Comparison between spain & honduras In Political, cultural aspects & With regard to legal institutions Essay
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Spain, officially the Kingdom of Spain is a country located in Southern Europe, with two small exclaves in North Africa (both bordering Morocco). The mainland of Spain is bounded on the south and east by Mediterranean Sea (containing the Balearic Islands), on the north by the Canabrian Sea and on the west by the Atlantic Ocean (containing the Canary Islands off the African coast). Spain shares land borders with Portugal, France, Andorra, Gibraltar and Morocco. It is the largest of three sovereign states that make up the Iberian Peninsula.
Honduras is a democratic republic in Central America. It was formerly known as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras. The country is bordered to the west by Guatemala, to the southwest by El Salvador, to the southeast by Nicaragua, to the south by the Pacific Ocean at the Gulf of Fonseca, and to the north by the Gulf of Honduras and the Caribbean Sea.
After Christopher Columbus’s discovery of the New World in 1502 and after the Spanish Discovery, Honduras was made part of Spain‘s vast empire in the New World within the Kingdom of Guatemala. Honduras gained independence from Spain in 1821. The country was then briefly annexed to the Mexican Empire. In 1823, Honduras joined the newly formed United Provinces of Central America federation, which collapsed in 1838. Gen. Francisco Morazan, a Honduran national hero led unsuccessful efforts to maintain the federation. Honduras’ agriculture-based economy was dominated in the 1900s by U.S. companies that established vast banana plantations along the north coast. Foreign capital, plantation life, and conservative politics held sway in Honduras from the late 19th century until the mid-20th century.
Differences in Political Culture and Ideology
Spain is a constitutional monarchy, with a hereditary monarch and a bicameral parliament. The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers presided over by the President of Government, proposed by the monarch and elected by the National Assembly following legislative elections.
Honduras politics takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Honduras is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the National Congress of Honduras. The party system is dominated by the conservative National Party of Honduras and the liberal Liberal Party of Honduras. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
Spain has the legislative branch made up of the Congress of Deputies with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and a Senate or Senado with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.
Honduras has the 1987 constitution that provides for a strong executive, a unicameral National Congress, and a judiciary appointed by the National Congress. Reinforced by the media and several political watchdog organizations, human rights and civil liberties are reasonably well protected. There are no known political prisoners in Honduras and the privately owned media frequently exercises its right to criticize without fear of reprisals. Organized labor now represents less than 15% of the work force and its economic and political influence has declined.
Differences with regard to Legal Institutions
Spain has several legislative and administrative institutions that include:
Legislative and Administrative Institutions, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Ministry of Housing, The Spanish Coordinator for the European Women’s Lobby, Chamber of Deputies, Spanish Economic and Social Council and Regional Bodies.
Honduras legislative system has developed several health-issues handling schemes, that include:
National Health Plans and Policies, Organization of the Health Sector
Institutional level, Health Legislation
General Law on the environment, Organization of Health Regulatory activities, Certification and Practice of Health Professionals
Drug Activity, Environmental Quality, Food, Health Services and Resources, Health Promotion and Community Services, Disease Prevention and Control Programs, Health Laboratories, Food Aid Programs, Specialized Services
Type of Resource, Education of Health Workers, Health Research and Technology, Expenditures and Sectoral Financing, External Technical and Financial Cooperation.
In Spain, Ministry of Labor and social affairs has set up the following bodies important to Equal Employment Opportunity. These include:
An autonomous organization created by Law 16/1983 dependent on the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, whose goal is to promote and encourage equality between the sexes, and to ensure the participation of women in political, cultural, economic, and social life. The institute was restructured in 1997.
The Institute is run by a Governing Board made up by representatives from each Ministry, in order to promote equal opportunities in all policies and projects that arise out of their many departments and sections.
One of the functions of the Women’s Institute is to study the legal and sociological situation of women and monitor the application of current regulations and legislation. The consulting it provides to Ministries on their efforts to achieve these goals is also important, as are its efforts to foster the measures needed to eliminate discrimination for reasons of gender. In addition, the Institute has prepared four Equality Plans, in line with the legal development of the European Union, which has implemented action programmes aimed at furthering equal opportunity.
Observatory of Equal Opportunities for Women and Men
This is an institutional mechanism for gender mainstreaming in Spain. Set up by Royal Decree, it is integrated within the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs.
Three working groups have been established under this Observatory:
c. Social exclusion
Ministry of Housing
Together with the Women’s Institute, the Ministry of Housing co-presides over the Equal Opportunities Group. This instrument of coordination and forum of analysis encourages equality between men and women in interventions of the Structural Funds (2000-2006).
The Work Plan for this Group includes:
a. Situating the incorporation of equal opportunities in the interventions of the Structural Funds
b. Compiling best practices
c. Training and sensitization
Spanish Economic and Social Council
This body was created by the 1978 under the Constitution (article 131.2), and it came into being in 1991, when Parliament passed the Act that set it up. It has the status of a government advisory body, which allows for the economic and social agents to participate in economic and social policy decision-making.
The permanent character Labor commissions of the Economic and Social Council are:
a. Economy and Taxation
b. European unique market, Regional development and Cooperation to development.
c. Labor Relationships, Employment and Social Security.
d. Health, Consumption, Social Services, Education and Culture.
e. Agriculture and Fishing
f. Sectarian Policies and Environment.
g. For the making of memoranda about Spanish Labor and Socioeconomic situation
h. Publications and Institutional Activities
i. External Action
At the regional level, there are also numerous bodies working on gender and equal opportunity, providing many training courses and other programs at the regional level.
Spanish Coordinator for the European women’s lobby
This body works to promote the ideas and policies of the European Union and the European Women’s Lobby.
Chamber of deputies
The Chamber of Deputies has established a number of bodies relevant to gender equality: Joint Commission on the Rights of Women
· Report on the study on the trafficking of women, boys, and girls
· Report on the eradication of domestic violence
In Honduras the education of health professionals is the responsibility of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). In the period 1992–1996, an average of 272 physicians, 19 nurses, and 41 dentists were graduated each year. The education of auxiliary and mid-level technicians is the responsibility of educational establishments administered by the Division of Human Resources of the Ministry of Public Health.
Honduras provide Solid Waste Disposal Services. The most common method of treating household solid waste is open-air burning, which causes air pollution. Communities with greater managerial capacity and larger populations generally have systems for waste management. In Honduras, Environmental Quality is especially cared for. The contamination of rivers has been investigated only where pollution is obvious. Bacteriological contamination has been detected in most water systems in rural areas.
With regard to political differences, Spain reflects more of a political ideology of Europe comprising of a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament. While Hondura follows its setup of presidential representative democratic system with president being the head of state and government. Since Hondurans follow a multi-party system, it employs the benefit of parties and independent media criticizing and reserving room for improvement. Thus, human rights and civil liberties appear to be more protected in Hondura instead of that in Spain. With respect to legislative institutions, Spain is focused on women rights while Hondurans maintain a variety of focuses ranging from health, environment to sewage and disposal policies. However, the legislative bodies of Spain focus on an important aspect of employment and equality of men and women. As Spain emphasizes more on people and social affairs amongst them, Horandu emphasizes more on people’s health and the environment they live in. However, Horandu doesn’t seem to speak much of Equal Employment Opportunities. However, both countries have maintained their language and religious ideologies staying unaffected by political and legislative differences.
Adventures in Nature: Honduras; James D. Gollin
Don’t Be Afraid, Gringo: A Honduran Woman Speaks From The Heart : The Story of Elvia Alvarado; Medea Benjamin
Honduras: The Making of a Banana Republic; Alison Acker
Honduras: State for Sale; Richard Lapper, James Painter
Inside Honduras; Kent Norsworthy and Tom Berry
La Mosquitia: A Guide to the Savannas, Rain Forest and Turtle Hunters; Derek Parent
Moon Handbooks: Honduras; Christopher Humphrey
Reinterpreting the Banana Republic: Region and State in Honduras, 1870-1972; Dario A. Euraque
Seven Names for the Bellbird: Conservation Geography in Honduras; Mark Bonta
Ulysses Travel Guide: Honduras; Eric Ilamovitch
The United States in Honduras, 1980-1981: An Ambassador’s Memoir; Jack R. Binns
The War of the Dispossessed: Honduras and El Salvador, 1969; Thomas P. Anderson
Thomas, Hugh (2003). Rivers of gold: the rise of the Spanish Empire. London: George Weidenfeld & Nicholson. ISBN 978-0297645634.
John Hickman and Chris Little, “Seat/Vote Proportionality in Romanian and Spanish Parliamentary Elections”, Journal of Southern Europe and the Balkans Volume 2, Number 2, November 2000.
Harold Raley, “The Spirit of Spain”, Houston: Halcyon Press 2001. (ISBN 0-9706054-9-8)
George Orwell’s Homage to Catalonia.