Communist Revolution in China
Communist Revolution in China
Great hallmark of historical events characterized the communist revolution in the Chinese republic - Communist Revolution in China introduction. The political success of the communism power was provided by the nature of actions as well as the policies that were used by Guomidang. Through such policies, the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) was thus able to have a political advantage. Elsewhere, a broad diversity of socio-political factors, which were evident in China during the early 19th century also acted as a bridge towards the success story for the communist. Perhaps, the 1937 – 1945 war between the Japanese and the Chinese provided a political survival. Such was evident of providing insufficiency and also vulnerability to the to the Guomidang at the time of this war.1
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At this time of the civil war, the then leader Chiang Kai-shek could not get majority support from the intellectual and also the Chinese peasants. With this condition, china lost the war and therefore Chiang could no longer provide his dictative authority to the Chinese republic. From such war loss, the then communist leader Mao Zedung would therefore take over Chinese leadership from the continued support of the Guomidand’s actions.
The revolutionary epochs of China is dated back in the early 20th Century from a wide scope of problems that had entangled its political and social frontiers. From the loosing political discontent, the CCP took it as advantage for giving the Chinese political hopes that primary led to its winning formula for the better part of the Chinese communist group. Not until the early days of the 20th Century, China had a rule lured by dynasties which were as a result of the promulgations of the formerly Confucian theories. This was the Chinese thought of the nation as been ‘Zhongguo’ implying a center for the west world contemporaries. Amongst the ruling dynasties was the Qing rule dynasty whose establishment was in 1644 and saw more than 250 years of rule in China.
At the start of the 19th Century, the Chinese republic had been faced with rigities in foreign trade, political influences and war. When the social discontent to the people continued to increase during this time, the Chinese had started in resolving for a political change in the situation.2 This was the historical outcome and start of ‘boxer rebellion’. By and large, the effects and the aftermath implications of this rebellion provided the support for reformation in China. However, the same provided only “too little” implication and a “too late” time frame implication. Broad, the existing Qing dynasty had an evidence of drawbacks and failing the forecasted prospectus of the Chinese people. During the 1903, CiXi the Doirager Empress died and PuYi who was her nephew and three years old become the leader of the Chinese emperor. This led to further growth in political discontent, which led to regrouping of various groups such as Tongmenghui in a trial to overthrowing the Qing leadership.2 The remarkable growth in revolutionary uprising was on the October 10th in 1911 when a group of army plotters developed up and made a control over the Wuchang Province. The same action was a surprise to many people that saw ‘Wuchang Uprising’
Evident of this, one Tongmenghui member, Sun Yatsen became the dominant provincial president to the Chinse republic in January 1912. However, he was made to resign following the Yuan Shikai abduction to the emperor of Qing, which led to his appointment. Consequently, this led to the formation of the communist revolutionary party. It was called Guomidang and had a believe in the officials election principle as well as the rule of parliamentary democracy. However, Yuan outlawed the party in 1913 following his impartial disagreement with it.
At the verge of the broke up of the World War I, Japan had a political advantage across Europe. Its invasion to the Quingdao in 1915 was evident of an uprising political turmoil in China. Yuan Shikai was confronted with a requirement of 21 demands from Japan, which led to a passive control on the economic feasibility in China. Not only did the demands provide a harm to the Chinese economy but also led to great social humiliations and tribulations to the generation of the Chinese people. Sun Yatsen became the new rule of China after the death of Yuan in 1916. His leadership was forecasted on revolution against obedience and modernization. However, after the end of World war I, the Chinese republic had a long training assumption of prompt rewards from its allies. However, China was now developing a new cultural autonomy movement following the rejection of the assumed reward by the global allies. Such new culture was founded on education and also prodemocracy.3 They also rejected the old and the native ways of living, which included Confucianism. Elsewhere, china was now declining the existing states of democratic system of governance, which were assumed by France and the Great Britain. In a corresponding stalemate in 1919 when the Chinese allies declined their reward to the country, an outrage developed in China. This led to the growth in the “May 4th political movement” that had its demand on the start of socialist governance system. Following this demand, the soviet fighters started withdrawing from the Chinese republic.
In 1923 following the signing up of the socialist treaty on 1921, Chinese communist party (CCP) started in Paris and also Beijing. This saw their leaders as Chou Enlan and Mao Zedong respectively. Currently, the state of livelihood in China was pathetic which followed the disruptions and various problems that developed in the country following the penetration of the Europe in the start of 19th Century. The next evident call and afterthought for the Chinese people was a governance system which was evident of bringing political, social and economic solutions above providing a solution to their long anniversaries in struggle democratic resolutions.1
The success attribute for the communist came over when they credited the pathetic state of livelihood they had to the actions and also policies of Guomidang leadership. The beginning of Guomidang leadership promulgated on democratic revolution. This was provided by three guiding governance principles of its socialist leader Sun Yatsen that included democracy, nationalism and livelihood for the people. According to him, nationalism comprised of a strong system of central governance with the ability of expelling foreign political influence before restoring Chinese independence. Accordingly, Sun’s rule on democracy was rooted on securing both equality and also liberty to the people. This was perhaps a rhetorical dispensation considering the rule of imperial dynasty that had characterized China.4 Sun had a great demand over a fair view in a wealth distribution which would hitherto reflect sustainability in livelihood for the people. However, the leadership by Sun provided neither harmony nor social cohesion within China. This was affected by high contribution on national distegration and division by foreigners and also Chinese warlords. Chiang Kai-Shek took over Guomindang leadership in 1925 after the death of Sun Yatsen. His mode of leadership was characterized by an aggression to problem confrontation with a well outlay set of national priorities where military unification was put first. However, he put other reforms as primarily of minor implication and low importance to the Chinese revolution.5
However, Chiang dictated the massacre of 6000 communist two years after his ruling. This resulted to the explosion of the communist before aligning his own government built on the principle of nationalism in Nanjing in the 1928. His way of leadership did not however saw the leadership remarks on nationalism by Sun Yatsen fully committed. This was because of his failure in preventing the Japanese invasion to the Chinese republic. His leadership failed to provide unity codes to the people, which were provided by his alienation desire for the CCP as well as the Chinese peasants. Chiang also had an allied relationship with various warlords, which was the stepping-stone in the betrayal of livelihood for the people, a strong hallmark in the Sun’s leadership mottos. This was primarily evident of the manner that led to taking livelihood advantages for the people and hence a miserable life. To him, democracy was only a philosophical promulgation and never counted on his state leadership. With this, the people were never given the opportunity for democratic rights.4 However, the 1937-1945 Sino-Japanese war that led to the downfall of Nanjing and Shangai showed out lack of leadership skills by Chiang. To Chiang who was a dictator in the military, Unity for China would be achieved through use of force arms as well as over-throwing the resistance for nationalist government. This included the Japanese, then later Warlords and the communists. Following the upheaviling socio-economic rigidities, China introduced taxation and credit system across the country, which would provide a refuge to the inflation and losses in the economy within the country. The same taxes as well as the credit tool brought unfairness to the people, which acted also as a tool towards providing a more state of concern towards increasing discontent. The peasants were now paying 45% of the final yields harvest as land rent. Failure to make such payment would see them imprisoned following the strong legal support for the landlords. Tax collection also provided the discharge of whatever could be afforded by the peasants. This was because of lack of the basic knowledge by the payers on the essence of legal rate. This was an evidence of what conceived the legal, financial and state leadership system provided by Chiang.5
Conventionally, the Guomindang governance lacked the interest of social revolution in China. The epochs in the success of CCP was allied to the discretional actions as well as policies they promulgated during their war with Japan at their control areas. After the end of World War I, a big economic crisis characterized the country. There was a low demand for various Chinese products and a low currency demand for its currency after the war. Elsewhere, the world had previously entered the great economic depression with the 1930’s. The Chinese central government led by Chiang had been weakened and thus unable in providing critical resolutions for such great economic upheavals following these implications. Chinese communist party was formed as a refuge to provide economic retribution to the people. This was seen in 1921 when Mao Zedong and other young radicals came together to foresee the establishment of the CCP. According to Mao, the communist ideologies as well its advanced social system style of governance was full of strength and vitality, which would be able to sweep the whole world in an avalanche momentum and a thunderbolt force. However, the party lacked the general consideration of the ability of ruling China. The CCP however engaged itself in a corporation with the Guamindang three years following their upcoming. This was an invitation by Michael Bordin who was political advisor in Russia. The coalition was now evident in 1924 with the aim of defeating the existing warlords. However, the coalition broke in 1927 when Chiang Kai-Shek took over after the death of Sun with the people regard of Chiang as the most super warlord. The communists got an explosion from the coalition. Following this, the communists were now obliged at setting up “base areas’ with which they would actively influence revolution in China.5
From this point, the group (communist) got a very rapid growth that led to fast push of the existing policies including labour unions and land reforms. The same led to execution of many CCP members. In their struggle for survival, the communist led by Mao established the Jiangxi base area. They started working for equitable land provisions and policies as well as military tactics, which involved the peasants. The “long march’ by 100, 000 communist in 1934 began that covered more than six thousand miles. The same was a tool of strategic advantage in effecting tactics for military defense. It helped to provide positive state of involvement through psychological sensorship and providing organization effects towards their civil success. There move was towards fighting the Japanese who had strongly invaded the northern part of China.
The World War II came as a great opportunity for the communist revolution. They fought strong guerilla war with Mao as their leader. However, the atrocities by the Japanese lead to more resistance by peasants. Absence and lack of local power controllers led to survival for the communists in the movement where great resistance to foreign invasion by the communist patriots occured. The role of women was highly established within the communist policies. This was according to the provision by the Mao that “women held up a strong place in the sky”2
Women were freed from men and their husbands. The communists revolution also led to the freeing of the peasants from entangles of landlords. Generally, the tactics and also policies provided by the communist revolution provided an appeal to many Chinese people. Since long, the Chinese were seeking for social-economic resolutions, which were adequately provided for by the CCP. Following its pack of contribution, this movement provided a better package of national development by the people through winning the Japanese –Chinese War, economic development and social integration.
The success of the CCP was allied to a huge mass of peasants and also intellectual personalities. However, the welcoming and appealing development in national policies acted to provide such a condition. The peasants who made Chinese majority were curbed with increasingly poor conditions. The system of livelihood provided dependence on limited production on crops, which was also doubled with the highly increasing national population. Elsewhere, the country was faced with the impact of the 1929 Great depression and high levels of economic inflation.3 The levels of taxation, rental rate for land and interest rate were increasingly becoming greater making lives more unbearable. According to Mao’s perspective, peasants were unable at first instance to lead towards revolution. However in his later opinion, their action would be like a storm, hurricane and would swiftly provide a change. They were able to create liberation through sweeping out the imperialist’s, local tyrants, warlords, and also the evil gentry out of power to their graves. They had sought that the win over peasants would be through lower taxes, reforms on land, abolishing debts and establishing a government based on local service. Therefore, two key personalities were attributable towards communist revolution, through the peasants and also the intellectuals. The communists’ revolution sought resolution in the people’s problems. A general persuasion was provided to the entire population, which therefore provided a journey towards success towards getting to power by the communist.4
From the great fear on foreign influences the Chinese had a great fear towards the safety of the whole nation. In 1937, the communist group mobilization towards full invasion to rescue the occupation by the Japanese saw high killing within the initial stages of the invasion. With the great attack by the Japanese, China went into a political turmoil that saw many fleeing across its boundaries and others killed. Elsewhere, the 1946- 1989 civil War in China saw a great contribution towards the communist’s rule. This provided a control over the fight that occurred between the communist and the nationalist. During this war, communists were evicted from the south and central parts of China.
In the great struggle towards their political survival, the communists’ armies had a bank of war strengths, a characteristic that gave them success due to their disadvantage of low equipment and manpower for war. There was a strong corporation between its officials. The group provided expectations in war. From the experience they had learnt in their war with the Japanese, the communists had well-packed qualifications towards war survival.1
However, the long perceived communist’s victory was found on January 1949 when they proclaimed victory in the battle that had lasted for two months. This was in Xuzhou, which was the point of defense towards the communist accessing the lower region of Yangzi. Historically, their victory was allied to the strength in their military men and the broad out of programs on social and economic desperations. They emerged out victoriously with Mao Zedong as their leader. The success by the communist saw the Chinese people bound free from the dictatorship of Chang. They developed a freedom in the interaction autonomy with the outside foreign world. Generally, therefore, the success of the communist group through their leader Mao is credited to various socio-economic inadequacies faced by the Chinese people during the socialist governance. The throne of the communist governance towards providing adequate policies and also rules towards freedom for the people. Elsewhere, the same rule was aimed at creating a wide scope of economic growth and general livelihood status.
Buggy, T., The Long Revolution. Shakespeare Head Press, Melbourne,1998, pp. 87, 91, 93
Chu, S.C et al, Li Hunga Chang and China’s early Modernization. East Gate, New York, 1994, pp. 47, 52, 77
Escherick, J.K., The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. University of California Press. London, 1987, pp. 56, 59
Hoepper, et al, Inquiry 1. Jacaranda, Melbourne, 1996, pp.81, 86, 90
Hsu, I, The Rise of Modern China (fifth Edition). Oxford University Press, Clarendon, 1982, PP.64, 69
1 Escherick, J.K., The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. University of California Press. London, 1987, pp.56
2 Buggy, T., The Long Revolution. Shakespeare Head Press, Melbourne,1998, pp.87
2 Buggy, T., The Long Revolution. Shakespeare Head Press, Melbourne,1998, pp. 91
3 Hsu, I, The Rise of Modern China (fifth Edition). Oxford University Press, Clarendon, 1982, pp.64
1 Escherick, J.K., The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. University of California Press. London, 1987, pp.59
4 Chu, S.C et al, Li Hunga Chang and China’s early Modernization. East Gate, New York, 1994, pp.44
5 Hoepper, et al, Inquiry 1. Jacaranda, Melbourne, 1996, pp.81
4 Chu, S.C et al, Li Hunga Chang and China’s early Modernization. East Gate, New York, 1994, pp.52
5 Hoepper, et al, Inquiry 1. Jacaranda, Melbourne, 1996, pp.86
5 Hoepper, et al, Inquiry 1. Jacaranda, Melbourne, 1996, pp. 90
2 Buggy, T., The Long Revolution. Shakespeare Head Press, Melbourne,1998, pp. 93
3 Hsu, I, The Rise of Modern China (fifth Edition). Oxford University Press, Clarendon, 1982, pp.69
4 Chu, S.C et al, Li Hunga Chang and China’s early Modernization. East Gate, New York, 1994, pp.47
1 Escherick, J.K., The Origins of the Boxer Uprising. University of California Press. London, 1987, pp.77