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Comparative and superlative

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    Instituto del Rosario

    Profesorado “Gabriela Mistral”

    GRAMMAR III

    Comparative and Superlative Degree

    Profesora: Zulatto, María Ines.
    Alumna: Vignetta, Yohana.

    COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE DEGREE
    Form
    Adjectives
    One – syllable adjectives
    Form the comparative and superlative forms of a one-syllable adjective by adding –er for the comparative form and –est for the superlative. One-Syllable Adjective
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Tall
    Taller
    The tallest
    Old
    Older
    The oldest

    Note: If the one-syllable adjective ends with an e, just add –r for the comparative form and –st for the superlative form. One-Syllable Adjective with Final -e
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Large
    Larger
    The largest
    Wise
    Wiser
    The wisest

    Note: If the one-syllable adjective ends with a single consonant with a vowel before it, we double the consonant and add –er for the comparative form; and double the consonant and add –est for the superlative form. One-Syllable Adjective Ending with a Single Consonant with a Single Vowel before It Comparative Form

    Superlative Form
    Big
    Bigger
    The biggest
    Thin
    Thinner
    The thinnest

    Two-syllable adjectives
    If the two-syllable adjective ends with –y, change the y to i and add –er for the comparative form. For the superlative form change the y to i and add –est.

    Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -y
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Happy
    Happier
    The happiest
    Angry
    Angrier
    The angriest

    Note: Two-syllable adjectives ending in –er, -le, or –ow take –er and –est to form the comparative and superlative forms. Two-Syllable Adjective Ending with -er, -le, or -ow
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Narrow
    Narrower
    The narrowest
    Gentle
    Gentler
    The gentlest

    Note: With most two-syllable adjectives, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most. Two-Syllable Adjective
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Peaceful
    More peaceful
    The most peaceful
    Careful
    More careful
    The most careful

    Adjectives with three or more syllables.
    For adjectives with three syllables or more, you form the comparative with more and the superlative with most. Adjective with Three or More Syllables
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Generous
    More generous
    The most generous
    Important
    More important
    The most important

    Irregular adjectives
    There are few adjectives whose comparative and superlative forms are completely different words. Irregular Adjective
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Good
    Better
    The best
    Bad
    Worse
    The worst
    Far
    Farther
    The farthest
    Little
    Less
    The least
    Many
    More
    The most

    Two-syllable adjectives that follow two rules
    These adjectives can be used with -er and -est and with more and most. Two-Syllable Adjective
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Clever
    Cleverer
    The cleverest
    Clever
    More clever
    The most clever
    Gentle
    Gentler
    The gentlest
    Gentle
    More gentle
    The most gentle
    Friendly
    Friendlier
    The friendliest
    Friendly
    Fore friendly
    The most friendly
    Quiet
    Quieter
    The quietest
    Quiet
    More quiet
    The most quiet
    Simple
    Simpler
    The simplest
    Simple
    More simple
    The most simple

    IMPORTANT
    The usual comparative and superlative forms of the adjective old are older and oldest. However, the alternative forms elder and eldest are sometimes used. Elder and eldest are generally used to talk about the age of people, especially people within the same family, and are not used to talk about the age of things. Elder cannot occur in the predicative position after link verbs such as be, become, get, etc.

    Than is used with comparatives.
    E.g. John is better than Nick
    John is a better lawyer than Nick

    The is used with superlatives.
    E.g. Tom is the best player
    Tom is the best
    Note: We do not use the with the superlative if there is a possessive. E.g. His strongest point is his ambition.

    Adverbs
    Form
    One-syllable Adverbs
    There are a few one-syllable adverbs whose comparative and superlative forms are formed by adding –er and –est. One-syllable Adverb
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Hard
    Harder
    The hardest
    Fast
    Faster
    The fastest

    Other adverbs
    With LY adverbs (adverbs formed from adjectives by adding -ly to the end) we form the comparative and superlative forms with more and most. Other Adverbs
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Carefully
    More carefully
    Most carefully
    Quietly
    More quietly
    The most quietly

    Irregular Forms
    These are a few adverbs whose comparative and superlative forms are completely different words. Irregular forms
    Comparative Form
    Superlative Form
    Well
    Better
    The best
    Badly
    Worse
    The worst
    Far
    Farther/Futher
    The Farthest/ Furthest
    little
    less
    least
    much
    more
    most

    Function
    Uses: Adjectives

    We use the comparative form + than to compare two people or things. E.g: John is taller than Jim.
    My House is more attractive than yours.
    We use the + superlative form + of/in to compare one person or thing with more than one person or thing in the same group. (We use in when we talk about places) E.g: John is the tallest of all.
    New York is the most exciting city in the USA (NOT: of the USA) We use comparative + and + comparative to show that something increases or decreases. E.g: He tried harder and harder until he opened the door.

    As time went by, he got more and more impatient.
    We use the + comparative…, the + comparative to show that two things change together or that one thing depends on another thing. E.g: The longer he talked, the more confused they became.
    We use irregular comparatives to make a comparison stronger. E.g: This
    apartment is much better than that one.
    Uses: Adverbs
    We use the comparative form of adverbs + than to compare one action with another. E.g: Anna runs faster than John.
    Note: When we compare actions, we use an auxiliary at the end of the sentence E.g: Mary plays better than Monica does.
    We can also say : Mary plays better than Monica
    We use the superlative form of adverbs to compare more than two actions. E.g. Kate worked the hardest of all the girls in her class.

    We use as + adverb + as to show similarities. In negative sentences we use not as/so + adverb + as. E.g: I can run as fast as you can.

    We use the comparative form of adverbs + and + the comparative form of adverbs to show that an action is increasing or decreasing. E.g. We visit them more and more frequently.
    He solved the problems less and less easily
    We use the + comparative form of adverbs…., the + comparative form of adverb to show that two actions change together or that one action depends on the other. E.g: The more I scold her, the worse she behaves. We use the least + adverb + of/in to compare one action to two or more actions in the same group. The opposite is the most…of/in. E.g: She speaks the least loudly of all the children.

    Possible Difficulties
    Students may use “more” with the suffix –er for comparatives. E.g: I am more happier than ever.
    Students may use most with the suffix –est for comparatives. E.g: She is the most happier in her class.
    Students may not double the consonant in one-syllable words or other way around. E.g: The cat is biger than the dog
    This dress is shorten.
    When comparing students may use “that” instead of “than”. E.g: My car is faster that your car.
    Students may make regular the irregular comparative or the superlative form. E.g: My father is the goodest football player.

    What am I going to teach in my English class?
    1st Comparatives (Adjectives)
    One syllable adjectives (-er)
    Two syllable adjectives (more)
    Irregular forms
    2nd Superlatives (Adjectives)
    One syllable adjectives (-est)
    Two syllable adjectives (most)
    Irregular forms

    Context
    Characters
    I will show my students two pictures of different characters. Then, I will compare them using comparative adjectives.

    The Wicked Queen is older than Snow White.
    Snow white is younger than Wicked Queen.
    The Wicked Queen is shorter than Snow White.
    Snow White is taller than The Wicked Queen.
    The Wicked Queen is uglier than Snow White.
    Snow White is more beautiful than The Wicked White.
    Snow White is a better person than The Wicked White.

    Guinness World Records
    I will show my students some pictures related to some Guinness World Records. Then, I will give information about them using superlative adjectives.

    Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world.
    Sultan Kösen is the tallest man in the world.
    Chandra Bahadur Dangi is the shortest man in the world.
    Gareth Bale is the most expensive footballer in the world
    Most mascots dancing at same time is the most important Guinness World Record ever. Animals
    A tourist guide in a Temaiken journey gives information about all the animals that live there. Comparatives:
    The cheetah is faster than the Bengal tiger.
    The mandarin duck is smaller than the cappuccino duck.
    The clownfish is more beautiful than the hippocampus.
    The yacaré negro is longer than the yacaré overo.

    Superlatives:
    The capybara is the largest rodent in the world.
    The bongo antelope is the shiest antelope in the forest.
    The cheetah is the fastest animal in the world.
    The black swan is the most sociable swan.

    Places to visit
    A couple wants to pay a trip for their daughter’s birthday, so they go to a travel agency. One of them has been looking information about Disney and the other one about Brazil. John says to his wife that he prefers Disney because:

    It is more exciting than Brazil.
    It is safer than Brazil
    In Disney there are more interesting attractions to do than in Brazil. It is the funniest place in the world for young people.
    On the other hand, Jane says to her husband that she prefers Brazil because: It is bigger than Disney.
    It is less expensive than Disney
    It is more peaceful than Disney
    It has more nightlife than Disney
    It has the most beautiful beaches in the world

    Comparative and superlative. (2016, Jul 20). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/comparative-and-superlative-essay/

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