expressions, and tone of voice.
This will help a receiver to grasp the concept of the conversation easier. Furthermore, a good listener does not interrupt the speaker. It can distract the sender from their main idea and make it harder for them to get their original message across. Anyone can hear what someone is saying but to listen effectively, a person must want to listen, focus on the message, pick up the main ideas, and understand the sender’s point of view. (Reis P. 78-82) “Clearly, communication skills are critical within a law enforcement agency.
These skills include the ability to read, write, and understand what is written, as well as to orally transmit and receive information. ” (Wallace Ch. 1) Report writing is a formal way of communication in law enforcement. Officers have to write arrest reports. They may have to do some follow-up investigation paperwork. In addition, they have to take written exams in order to be promoted and for performance evaluation. Everyone in the criminal justice field has to write reports; in many cases they do this daily. They may also have to take down statements from victims of crimes, suspects, and/or witnesses.
Some other forms of formal communication would be policies sand procedures in policing. Those would be written for each officer to see and comply with. Officers can communicate formally through memoranda or in departmental meetings. They may also have interviews as well, in which they need to communicate thoroughly. Oral communication is extremely necessary in law enforcement as well. Officers may be required to testify in court. This will work hand in hand with their written communication because they may need to reference their reports they previously wrote.
Other forms of formal communication may include memos, emails, discussions between officers, and more. Other information is shared through informal communication, such as word of mouth. Communication, whether formal or informal is a process in which information is transferred. In law enforcement there are a lot of policies and procedures and when sharing information these policies need to be followed. When communicating, law enforcement has to always consider who their audience is. Sometimes it can be difficult to communicate effectively. There can be many different barriers when trying to communicate.
For example, there can be cultural differences. In law enforcement, officers come across individual from many different cultures. The way they do things, express emotions, what they consider disrespect, or how they speak can be totally different. Another example could be a law enforcement officials own personal prejudices or expectations. Everyone has his or her own expectations and sometimes this can get in the way when trying to communicate well. Language differences could also be an issue. Sometimes if a person has an accent it may be difficult to understand what they are saying.
Moreover, if they do not speak the same language as an officer it can make the interaction more challenging. Hearing impaired individuals may have a hard time communicating with an officer as well, especially if the officer is unaware that the person is hearing impaired. One very big interruption in communicating well is emotional barriers. Sometime feelings can truly interfere and may a person communicate in an abrupt way. Differences in perception are another big barrier when communicating. Some people do not have the same point of view and this can affect them from listening and hearing the sender out.
Law enforcement officials have to learn how to be skilled communicators so they can see these barriers immediately and adjust themselves accordingly. Since communication is a major part of law enforcement it is important to find effective ways to overcome communication barriers. One way to overcome barriers is to learn to empathize. This is when you learn to see things from the other person’s point of view and try not to be judgmental. Agencies can implement training on how to be empathetic and role-play out some scenarios in which an officer may need to empathize. Courses on how to effectively listen would be helpful as well.
Listening is not the same as hearing. Officers should be able to listen verbally and non-verbally in order to get clarification on what the message is that a person is trying to relay. In addition, training on how to put personal emotions to the side or monthly counseling could help law enforcement as well. Sometimes an officer may have personal problems or something might rub them they wrong way. When trying to communicate effectively they have to be aware of other people’s feelings and put their personal issue or biases to the side. Finally a conflict resolution course could be effective as well.
Knowing how to negotiate, mediate, and resolve problems is a big part of communicating and will help others communicate well who are involved in a situation. Law enforcement and any other profession have a duty to communicate effectively. Everyone needs to focus on the meaning of what they are trying to say and just say it concisely. They also need to listen and take a moment to pay close attention to what others are saying. Having a positive attitude and open mind will always help with communicating; minimize stress, conflicts, and barriers. References (2011, 04). Barriers to Effective Communication.
StudyMode. com. Retrieved 04, 2011, from http://www. studymode. com/essays/Barriers-To-Effective-Communication-667341. html “Non Verbal Communication – Actions Speak Louder than Words. ” Non Verbal Communication – Actions Speak Louder than Words. Managementstudyguide. com, Jan. -Feb. 2008. Web. 04 Apr. 2013. . Reis, Harry T. , and Susan Sprecher. Encyclopedia of Human Relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2009. Print. Wallace, Harvey, and Cliff Roberson. Written and Interpersonal Communication: Methods for Law Enforcement. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall, 2009. Print.