Comparative Analysis of Domestic Violence towards Women in the US and India

Comparative Analysis of Domestic Violence towards Women in the US and India

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            Gender discrimination paves the way for the continuing occurrence of social inequality, specifically the rise of domestic violence against women - Comparative Analysis of Domestic Violence towards Women in the US and India introduction. The female gender being perceived as having the weaker characteristic in terms of physical aspect is the usual victim of abuse in the so-called world of men, wherein the number of molested or abused women consistently increases at a global scope. Impoverished and less-educated women or living below the poverty line and those with physical and mental impairment are most susceptible to violence and lifetime exploitation.

In the year 2009 issue of American Psychiatric Association Journal, it reported that domestic violence usually prompt the victim to committing suicide instead of enduring psychotic episodes. Female children run away from home and thoroughly experience psychosocial trauma as a result of living in the streets, use of illegal substance, sexual molestation and street violence to mention a few.

 Various clinical experts attribute domestic violence could have been originating from home. The occurrences of violence at home, like children witnessing how their father batter their mother may deeply affect the young girls, and young boys alike may feel the domination of their father that can either  affect a psycho-trauma or  imbibe a dominating personality that influences them as grown up men (1). In similar cases of violence at home, most reported cases of domestic violence have taken place in the family, such as paternal or maternal sexual abuse to female or male children, in which rape happens in the family and perpetrated by family members.

            Over the years, domestic violence is a clear violation of human rights and one of the most prevalent issues confronting. Sadly, some cultural practices and religious rites permits and justifies violence on women.  The situation and issues of women has grown into a global concern with the pressing need to be addressed within various groups of civil society, governments and families.

            This term paper will discuss and examine the situation and issues of women, relating the comparative analysis of domestic violence towards women in the US and India. The review of several literatures and other available statistical data will be the method used throughout the examinations and findings.

Literature Review

            Overview

In general, the domestic violence on women transcends to every culture, country, and age group. Every woman is vulnerable to abuse, corruption and discrimination. According to the year 2000 United Nation’s Children Fund (UNICEF) report entitled ‘Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls’ by Angela Hawke, the violence against women reflects gender inequality which resulted to the domination and discrimination of women by men.

            Meanwhile, the ‘US Department of Justice Office of Violence Against Women’ implied that domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behavior wherein one partner gains or maintains power and control over their partner. It can be physical, emotional, sexual, psychological or threats that can influence another person. The aim of the action is to intimidate, humiliate, coerce, isolate, terrorize, injure, or inflict wound to someone. It can happen to anyone regardless of their race, sexual orientation, age, religion, or gender. It can involve anyone from all socioeconomic backgrounds and level of education (1).

             Physical abuse may include hitting, shoving, slapping, and hair-pulling, among others. It may also include denial of medical care or forcing the partner to use alcohol or illegal drugs. Sexual abuse involves forcing or coercing the female partner to have sexual contact without their consent. It may include marital rape, attacks on genital parts of the body, or forcing sex after physical violence. Emotional abuse takes place when the male partner undermines the female’s sense of self-worth and dignity by criticizing them, underestimating their abilities, calling them names, or damaging their relationship with their children (2).

            Extent of Domestic Violence against Women in the United States

            In the US, domestic violence has rapidly grown to become one of the most severe public health problems. There are contrasting reports about the real extent of domestic violence in the United States which can be attributed to variations in definitions as well as in the population studied.

In ‘Prevalence of Domestic Violence in the United States’ by Susan Wilt and Sarah Olson which was published in 1996 by the  Journal of American Medical Women’s Association has claimed that domestic violence is not dependent on gender, age, marital status, social status and race or ethnicity. Through the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS) model, the data has been generated and found that domestic violence varies from severe to total violence, in which between 3.2% and 4.1% of the respondents have experienced domestic violence during the previous year (1).

Meanwhile, a study in the State of Nebraska that used a similar measure as well as a sample of convenience yielded a rate of 5%. A couple of studies utilized narrower definitions of severe violence and yielded a slightly lower yearly prevalence. The first one conducted in Nebraska reported a 2.9% annual prevalence. While reviewed data from emergency room records in 11 hospitals in Philadelphia has reported an annual prevalence of 1.3% (4).

            The ‘National Crime Victimization Survey’ (NCVS) conducted by the US Department of Justice covering the years 1987 to 1991 revealed that 0.5 percent of women more than 12 years old have been victims of rape, simple or aggravated assault, and robbery by their intimate partners during the previous year. The study also reflected that 0.3% to 0.4% of women more than 12 years old have been assaulted by their current or former husbands (1). The biggest shortcoming of this study is that it focused only on crime and did not involve direct questioning concerning attacks by intimate partners or other family members. In this light, the NCVS restructured its questionnaire in 1992 to include questions regarding violence caused by former or current intimate partners. This reflected a 2 to 4 percent prevalence rate.

            Several studies focused on studying the frequency of domestic violence against women in the United States. A study conducted in 1990 found that nearly two-thirds of married or cohabiting women undergo severe violence in the previous years had more than one incidence of abuse. The study also indicated a mean of six incidents of violence throughout the course of one year. Two percent of the reported cases had gone to a shelter for victims of domestic abuse (2).

             Another study conducted showed that 50% of the respondents who experienced domestic violence for a period of one year had more than one instance of abuse while a study by Teske revealed 65% of the respondents with more than one incidence of abuse. Data collected from the National Crime Survey from the 1970s categorized 17% of violence incidents as “series incidents.” However, the failure to obtain consistent measures and methods contributed to the difficulty in generalizing the frequency of domestic violence (2).

            There have also been several studies focusing on domestic violence against pregnant women in the United States. Most of these studies revealed that 10% of pregnant women suffered from domestic violence during the current pregnancy. A study by McFarlane reflected 17% prevalence among pregnant women. From the data obtained from these studies, a general conclusion is that the incidence of domestic violence is unlikely to be higher in pregnant women than among the general population. The 1985 National Family Violence Resurvey recorded no difference in the data between domestic violence among pregnant and non-pregnant women.

            In ‘Violence Against Women in the United States: Statistics’, a 2009 statistical report of the National Organization for Women (NOW), echoed the figures of various studies conducted over the years throughout the United States. According to NOW statistics, the 2005 study conducted by the Bureau of Justice Statistics revealed that 1,181 women were killed by an intimate partner. On the average, it translates to three women killed daily. Of all the women killed in the United States, one-third was caused by their intimate partners (1).

            As further reported by NOW, the National Center for Injury Prevention and Control revealed that 4.8 million women suffer from physical assaults and rape by their intimate partners annually. Accordingly, less than 20 percent of battered women sought medical treatment after their injury. The 2006 National Crime Victimization Survey accounted that 233,960 women were raped or sexually assaulted that year which translates to 600 women being killed daily. Other data, like the ones gathered by the FBI, are lower as a result of reliance on data from law enforcement agencies. Some of these figures are not reported because the victim feels that nothing will happen to their complaint as well as the personal nature of the incident (5).

            On the other hand, women belonging to the 20-24 years old age bracket are high-risk victims of domestic violence while those below 24 years old are at a greater risk for rape. According the US Department of Justice, 1 in 5 women are likely to experience rape or attempted rape in their college years and less than 5% will be reported. Income likewise plays a crucial factor in the incidence of domestic violence (5).

In general, those belonging to poor households will experience a higher rate of domestic violence. Women with low income are six times more prone to experience nonfatal intimate partner violence in comparison with women with high income. Among the racial groups, African-American women are at higher risk of being abused than the white women. The rate of American-Indian women being abused is twice as much as the rate of other races (6).

Impact on children

            From the 2009 electronic article ‘The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children’ by Kimberly Powell, it reported that the Family Violence Prevention Fund in the US has accounted domestic violence in the family that bring about terrifying and traumatic experiences to  children, especially the females. It was implied that exposure of male and female children to domestic violence or abuse showed post-traumatic stress disorder, like allergies, asthma, gastrointestinal problems, headaches, and flu. They are likely to be abused as an adult and are at a greater risk of perpetrating abuse.

            According to Powell (2009), children who experiences domestic violence in their home are likely to suffer cognitive or language difficulties, delay in their growth development, as well as hearing and speech problems. Domestic violence can also have an impact on the child’s predictability and consistency. In school, they will likely exhibit difficult in their concentration, poor academic performance, problems interacting with their peers, and absenteeism (1).

            On related case studies regarding the prevalence of domestic violence in the US, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) in its recently published report entitled ‘Stop the Cycle of Violence’, it disclosed that there are common myths about domestic violence in the United States which proved to be wrong. Following are the findings of the USDA:

§  The claims that domestic violence is rare is not true because the data are not precise, and it is evident that millions of children, women, and men are suffering from physical abuse by members of their families as well as intimate partners;

§  It is not true that domestic violence affects only the lower class since data gathered from police records, victim services, and academic studies proves that domestic violence transcends to every socio-economic classes, races or cultures;

§  It is true that alcohol and drug abuse are the real indicators of violence in the home because substance abuse is tied to domestic violence. While it contributes to the degree of the violence, the perpetrators of the abuse do not control their actions, and do not select a time and place to perform the crime;

§  It is not true that battered wives like their situation or else they would leave. Battered wives are more likely to be abused or killed if they decide to leave their spouse. Aside from that, shelters for battered wives are always full and the staff is almost always less supportive. Women always have the feeling that they are not capable of supporting themselves as well as their children.

§  Domestic Violence Affects Only A Small Percentage of the Population. It is estimated that around 3 to 4 million women experience domestic violence on a yearly basis. In 1995, 31% of women suffered from physical assault from their husband or boyfriend which is the primary cause of injury to women aged 15 to 44 in the United States.

§  Domestic Violence Happens Only in Poor, Uneducated, and Minority Families. Several studies have proven that domestic violence can happen to all kinds of families, regardless of income, region, profession, level of education, and race.

Laws on Domestic Violence in the United States

The ‘Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) of 1994’ provides for the improvement of victim services as well as prosecuting perpetrators of domestic violence. Under the VAWA, a domestic violence hotline will be established and sufficient funds would be allocated for various initiatives and programs, such as shelters and provision of services for battered women, judicial education and training programs, and programs to boost outreach to rural women. Aside from that, the VAWA authorizes funds for Victim and Witness Counselors, who assist the victims during court prosecutions.

The ‘Victim of Trafficking and Violence Prevention Act of 2000’ provide relief for victims of domestic violence in the United States. It paved the way for immigrant victims of certain crimes, including domestic violence, to become eligible for residency in the country. It requires the certification of a law enforcement official. The Fair Housing Act protects battered women from being evicted by a landlord due to domestic violence. In a January 2006 ruling in the Bouley v. Young-Sabourin case, asking battered wives to leave their house is a form of gender-based discrimination, which is one of the protection clauses in the Fair Housing Act (9).
In ‘Domestic Violence’ of Encyclopedia of Everyday Law which was edited by Shirelle Phelps in 2003 and published by Gale Cengage Publications has pointed out that state laws require an officer to be a witness to domestic violence incidents before they can make an arrest. At present, most states authorize an officer to arrest suspected perpetrators of domestic violence even if they did not witness the incident (1). In most states, preferred arrest policies have been adopted which requires police to either arrest one or both parties, or write a justification for not making an arrest. However, these arrest policies may vary depending on the jurisdiction even in a similar state (2).

As stated in the Encyclopedia of Everyday Law, the impact of the domestic situation to the victim as well as the children is first being considered before making the arrest.  As a procedure, the following conditions should first be met before an arrest is made (10):

§  There is a probable cause for committing the crime;

§  The perpetrator and the victim fits the criteria for having a domestic relationship;

§  The act of the perpetrator suits the criteria of domestic assault;

§  It is likely that the abuse will continue if the perpetrator is not arrested and/or if there is a clear sign of injury;

§  The incident report was filed within 28 days after it happened.

In most cases, if any of the conditions are not met, it is up to the officer to decide whether to make the arrest. However, there are some civil options that the victim can avail of to ensure their safety as well as of their families, for example they can file for an order of protection or a judicial ex parte. All 51 states have leeway when it comes to orders of protection. For instance, the perpetrator may not be allowed to contact, attack, strike, telephone, or disturb the peace of the victim (11).

Likewise, the perpetrator may be asked to transfer to another residence away from the victim. They may also be asked to stay a minimum of 100 yards away from the victim, their residence, and workplace. An order of protection may also provide for the safety of the children as well as other people living in the home (11).

            On the other hand, an ‘ex parte order’ (as only provided by court of law) provides for the temporary vacating of premises. Also known as a temporary restraining order, it is only issued after the victim requests for it (12). A battered wife who is in imminent danger or has already been abused and/or has already sought an order of protection against the perpetrator is legally bound to request for an ex parte order. Such act will require an attorney (12). Perpetrators who violate an order of protection are guilty of contempt of court. In this case, the violator is automatically arrested (12). They can be penalized or imprisoned and charged with misdemeanor or felony.

Domestic Violence against Women in India

            In a country like India, matters concerning violence in the family are a strictly private issue. However, the latter portion of the 20th century saw the rise of Indian women movements that brought to the core the problem of domestic violence.

As discussed by Niveditha Menon and Michael Johnson in their journal ‘A Feminist Study of Domestic Violence in Rural India’ which was published in 2004 by the American Sociological Association, the Indian women movements centered on the patriarchal principle that women are the inferior members of the family. The position of wives in the home is also dictated by the cultural norms which are differentiated by the religion, region and social class. In most states in India, employed women are required to give their paychecks to their husbands. They do not have control over finances and once they assert their rights, this is where friction comes in (2).

According to year 2003 study, entitled: ‘In India, Domestic Violence Rises with Education’ by Swapna Majumdar from the Centre for Women’s Development Studies based in New Delhi, domestic violence stems from education and patriarchal attitudes.     In India, there is cultural bias against women who defy their husband’s right to dictate their behavior (2). Thus, asking for household money or leaving the house without their consent is punishable. As a result, masculinity in India is reflected on the extent they have control with their wives (2). Moreover, men depict themselves as the superior sex, in which men have been conditioned to see themselves as having control of their wives, especially if they assert their rights (12).

The Extent of Domestic Violence against Women in India

            A study conducted in 2002 by the International Center for Research on Women based in Washington revealed that 45 percent of women in India are slapped, kicked, or beaten by their husbands. At 50 percent, India recorded the highest incidence of violence against women during pregnancy, and about 74.8 percent of women who reported abuse made suicide attempts (3). Ironically, however, the highest incidence of domestic violence was reflected in highly educated men, and as compared to the 32 percent in men without any education, 42 percent of men with 1 to 5 years of education committed sexual violence (4). From those with 6 to 10 years as well as high school education, 57 percent committed domestic violence.

            On the aspect of income and socioeconomic standing, 35 percent of those who belonged to the lowest economic level committed domestic violence. Among those belonging to the high income groups, the rate was twice as much at 61% (4). There is no clear indication on why men with higher income and education exhibit higher tendencies for domestic violence.

Unfortunately, the research has also revealed that 2 out of every 5 women suffering from domestic violence do not report the incident due to shame and family honor.  Almost one-third of those who were abused thought of leaving their homes but was worried about leaving their children and had nowhere to go.

            In ‘Two-Third Married Indian Women Victims of Domestic Violence: UN’ published in 2005 by Express India.Com, it reported that the National Crime Records Bureau of India has documented that violence against women reflected a 164% increase in 1994 than in 1980. According to 1998 estimates, the percentage of growth of abuse against women would be higher than the rate of population growth by 2010 (1). This is a good sign which means that more women are now speaking up in terms of the violence they experience from their husbands. However, in the capital of Delhi alone, 7,000 complaints of spousal abuse have been reported to the police on a yearly basis, wherein only 10% are recorded from about 100 total numbers of complaints (1).

Further, a 2005 report by the United Nations has documented that nearly two-thirds of married women in India suffered from domestic violence which translates to seven days of absence from work (2). Seven out of ten women in India ranging from 15 to 49 years old experience beating, rape, and coerced sex, based on reports by the United Nation Population Fund (2). In which case, a comparative analysis has found that the domestic violence rate in India is lower than in Egypt and Zambia, which recorded 94% and 91 percent, respectively (2). However, without comparison, the increasing rate of violence against women is consistent, and taking its toll on the national social and legal services as well as indicated by the loss of family income which is being related to domestic violence against women.

            From the article ‘Domestic Violence in India’ by Indian Child.Com in year 2000, it accounted that a 1996 study conducted by SAKSHI which focused on the judge’s assessment of their attitudes towards violence against women, the following findings were revealed:

§  48% of the judges believed that slapping a wife is justifiable in certain circumstances

§  74% feels that keeping the family together is the primary concern of women, even if she is being abused

§  50% believes that child sexual abuse is rare

§  68% believes that wearing provocative clothes is an attraction to sexual assault

§  34% believe that dowry is inherently cultural

§  55% thinks that the moral integrity of the wife has relevance in determining sexual abuse cases

§  9% think that a woman who says “no” to sexual intercourse actually means “yes.”

In a related survey in Bangalore involving 250 men and women, the 81 percent of respondents regarded domestic violence as a serious problem (2). Most of the respondents felt that filing a legal action was a justification for domestic violence. As a result of continuous legal activism, equality principles are now being applied by the Supreme Court in addressing matters related to violence against women. International conventions such as the Convention on Human Rights along with landmark rulings on sexual harassment are now being applied as well.

A study conducted in Kerala revealed that women who did not own a property have a greater chance of suffering from domestic violence. The survey revealed that 49 percent of women without property suffered from abuse in contrast to the 7% who owned a property. According to the report, one in five Indian women will experience rape or attempted rape throughout their lifetime, one in three would experience beating by a family member or intimate partner (14).

Impact on Health and Families

            A year 2009 study, entitled: ‘Domestic Violence And Women’s Health In India: Evidence From Health Survey’ by Manoj K. Pandey, Prakash Singh and Ram Ashish Yadav which was published by Munich University Library, has covered the result of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS), wherein it accounted that about 40% of married women belonging to the 15-49 years old age group suffers domestic violence from their husbands. The study accounted that 36% of those surveyed reported physical violence with emotional and sexual violence, as reported by 16% and 10% of the respondents (1). From these numbers, 52% of married women belonging to the 15-49 year old bracket reported suffering from tuberculosis, 51% from asthma, and 39% for diabetes and thyroid/goiter (3).

Moreover, data revealed that half of the women suffering from tuberculosis were victims of physical violence while 25% from emotional and physical violence. In the case of those with asthma, one-third has been victims of physical violence. Looking at the overall picture, 40% of women diagnosed with diseases experienced physical violence (4).

Additionally, the findings of the National Family Health Survey revealed that married women who have been beaten by their spouses have poor nutrition. The findings of the study also showed that the independence of women has a significant impact on domestic violence. Women who have been beaten since 15 were diagnosed with reproductive health issues in contrast to those who did not suffer from beatings. The results of the National Family Health Survey showed that women who experienced domestic violence since age 15 had lower body mass index compared to those who were not beaten (4).

Meanwhile, in ‘Domestic Violence in India and Repercussion on Women’s Health’ conducted by Princeton University in 2004 has found that children can become victims of domestic violence themselves and at risk of being hurt. As acknowledged also in the year 2000 article ‘Domestic Violence in India’ by Indian Child.Com, the children can be likewise placed in a dangerous position as they try to get in the way to protect their mother from being hurt (2). Aside from that, the child can develop the tendency to duplicate the violent behavior of the perpetrator as a child and adult. Being a witness to violence can have mental repercussions. It is likely that the child would lose their self-confidence, demonstrate anger, or develop guilt feelings (3).

Laws on Domestic Violence in India

            In response to the growing rate of domestic violence in India, the BBC News in its year 2006 electronic article ‘India Tackles Domestic Violence’ has reported that the ‘Indian Domestic Violence Act’ is now being enacted in India to protect women from being abused by their husbands. The law punishes abusive husbands with a jail term of a maximum of one year as well as a fine of up to 20,000 rupees (1). The law provides protection to the wife or live-in partner from the cudgels of an abusive husband or live-in partner. Aside from that, the statutory act likewise offers protection to a wife who is forced by their husband to view pornographic pictures.

Under the Indian Domestic Violence Act, harassment through dowry demands is strictly prohibited. Likewise, the law authorizes magistrates to issue orders of protection for the wife when necessary. Women’s rights groups have welcomed this development, but found flaws in the new law saying that filing such laws is not enough to prevent husbands from abusing their wives (2).

            According to some critics of the Indian Domestic Violence Act, it has basically three flaws, such as (1) it overwhelmingly favors women, (2) the implementation of the law can be misused, and (3) the criteria for domestic violence are very broad. One example which critics implies on the predicament is that males who are victims of domestic violence do not have rights under the law, wherein it claimed that women are equally abusive to men in intimate relationships. It is being perceived that the rights of males to sue their female partners or wives are withheld and the men become a victim of statutory act.

Findings/Comparative Analysis

            Data shows that the prevalence level of domestic violence against women is much rampant in India than in the United States. One critical consideration may regard the existence of statutory laws or presence of state policies that prosecutes perpetrators of domestic violence against women, wherein the United States uphold the enforcement. In comparison with India, the parliament has just recently enacted the ‘Indian Domestic Violence Act’ which may pattern the sanction in accordance with human rights provisions; as women’s rights are equal to men.

            However, it was cited that religious and cultural rites affects the sanction of the law, specifically in the socio-religious dimension of Indian women, having the systemic practices where beating of a wife is attributed to the customary tradition within the marriage life. The finding of the Office of Violence Against Women of the US Department of Justice, domestic violence is a pattern of abusive behavior wherein one partner gains or maintains power and control over their partner. In which case, the absence of awareness among Indian families do not attribute to such “conscious recognition” due entanglement to the socio-religious-cultural practices; commonly believe by Indian men or husband to gain full control and overpower the women or wife.

            Another consideration is the social configuration of development in India, wherein being a undeveloped country, the prevalence of poverty attributes the absence of social awareness as equated also by the problems of literacy and deep attachment to the traditional orientation on how women is treated. As compared to the 21st century women in the US, the social configuration of the Western world has opened the statutory options from deterring the malignity of domestic violence which occurs from racial and gender discrimination, marital affairs, employment and social groupings. Meaning, a more advanced social consciousness to deter domestic violence is very much apparent in US than in India.

In India, matters concerning violence in the family are a strictly private issue. However, the development of international cultural interactions have perceived to pattern or influence the civil society group of women in India. Unlike the American married women, the position of Indian wives in the home is also dictated by the cultural norms which are differentiated by the religion, region, and class. As further revealed in the review of literatures, employed women are required to give their paychecks to their husbands and they do not have control over finances, from which domestic violence stems from socio-cultural, socio-religious and patriarchal attitudes.

On the other hand, the relevance of statistical data have also indicated that domestic violence in India is consistent, which is again attributed to the societal condition of the country, unlike in the United States that is being attributed to the use of illegal or overuse of legal substances, like drugs and alcohol. Therefore, comparison and contrast varies on the social configuration of the two countries. But, what more could happen in India when the illegal use or overuse of legal substances run alongside or conjoin with the customary practices of socio-religious belief? The data on the report of 10 out of 100 people who suffered from domestic violence could have consistent increase from 10 to 20 out of 150-200 people. This is hypothetical to the analysis of data as previously accounted in study of Manoj K. Pandey, Prakash Singh and Ram Ashish Yadav (2009) that 25% of Indian women suffer from emotional and physical violence.

Likewise, a study conducted in 2002 by the International Center for Research on Women based in Washington revealed that 45 percent of women in India are slapped, kicked, or beaten by their husbands. Data further accounted that 50 percent of domestic violence in India has recorded the highest incidence of violence against women during pregnancy, from which an estimated 74.8 percent of women who reported abuse made suicide attempts. Ironically, however, the highest incidence of domestic violence was reflected in highly educated men. Compared to the 32 percent in men without any education, 42 percent of men with 1 to 5 years of education committed sexual violence. From those with 6 to 10 years as well as high school education, 57 percent committed domestic violence. In addition, it was accounted that 2 out of every 5 women suffering from domestic violence do not report the incident due to shame and family honor, and one-third of those who were abused thought of leaving their homes but was worried about leaving their children and had nowhere to go.

In summary, the comparative findings point out the analysis that domestic violence is much rampant in India than in the United States, as statistical data accounts the findings. At hindsight, it is further found that societal condition that varies from socio-cultural-economic-religious practices partly attributes to the patriarchal characteristic of Indian men to committing domestic violence. Thus, the stirring of social consciousness in effect of statutory laws, advocacy and providing welfare to women plays a vital role in fully addressing the situation and issues on domestic violence against women and children.

Conclusion

The response to the growing rate of domestic violence in India through the Indian Domestic Violence Act can be a breakthrough to protect women from being abused by their husbands, although criticisms from majority of male opposition claims flaw on the enactment of the statutory act. The existence of statutory act in defense of women may likewise gradually reform the strictest socio-religious practices and other customary beliefs on the role of women.

As accompanied by various social developments throughout the world, the patriarchal or matriarchal characteristic of cultural societies must harmonize in the promotions of gender equality that shall reach out and usher to the coming generation. Likewise, the development of societies must complement social reforms to supplant the cultural hegemony and isolation of dogmatic practices that tend to malign or abuse the fundamental essence of human rights, especially in women.

In conclusion, domestic violence must not only challenge the women society, but as well carryout to be resolved in the world of men. The union of men and women as partly the foundations of societies must co-exist to deter and totally eliminate the long entanglement of discrimination from gender conflict. Thus, the customs and traditions of harmony must be upheld in the family reflective of the societal functions and roles of both sexes to sustain a socially equitable society.

Works Cited

American Psychiatric Association. “Domestic Violence”. 2009. 17 July 2009 <http://healthyminds.org/default.aspx>

BBC News. “India Tackles Domestic Violence”. 2006. 17 July 2009 <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/6086334.stm>

Express India.Com. “Two-Third Married Indian Women Victims Of Domestic Violence: UN”. 2005. 17 July 2009 <http://www.expressindia.com/news/fullstory.php?newsid=56501>

Hawke, A.  “Domestic Violence Against Women and Girls”. 2000. United Nation’s Children Fund. 17 July 2009 <www.unicef-irc.org/publications/pdf/digest6e.pdf>

Indian Child.Com. “Domestic Violence in India”. 2000. 17 July 2009 <http://www.indianchild.com/domestic_violence_in_india.htm>

Menon, N. and Johnson, M. “A Feminist Study of Domestic Violence in Rural India”. 2004. American Sociological Association. 17 July 2009 <http://www.allacademic.com/meta/p109774_index.html>

Majumdar, S. “In India, Domestic Violence Rises with Education”. 2003. Women’s eNews. 17 July 2009 <[http://www.womensenews.org/article.cfm/dyn/aid/1591>

National Organization for Women. “Violence Against Women in the United States: Statistics”. 2009. 17 July 2009 <http://www.now.org/issues/violence/stats.html>

Pandey, M.K., Singh, P. and Yadav, R.A. “Domestic Violence And Women’s Health In India: Evidence From Health Survey”. 2009. Munich University Library. 17 July 2009 <http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/15928/>

Phelps, S. “Domestic Violence”. 2003. Encyclopedia of Everyday Law. 2006. Gale Cengage. 17 July 2009 <http://www.enotes.com/everyday-law-encyclopedia/

domestic-violence>

Princeton University. “Domestic Violence In India And Repercussion On Women’s Health”. 2004. 17 July 2009 <http://paa.2004.princeton.edu>

Powell, K. “The Impact of Domestic Violence on Children”. 2009. Suite 101. 17 July 2009

<http://abuse.suite101.com/article.cfm/the_impact_of_domestic_violence_on_children>

US Department of Justice. “About Domestic Violence”. 2009. 17 July 2009

<http://www.ovw.usdoj.gov/domviolence.htm>

US Department of Agriculture. “Stop The Cycle of Violence”. 2009. 17 July 2009 <http://www.da.usda.gov/shmd/aware.htm#MYTHS>

Wilt, S. and Olson, S. “Prevalence of Domestic Violence in the United States”. 1996. Journal of the American Medical Women’s Association.  17 July 2009 <http://www.amwa-doc.org/index.cfm?objectid=5C60A338-D567-0B25-5492577147F7E918>

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