Compare and contrast nationalism and industrialism Essay
Nationalism and Industrialism are two historically significant ideological movements which have shaped and changed the perception of people regarding the inner workings of society and its functions through the integration of innovative and pioneering concepts and systems. Basically, the two served as factors of change by establishing a revolution of ideas and ideologies which led to the manifestation of rapid and extensive cultural changes through out the United States, Europe and other western countries.
The difference between Nationalism and Industrialism could be attributed to the areas in which the changes are instituted. Nationalism revolves around the concept of social movement as a proponent of Cultural Revolution. Doctrines regarding political views and perception have created the societal standards that subconsciously regulate society. Industrialism or industrial revolution on the other hand, involves the development of important societal institutions and machineries which includes transportation, manufacturing, production and agricultural. The use of new contraptions, machines and devices have paved the way for significant social and communal changes to occur. The two system of change advocate the continuous use of intellectual and academic resource as the main determinant for social modification.
Nationalism as an ideological movement, seeks to establish a culturally and socially sufficient view on the different elements and variables surrounding a nation. It is a social movement that addresses sentimental ideas in order to institute momentous transformation both in the individual and the country.
Nationalism has significantly established a permanent cultural change in Europe and other non western countries including Russia. Nationalism as an ideological and social movement has greatly impacted the outdated and obsolete political notions found in different European and western countries during the 17th and 18th century. Unequal citizen rights and abuse of authority by politicians and royalties are some of the issues which have been addressed in the changes that are instituted through the existence nationalism.
It can be considered that one of the greatest social movements that occurred in France during the 18th century is the birth and validation of Nationalism as a significant social movement. The current political and national views regarding the government and society could be attributed to the radical change which has been set in motion by revolutionary Frenchmen who are conscious of societal change that addresses the concept of equality and impartiality as the base for the existence of society and political standards. Basically, the government structure in the country has greatly favored impartial privileges and rights of the aristocrats and church authorities which led to mass social distress and anger. The feudal system and supreme authority linked to total monarchy are tools which were used by different people in position to abuse the French citizens. The French revolution allowed the change to address the needs of general population through the establishment of citizenship and the basic human rights which addresses the different essential elements for inalienable equality. The French nationalistic movement has allowed the restructuring of leadership and management of the country (Brubaker, 1996).
Nationalism in a non western country has also revolutionized the change for social movement and political restructuring. Russia is a good example in showing significant change through the integration of ideological movements in the social, political and economic elements of society. Marxism is one of the great political movements during the late 18th century which paved the way for societal modification revolving around the concept of communism or “people’s democracy”. It seeks to refute the concept of capitalism which it views as a means for mass graft and corruption. The popularity of this political movement has reached neighboring countries including China, Cuba and Poland (Becker, 1984).
Industrialism or industrial revolution is another period of ideological movement which changed society by paving the way for decades of continues intellectual and scholarly breakthroughs in the different fields of production, manufacturing, mining and agriculture. Social and cultural change can be attributed to the development of many concepts found during this era. The period of revolution occurred during the late 18th century continuing up to the mid 19th century. Most of the advances and innovations occurred in Britain where hundreds of inventions have changed and established systematic breakthroughs in fields of transportation, mechanical machinery and other important institutions. One of the most notable devices developed is the steam engine. The first steam engine was created by Thomas Savery which where integrated in transportation and production. Steam engine boats allowed convenient method of travel throughout longs distances within the country. Mining was also made easy and efficient since transport of materials used steam powered lifts and rails. Tons of heavy equipment and gathered resources could now be easily brought to any sites. The field of chemistry also blossomed through the discovery of and utilization of many chemicals. The most notable innovation in this field during that time was the use of concrete. It allowed a more convenient way of constructing buildings, bridges, houses and other infrastructures.
The industrial revolution has greatly changed the way of living of the general population. Many advances today can be attributed to the concepts derived by experts during that time. The socioeconomic conditions around the world have drastically improved during the ear of industrialism. Non western countries including Russia and Japan have shared the increased allotment of resources for the development in line with that of Industrialism. Many significant and important inventions came from these countries.
In line with the development manifested through Nationalism and Industrialization, constant changes and modifications have also been in effect with the law and politics to protect the interest of people in the different sectors involved in the issues. This could be best exemplified through the establishment of the Testimony for the Factory Act of 1833. During this time, economic growth in England was attributed to the competition of many manufacturers and producers. The legislation of this act allowed people to view the effect of Industrialism on the workers who contribute in the process of manufacturing. Abusive and depressed working conditions where revealed including hazards and dangers on the health of the workers. This helped the people to correlate and evaluate the different aspects of the development in the country.
The “industrialization and demographic change” showed a general view on the effects of industrialism on the living conditions as a whole. The birth of industrial revolution has a diverse effect on society. Areas of countries which involved great manufacturing has dramatically increased in terms of demographic data due to the increased income and resources brought about by efficient machinery. The developed living conditions allowed a continuous development in criteria such as mobility, ownership and employment (Pollard, 1981).
Becker, S. (1984) “Marxist Approaches to Media Studies: The British Experience.”
Brubaker, R. (1996). Nationalism Reframed: Nationhood and the National Question in the New Europe. Cambridge University Press
Pollard, S. (1981). Peaceful Conquest: The Industrialization of Europe, 1760-1970 Oxford University Press.