One of the most feared illness these days is Cardiac Arrest or most commonly known as Heart Attack. Indeed, because of the fact that people are living in such a stressful world, being overly anxious and overworked at the same time makes life a bit more complicated causing many people to incur heart failures. Moreover, because of this fact too, many pharmaceutical companies try to come up with solutions to at least prevent or lessen the risks of dying from such an illness.
Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson are among the fastest growing and highest rating pharmaceutical companies all around the globe. Due to this fact, it could not be denied that both companies try to produce considerably fine medicinal treatment for Cardiac Arrest aiming to completely help the sufferers from the said illness. Basing from the studies performed by certain universities on the innovative design of medical treatments by both Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson regarding this matter, a comparison and analytic observation shall be performed in this paper.
A closer look on what is actually happening on both companies at present with regards to the innovation, which is going to be examined, shall be the first step to help in analyzing the matter to be discussed.
Johnson & Johnson
The CYPHER® Sirolimus-eluting Coronary Stent produced by Cordis Corporation, which is another company owned by Johnson & Johnson, is a new way of treating patients who currently had mild heart attacks. Cordis Corporation is currently known as a worldwide leader in producing as well as manufacturing interventional vascular technology. It has also been acknowledged by physicians around the globe that Cordis Corporation, which is empowered by Johnson & Johnson, opens wide doors for medical innovations. In this way, many other pharmaceutical companies are empowered to make possible innovations to be able to treat several serious illnesses in a more effective way.
At present, CYPHER® stent is used by many physicians and cardiologists in treating their patients. The product too has been widely distributed by Wyeth Pharmaceuticals under the trademark Rapamune®. Since Wyeth is a major distributor of medicines around the globe, CYPHER® stent is also widely accepted by medical experts today.
Lipitor is claimed by Pfizer to be a more effective medicinal treatment for avoiding recurring heart attacks. It is a prescription drug, which is used along with low-fat diet and exercise in an aim to lower the cholesterol levels of a person. Through the use of extensive trial programs in testing the effectiveness of the medicine, Lipitor had been proven effective and beneficial to patients having historical backgrounds regarding heart Attack and are prone to recurring cardiac arrests.
However, some things should be considered in taking this medicine. It has been examined and concluded that this medicine is not advisable for patients having liver problems. It is not also for women who are pregnant or breast-feeding since there are some substances that may directly affect the development as well as the healthy-heart development of the baby. Today, this medicine is widely distributed by Pfizer itself.
Corporate Innovation Type
Since the old way of medication using stents have been proven weak, the revolution of the medical strategy has been opened. Although this is the case, several parts of the old strategies were simply reinvented by Cordis Corporation, and with the help of Johnson & Johnson the development of the new CYPHER® stent. In this way, as a result, the innovated medical treatment reduced the risk target vessel failure (TFV) by almost all of the patients who once suffered heart attack. It’s more likely considered as an “incremental innovation” . This is simply because of the fact that the innovation took place to be able to enhance the past medical strategy used by physicians and cardiologists in treating their patients, thus making medical treatments more efficient and rather more effective for the patients and the health care givers as well.
On the other hand, Lipitor, which is a medicine produced by Pfizer, is more of a radical innovation. This is due to the fact that Pfizer tried to completely change the design of the old medicine the company used to manufacture which was the Simvastatin medicine. This medicine used to be the main product offered by Pfizer and it has been mainly distributed by the company to treat the said illness before the emergence of Lipitor.
Both innovations though really great big revelations of developments in the medical world, and thus also made special improvements in dealing with heart ailments and other related health problems as well.
Corporate Innovation Characteristics
Both the innovations made by Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson were most likely based upon the needs of the customers. According to the American Heart Association, heart disease had been much responsible for about seven million deaths every year around the globe. And because of this, pharmaceutical companies are faced with the challenge of being able to produce new medicines for treating heart ailments.
For Cordis Corporation, Johnson &Johnson innovation on cardiology treatments, The CYPHER® stent had been proven more effective than metal stent, which was used with patients before. Through the use of TYPHOON (Trial to assess the use of the CYPHER® Stent in Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated with Balloon Angioplasty), the patients were mainly helped in getting used to the new strategy of medication. Then, after the trial, the patients were observed to have lesser chances of having recurring heart attacks.
Lipitor medicine manufactured by Pfizer on the other hand is a tablet, which have great effects on the patients who used to have high risk of having second heart attack. According to the new data where several heart attack patients were asked to take at least 80mg of the Lipitor were noted to have 46 percent reduction of risks of further future Cardiac Arrests.
According to Doctor Peter Ganz, associate professor of medicine in Harvard medical School:
“The often debilitating effects of a heart attack can place a tremendous physical and emotional strain on patients and their families…These findings provide new and important information about the potential benefit of intensive treatment with Lipitor in the management of the risk of recurrent, potentially life-threatening cardiac events.” Surely, this means that Lipitor is indeed a breakthrough in the medical world.
Corporate Innovative Drivers
For the fact that among the many ailments in the world, heart attack is rated to be the third reason why people die during these present times, many medical institutions are challenged to make great innovations to face the problem. As for the main drivers of these innovations, these are most likely to be the global competition between pharmaceutical companies in making possible changes in the traditional medication; another is the health care cost, and the customer requirements.
As for the global competition of manufacturing and distributing medicines for heart ailments, both Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson are in the competitive field of the said industry. And due to this fact, both companies are trying to do the best research and innovative ways they could take to be able to produce quality medicine which could be used and promoted by the physicians and medical practitioners. In this way, both the companies are entitled to having higher profits if they would be able to make it in the competition of the business industries.
On the other hand, health care cost is of course a matter of concern for this innovation. For a fact, if effective ways of treating heart ailments would be introduced to the medical world, then repetition of treatments doesn’t need to be implied thus causing the patients lesser expenses. Customer requirements on the other hand helps in determining the characteristics needed to be found in the innovations. This innovation driver also identifies the essential aspects that a certain innovation should possess to be able to make it in the market.
To overcome this fact, both Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson tried to see to it that the three aspects of consideration are given close attention during the process of the research. Along with this, the adjustments are also done every time trials of the product application suggest so.
As a result, physicians promote both innovations. They are also intending to use both medical treatments in order to be able to cure or at least prevent the recurring activities of heart attacks. Also, the medicines and medical treatment manufactured by Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson are both considered a medical development considering that they are both able to meet several standards in determining a certain innovation to be a breakthrough.
Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson companies both used a “renewal model” in innovating their products. Although Johnson & Johnson’s CYPHER® stent was a complete new innovation, it has been based on a former pattern of using metal stents during the earlier times. Thus, both innovations, the CYPHER® and the Lipitor medicines are renewal from older versions of the said medical treatment, which were formerly used by the companies mentioned.
Through the improvements of process and applications of the medicine as well as the trials made to evaluate the effects of the medicines on the patients, the renewal of the older versions of the medical treatments were further developed to becoming more effective and efficient in treating heart illnesses brought about by heart attacks.
Impact on Value Chain
For the fact that medical innovations are not plainly for medical purposes, among the value chains considered in the innovations made by the pharmaceutical companies being discussed herein are developmental values and commercialization values.
Developmental values are mainly considered because of the fact that the medical industries are subjected to constant improvement and innovations. In this way, pharmaceutical companies participating in this industry is expected to jump up into the bandwagon of medical developments to be able to cater to the growing health needs of the society.
Commercialization values are considered on the other hand because of the fact that among the main aims of the pharmaceutical companies is to gain profit from the developments they are able to make. In turn, as their services and their manufactured products increase in quality, their profits too are expected to rate up.
Project Selection and Development
In selecting which project to develop, companies consider several surveys and facts regarding the field they are engaged in. In this case, Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson, being a part of the medical world is more prone to medical facts regarding the health needs of the society. Basing from the facts they get from the researches, they are able to determine which kind of medicine or what area of medicine should they develop or in any way needs to be enhanced one way or another.
Upon selecting, the companies then lay down developmental processes in which they are able to meet the needs of the society and also their field. In this way, they are able to determine, which aspects of medicine needs to be developed and what must be done to be able to develop certain factors.
Metrics of Success
Every development process involves trials of evaluation of the developed product. Along with the trials of measuring or testing the effectiveness of the medicine, the acceptance of the market with regards to its quality, its price and the reasonable way in which it is introduced to the society is also used as a measure of success for medical developments.
Using these measures of success, both Pfizer and Johnson & Johnson were able to determine that the innovations they did with regards to the medical treatments of heart attack and cardiac arrest patients were most likely effective. Indeed, as surveys and results suggest, the medical experts were able to appreciate the fact that both companies have enthusiasm in making treatments for patients more practical and effective as well.
Surely, the constant development involved in the medical industries suggest that as long as innovations are carefully planned and well thought about, success on this innovations are more likely to be expected.
Process of Sustainability
“There is a continuous room for change, development and improvements…this goes especially when it comes to medical matters” (Burns, 13). Indeed, the sustainability of an innovation with regards to a certain medical product would naturally rely on its being continuously developed every now and then. As obviously known, as the time passes and the lives of people gets a lot more complicated, health needs become more and more complex.
This is mainly the reason why the only way to sustain a medical product is to continuously develop it and its effectiveness in treating specific illnesses. In this way, the product is retained in the market as it is designed to continuously cater to the patient’s needs.
As for Johnson & Johnson, their CYPHER® stent is designed to cater to patients who once had heart attacks. In this regard, future developments still need to be implemented in the said medical innovation. This is mainly because of the fact that heart ailments continue to grow more and more complex, and as this need grows, the product should also be able to enhance its quality as to be able to meet the needs of the customers who need the medicine or the treatment.
Pfizer on the other hand faces some specific problems as Lipitor has a lot of limitations. These limitations such as the medicine could not be taken by patients who have liver problems and nursing mothers, makes the market chances of the medicine to take lower rates. As of now, it is then advised for the company to take continuous steps in making further more developments or improvements in their product. This is mainly to be able to cater to the widest number of possible consumers.
Among those earlier healers were well-known men such as Hippocrates and Pasteur, along with men such as Vesalius and William Morton—names unfamiliar to many. What does modern medicine owe to them? (as quoted by Stark, 54)
In ancient times, the healing arts were often not a scientific venture but an exercise in superstition and religious ritual. The book The Epic of Medicine, edited by Dr. Felix Marti-Ibañez, says: “To fight disease . . . , the Mesopotamians resorted to a medico-religious medicine, since they believed that disease was their punishment by the gods.” Egyptian medicine, which soon followed, was likewise rooted in religion. Thus, from the very beginning, the healer was viewed with a sense of religious admiration. (15)
In his book The Clay Pedestal, Dr. Thomas A. Preston observes: “Many beliefs of the ancients left imprints on the practice of medicine that survive to this day. One such belief was that disease was beyond the control of the patient, and only through the magical power of the physician was there hope for recovery.” (12)
In this regard, continuous improvement regarding the medical industries is hardly expected from medical experts as well as pharmaceutical companies. Through these innovations, it could be predicted that the future holds a much better controllable health environment in the human society.
Lawton Robert Burns. (2005). The Business of Healthcare Innovation. Cambridge
University Press; 1 edition.
Andrew Stark. (2006). The Limits of Medicine. Cambridge University Press; 1 edition.
Felix Marti-Ibanez. (1999). The Epic of Medicine. Cambridge University Press; 1 edition.
Thomas Preston. (1998). The Clay Pedestal. Cambridge University Press; 1 edition.
Lindsay Marks. (2004). Crossing Boundaries And Developing Alliances Through
Group Work. Haworth Press; 1 edition.
Peter Bo Poulsen. (2000). Health Technology Assessment and Diffusion of Health
Technology. University of southern Denmark.
Johnson & Johnson. (2006). Study In New England Journal Of Medicine Suggests Heart
Attack Patients Fare Better With CYPHER® Sirolimus-Eluting Coronary Stents
Than Bare Metal Stents. http://www.jnj.com/news/jnj_news/20060913_145136.htm.
(September 16, 2006).
Johnson & Johnson. (2006). Investigational Regimen Shows Promise in Improving
Treatment Of Heart Attack Patients.
http://www.jnj.com/news/jnj_news/20020412_0916.htm;jsessionid=SWR0Z4RJVWBYQCQPCCEGU3AKB2IIWTT1. (September 16, 2006).
Pfizer. (2006). Lipitor More Effective Than Simvastatin in Cutting Risk of Additional
Heart Attacks in Patients Who Had a Recent Heart Attack, New Data Suggests.
(September 16, 2006).
Pfizer. (2006). Pfizer’s Lipitor Provides Greater Reductions in Heart Attack, Stroke and
Cardiovascular Procedures at an Overall Cost Savings Compared to Zocor, New
Analysis Shows. http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=104;STORY=/www/story/05-15-2006/0004361842;EDATE=. (September 16, 2006).