This thesis describes the post-Darwinian era, and draws a comparison between Huxley’s ‘Ape and Essence’ and the theories of post-Darwinian era. The post Darwinian Theory is based on the theory of natural selection. On the other hand the novel of Huxley reveals the sarcasm of the increasing large-scale conflict in the 20th century, and shows a gloomy view of the politics that is related to certain destruction. This book uses imaginations and compares human beings with apes who can admit suicide. The chief process for post-Darwinism is symbiosis and consistent.
Huxley's view on the on the selection theory proposed by Darwin is doubtful, yet no credibility was shown by him on other theory. It will be difficult to prove the Natural selection, until varieties are formed through the selection and breeding that is infertile. The chances of biodiversity exploration are there, once the genetic engineering goes into the hands of public. The story reveals the sketches of a society, which closely resembles the human society of twentieth century. Here, baboons have been replaced by men. In this story, there are scenes that describe society’s most intelligent figures put-upon by nescient militarists, which present hopelessness (Bibby & Cyril, 1959)
These concise scenes lampoon the society of human beings and portray it as atrocious, stupid and hawkish. Other scenes reveal that the human activities are performed by apes. On the other hand, the post Darwinian era shows that there won’t be any existence of species other than human beings. As a result to this, gene exchange will become prominent and evolution of common life will take place, as it was in the older days.
Genotype is signified by the imminent era of post-Darwinian unnatural selection, which is pre- designed in expectation of its preferred effects. Therefore, the variation in genes will no longer remain undirected and random. Both the authors show the immense power in the hands of human beings but if used properly, it will generate profit. If its inverse is done, human race will be in danger. The post Darwinian era reveals the complexity of the society. Cloning will become prominent. On the other hand, Huxley depicts the horror in the novel where the nuclear and chemical armaments destroy the human civilization and lead to the creation of a new and strange society.
In the world of post-Darwinian, all stories are related to the stories of apes described by other apes or by the primates. Utterly, it can be said that the story reveals the struggle among the species of ape. Moving onto the Huxley’s novel, it shows that the science fiction work revolves around the grounds of genetic accident, which reveals the similarity even if there is contrast among the fictional sources depicting accidents. The alteration in the Genes caused by man has become the main source of the fiction in the biology. Huxley’s Ape and Essence (1948) gives rise to the distressing questions related to the possibility and recognizing the possible destruction that can be caused by the atomic war and fallout of radioactive elements.
Ape and Essence story reveals forceful and scornful disapproval of human weakness. The novel also depicts the picture of the human species, in which the structure of genes has been altered by the fallout in radioactive element. This led to the rapid degeneration into brutish behavior that was fear-ridden and devoted slavishly for the adoration of Belial. In his novel, Huxley conveys an influential Caveat how men ignored their interest of self and moved into the direction of self destruction. Either men, procreating without boundary and despoiling their own planet, will finally famish to demise or, more probably, they will turn their own technology loose and ravage the world in a great holocaust.
In this novel, voice was raised for the cynicism and disbelieve in technology and science and conjecture related to the alteration in the genes was mentioned.
On the other hand, Darwin has projected a realistic approach towards the morals, ideas, and ethics. This era shows the philosophy of natural selection, science methodology and sharp observation. Hypothesizing all these formed the inspiring part of the knowledge. Apart from this, it had an impact on other disciples also; for instance, the social sciences and history.
Post Darwinian view focuses on the evidence based knowledge where as Huxley’s study was hypothetical. Darwin also believes that through the natural processes of evolution, the different life forms have been created; human is also one of them. Death and Dying form the unavoidable part of life. Recycling is the process through which dead material decomposes and new recycled product is created, which is essential to the other life forms. The Darwinian Theory provides freedom to the human beings in living their life freely. In this theory, the thought of a creator, i.e. God becomes superfluous (Atlan, 1998).
In Darwinian Theory, it was found that humans are considered diverse in nature rather being in a pecking order. Even the children learn from their parents, friends, cousins and siblings.
According to the Darwinian Theory, human beings are the most intelligent animals, who can make the things best out of limited resources in order to full fill the needs. The advantage of post Darwinian Theory is that it aligns the most excellent achievements and qualities of human from the Renaissance, Ancient Greece and the Enlightenment. On the contrary, Huxley was sluggish in accepting the ideas of Darwin such as gradualism. Apart from this, he was not firm about the theory of natural selection but still he was enthusiastic in his public assistance of Darwin. In Britain, he was focused on the establishment of scientific education and brawled against the additional severe versions of religious tradition
Wide array of difference lies in their thoughts as Huxley belongs to the field of anatomist. On the other hand, Darwin was a naturalist, so there was a difference in their knowledge for the nature. The next difference on their views lies in the fact that Darwin considers the natural selection as the most excellent means to describe evolution as the maximum range of observations and facts related to natural history as described by the natural selection. In Darwinian Theory, some empirical evidences become impractical.
On the other hand, Huxley’s novel depicts an empiricist who always trusts what he can view and those things that are not easily visible. In the juvenile and the sailor period, nothing has been mentioned about the evolution. On the contrary, Darwin, during his voyage, exposed fossils and other proofs implying evolution.
Huxley's study focuses on examining the anatomy of marine. He has given a great contribution to the theory of evolution as he discovered the association between germ-layer of various invertebrates and vertebrates. In this novel, he has successfully described the causes and the aim of nuclear disaster that might arise in the future. In this novel, he has brought a contrasting feature of human beings; human beings show soaring intelligence while thinking about the new techniques but restrict their ideas for the future. Therefore, they lack in foreseeing any disaster in the coming future due to their own actions (Barr & Alan, 1997).
The novels depict the beginning of the third world war by military of baboonish men initiating chemical weapon and radiations that might cause severe consequences for the ape and essence. Huxley has predicted that there might be unfortunate effects of nuclear disasters. On the other hand, post-Darwinism reflects the significance of the sexual reproduction that comprises of following:
Ø species creation and
Ø Overlooking the unnecessary elements i.e. increasing the dynamicity in genetic memory.
Huxley, in his novel has made thorough study of nature. Huxley’s inquisitive dualism takes morality to the lowest point against humanity, nature and also towards other animals. Hence, this study draws a contracting comparison among the subconscious and conscious, Love and Death, the ego and superego, etc. (Watt, 1968).
As long as it is realized by a person that by no means his practice prevents the development of sympathetic and selfless tendencies, it is not bad to portray animals (and humans) as the result of evolutionary forces, which had promoted self-interests. This was fully recognized by Darwin, as he explained the development of these trends of group selection, as an alternative of the individual and kin selection, which has been favored by the present theoreticians. It was firmly believed by Darwin that his theory has the ability to accommodate the birth of morality and no disagreement between the gentleness of some of its products and the harshness of the evolutionary process can be seen. Instead of portraying the human species as falling outside the biology laws, Darwin, even in the moral domain, stressed on continuity with animals:
Any animal, which is gifted with well-marked social character would unavoidably obtain a moral sense or principle, once the intellectual powers of the animal had become well developed, or even near to well developed, as in man, whatever be the animal (Sibatani, 1989).
In this book, no hint was provided by Huxley regarding the discovery of human strength in order to defend the forces of nature. Certain questions that were found dominating were: Can people for future generations preserve behaviors that are found away from the character? To what extent these changes penetrate?
The post Darwinian Theory has its own importance in the field of natural science; on the other hand, the novel of Huxley, published in 1948, reveals the sarcasm of the increasing large-scale conflict. Ape and Essence story reveals forceful and scornful disapproval of human weakness. The novel also depicts the picture of the human species, in which the structure of genes has been altered by the fallout in radioactive elements. Differences in their views were also found in the fact that Darwin considers the natural selection as the most excellent means to describe evolution as the maximum range of observations. Facts related to natural history are described by the natural selection.
The post Darwinian era reveals the complexities in the society. Cloning will become prominent. On the other hand, Huxley depicts the horror in the novel; the nuclear and chemical armaments destroy the human civilization and lead to the creation of new strange society.
Atlan, H. (1998). Paradigms in immunology and modern, post-modern, Journal of Philosophy, 13(1): 125-131.
Barr & Alan, P. (1997). Thomas Henry Huxley's place in science and letters: centenary essays, Georgia: Athens.
Bibby & Cyril (1959). T.H. Huxley: scientist, humanist and educator, London: Watts.
Sibatani, B. C. (1989). A structuralist of process: Towards a post-Darwinian rational morphology. Journal of Dynamic Structures in Biology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 31-48.
Watt, D. J. (1968). Vision and Symbol in Aldous Huxley's Island. Published by: Hofstra University Vol. 14, No. 3.