Competency Mapping - Part 2 - Skill Essay Example

ART AND SCIENCE OF COMPETENCY MAPPING T - Competency Mapping introduction. V. Rao Chairman, TVRLS Formerly Professor at IIMA and Founder National HRD Network A lot is going on in recent times on the issue of competency mapping. A lot of resources spent and consultants invited to do competency mapping. Increased manpower costs, need for ensuring that competent people man critical positions, and the need to be competitive and recognition of the strategic advantages of having good human resources have compelled firms to be more competency driven.

In good organisations competency mapping existed already. Traditionally HR Directors and their top management have always paid attention to competencies and incorporated them mostly in their appraisal systems. For example when L&T, LIC or NDDB, NOCIL, HLL, Bharat Petroleum etc. revised their Performance appraisal systems they focussed on the assessment of competencies. Role analysis was done and role directories prepared by the Indian Oil Corporation in mid eighties. Competency mapping is important and is an essential exercise.

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Every well managed firm should: have well defined roles and list of competencies required to perform each role effectively. Such list should be used for recruitment, performance management, promotions, placement and training needs identification. What is Competency? Any underlying characteristic required performing a given task, activity, or role successfully can be considered as competency. Competency may take the following forms: Knowledge, Attitude, Skill, Other characteristics of an individual including: Motives, Values, Self concept etc.

Competencies may be grouped in to various areas. In classic article published a few decades ago in Harvard Business Review Daniel Katz grouped them under three areas which were later expanded in to the following four: Technical. Managerial, Human and Conceptual. This is a convenience classification and a given competency may fall into one or more areas and may include more than one from. It is this combination that are labelled and promoted by some firms as competency dictionaries. A competency dictionary of a firm gives detailed descriptions of the competency language used by that firm.

It contains detailed explanations of the combinations of competencies (technical, managerial, human and conceptual knowledge, attitudes and skills) using their own language. For example Team work or Team Management competency can be defined in terms of organization specific and level specific behaviors for a given origination. At top levels it might mean in the case of one organization ability identify utilize and synergize the contributions of a project team and at another level it might mean ability to inspire and carry along the top management team including diversity management.

In competency mapping all details of the behaviors (observable, specific, measurable etc. ) to be shown by the person occupying that role are specified. History of Competencies A team of Educationists lead by Benjamin Bloom in the USA in mid fifties laid the foundation for identifying educational objectives and there by defining the knowledge attitudes and skills needed to be developed in education.

The task force lead by Bloom took several years to make an exhaustive classification of the educational objectives that were grouped under the cognitive domain. David McClelland the famous Harvard Psychologist has pioneered the competency movement across the world. His classic books on “Talent and Society”, “Achievement Motive”, “The Achieving Society”, “Motivating Economic Achievement” and “Power the Inner Experience” brought out several new dimensions of the competencies.

These competencies exposed by McClelland dealt with the affective domain in Bloom’s terminology. The turning point for competency movement is the article published in American Psychologist in 1973 by McClelland titled where in he presented data that traditional achievement and intelligence scores may not be able to predict job success and what is required is to profile the exact competencies required to perform a given job effectively and measure them using a variety of tests.

This article combined with the work done by Douglas Brey and his associates at AT&T in the US where in they presented evidence that competencies can be assessed through assessment centers an on the job success can be predicted to some extent by the same has laid foundation for popularization of the competency movement. Latter McBer a Consulting Firm founded by David McClelland and his associate Berlew have specialized in mapping the competencies of entrepreneurs and managers across the world.

They even developed a new and yet simple methodology called the Behavior Event Interviewing (BEI) to map the competencies. With increased recognition of the limitations performance appraisal in predicting future performance potential appraisal got focused. And Assessment centers became popular in seventies. The setting up an Assessment center was in integral part of the HRD plan given to L&T by the IIMA professors as early as in 1975. L&T did competency mapping and could not start assessment centers until much latter as it was not perceived as a priority area.

Competency mapping is the process of identification of the competencies required to perform successfully a given job or role or a set of tasks at a given point of time. It consists of breaking a given role or job into its constituent tasks or activities and identifying the competencies (technical, managerial, behavioral, conceptual knowledge, an attitudes, skills, etc. ) needed to perform the same successfully. Competency assessment is the assessment of the extent to which a given individual or a set of individuals possess these competencies required by a given role or set of roles or levels of roles.

Assessment centers use multiple methods and multiple assessors to assess the competencies of a given individual or a group of individuals. In order to enhance objectivity they use trained assessors and multiple methods including psychometric tests, simulation exercise, presentations, in-basket exercises, interviews, role-plays, group discussions etc. The methods to be used depend on the nature of competencies. Who Identifies competencies? Competencies can be identified by one of more of the following category of people: Experts, HR Specialists, Job analysts, Psychologists, Industrial Engineers etc.

in consultation with: Line Managers, Current & Past Role holders, Supervising Seniors, Reporting and Reviewing Officers, Internal Customers, Subordinates of the role holders and Other role set members of the role (those who have expectations from the role holder and who interact with h him/her). What Methodology is used? The following methods are used in combination for competency mapping: Interviews, Group work, Task Forces, Task Analysis workshops, Questionnaire, Use of Job descriptions, Performance Appraisal Formats etc. How are they Identified? The process of identification is not very complex.

Some of the methods are given below: 1. Simply ask each person who is currently performing the role to list the tasks to be performed by him one by one, and identify the Knowledge, Attitudes, and Skills required to perform each of these. Consolidate the list. Present it to a role set group or a special task force constituted for that role. Edit and Finalize. 2. Appoint a task force for each role. When the author worked with the Ministry of Health in Indonesia a three day workshop was found to be sufficient to train the local Health Province staff in competency mapping.

This in spite of the author having to work with groups of Indonesians who spoke only Bhasa Indonesia. What Language to Use? Use Technical language for technical competencies. For example: knowledge of hydraulics. Use business language for business competencies. Example: Knowledge of markets for watch business or Strategic thinking. Use your own language or standard terms for Behavior competencies. Example: Ability to Negotiate, Interpersonal sensitivity, Sales techniques. Too technical and conceptual knowledge align to the organization and people may create more problems than help Who can do it?

Competency mapping is a task which can be done by many people. Now days all Management schools and definitely those specializing in HR train the students in competency mapping. Recently when the author taught a course on Management of Talent at the Indian School of Business with two hours or introduction to the process of competency mapping the students (all with experience of more than two years) have done a great job of competency mapping for a set of roles. Any Masters in Management or Social Sciences or an Employee with Equivalent Experience and Training can develop these competencies.

Conceptual Background and Understanding of the business is important. Familiarity with Business, Organizations, Management and Behavioral Sciences is useful. HR Managers, Management Graduates, Applied Psychologists are quite qualified to do this. Most institutions specializing in HR train the candidates to do this. Some Tips on How to do it? The following are some of tips to do competency mapping at low cost: Pick up a job or a role that is relatively well understood by all individuals in the company. Work out for this role and give it as an illustration.

For example Sales Executive, Production Supervisor, Assistant HR Manager, Receptionist, Transport Manager, PR Manager, etc. are known to all and easy to profile. Work out competencies for this role if necessary with the help of job analysis specialist or an internal member who has knowledge of competency mapping. Prepare this as an illustration. Circulate these others and ask various departments to do it on their won. Circulate samples of competencies done by others Illustrate knowledge, attitudes, skills, values etc. Choose a sample that does not use jargons

Explain the purpose Interview of past successful job holders helps Current incumbent who are doing a good job along with their Reporting officers is a good enough team in most cases. Once prepared even on the basis of one or two individuals inputs circulate to other role set members. How to Create Competency Models [pic] By: Date: July 1 2005 [pic] Brief Refresher on Competency Models Competency models are simply lists of characteristics required to do a job well. For example, the competencies for a carpenter might include: • Attention to Detail

• Problem Solving Ability These competencies typically have definitions. For example: Attention to Detail: Pays attention to details to ensure they are correct. Competency definitions are most useful if they include a scale which helps identify low and high levels of the competencies. For example: Attention to Detail: Pays attention to fine details to ensure they are correct • Low: Shows concern when errors are made in detail but does not make special efforts to fix them. • Medium: Is careful in work and takes the time to ensure details are correct.

• High: Is very careful in work, checks final result, puts in extra effort to re-do work when it is not up to their personal standards. Typically, there are around seven to ten competencies for a job. While one could often justify having more competencies the models become too hard to use. Tools for Building Models There are three main tools used to build competency models. They can be used alone or in combination. 1. Select from Existing Competency Dictionaries Many consulting firms have dictionaries of existing competencies. They may even have lists of jobs with associated competencies.

A client can simply select and edit competencies from the dictionary that they feel relevant to the job. 2. Use an Expert Panel to Define Competencies An “expert panel” normally consists of HR, one or more managers of the job being discussed and one or more incumbents of the job being discussed and a consultant. The expert panel discusses the job and decides what competencies are required. 3. Research on the Competencies Required to Do the Job The most scientific way to determine the competencies required for a job is to do research.

Typically this is done by doing structured behavioral interviews of high performers and average performers. The interviews are analyzed and the differences between high and average performers become the basis for the competency model. Selecting a Tool The key issues in selecting a tool are: • What can you afford (in time and money)? • How well do you understand the job? • How much do you want to learn about competencies? Here are some common scenarios and the appropriate tools: • Small company with limited resources Often small companies find they can only afford the cheapest, quickest

approach which is to select from a competency dictionary. This does not add a lot of value but is better than not using competencies at all. • We already understand competencies and we understand the job If the job is well understood and you already understand competencies then you may find that selecting from a competency dictionary meets your needs. • We need to understand the job better and we want buy in Using an expert panel typically helps you ensure that you develop competencies that are well tailored to the specific job.

Just as importantly, you get buy-in and understanding from the people who will be using the model. For most situations, this would be the method of choice. • It is a critical job and it”s worthwhile to get it right For a large population job, such as flight attendants in an airline, or critical jobs, such as senior auditors, it is often worthwhile to do a research project. It is also useful if you suspect that there may be competencies that an expert panel would be unaware of. • We want to really understand competencies

A research project is the best way to really understand what competencies are all about. An HR department might well want to do one or two research projects to learn about competencies before retreating to faster, cheaper tools such as expert panels or selecting from a dictionary. Caveat Generally, far too much effort goes in to building a model, and too little effort goes into using it. In general it may make sense to try to get a rough model together quickly, start using it, then refine it based on what you learn. Role of Consultants

Companies new to competencies should probably use a consultant to help them get started. However, in general it is best if the consultant is the teacher and coach while the company (usually HR) does the actual work of building the model. If the consultant does the work they will gain a deep understanding of competencies and jobs. You, the client, will get a piece of paper. The Competitive Advantage of Skills/Competencies Management [pic] By: Date: January 31 2005 [pic] Competencies management allows companies to link the strategic objectives of their organization with key HR systems.

By creating a true picture of the technical and behavioral skills within an organization, companies can improve HR performance, deploy human capital more effectively and make better strategic decisions regarding business processes. There are many resources on the market today that help organizations identify and implement competencies management programs. There are multiple consulting firms that specialize in helping organizations move through the process and there are an increasing number of software vendors offering solutions to accommodate competencies management.

Additionally, there are several other vendors offering organizations existing libraries and dictionaries of relevant skills and competencies. Competency dictionaries help organizations reduce the need to develop skills definitions that support their business processes. They offer a common language that can guide an organization through the process of identifying the skills and competencies necessary to align performance with strategic goals and objectives. Most competency dictionaries consist of both technical and behavioral competency definitions.

Technical competencies are those skills that can support HR processes including career management, succession planning, development planning, and recruitment and resource deployment. By identifying the technical competencies of employees, organizations are better able to identify individuals to work on specific projects or responsibilities. Behavioral competencies provide organizations with a framework for managing leadership development, organizational culture and performance. With the emergence of more and more competency dictionaries, organizations don’t have to look hard to find one that meets their needs.

Many vendors offer dictionaries that range in their number of definitions from 55 to 3,000. Many vendors offer industry specific competencies dictionaries that range in their number of definitions from 55 to 3,000. Competencies management should not be limited strictly to the management level. Organizations should look at assessing the skills and competencies of all employees in order to develop a clear picture of where specific skills lie. This process also helps to analyze learning gaps, identify critical vacancies for succession planning, identify redundant operations and recognize competencies for planning future projects.

Organizations that choose to identify competencies can expect to experience clarity around the expectations of employees and managers, a consistency of standards across the organization and the ability to track skills within the organization. Additionally, skills competencies management allows for the development of a shared language, allowing global companies to communicate more effectively amongst multiple locations. Despite the obvious benefits that competencies management can bring to an organization, many companies are reluctant to implement such a program. An HR.

com competency report revealed several key reasons why organizations had failed to implement a competency-based human capital management system. The top three reasons included the lack of a comprehensive system, fear of the size and complexity of effort involved and a lack of comprehensive skills/competencies dictionary for their business. Other reasons for not implementing a competencies management system included difficulties in integration with existing human resources processes, lack of solid ROI, lack of comprehensive pre-defined job role profiles and the inability of managers to absorb the frequency of change.

There are several key steps that organizations should take before implementing a competencies management system. The first step should involve identifying organizational goals and ensuring that there are clear links between organizational, departmental and individual goals. The next step is to analyze existing data to ensure it is clean and accurate. The third and final step is to assess your options in terms of launching the program. Are you going to use a consultant? Can you use an existing skills competency dictionary? Can you supplement an existing skills competency dictionary or do you need to start from scratch?

HR. com has published several relevant documents designed to help organizations through the skills competency approach to human capital management. Strategic Issues: The Skills Competency Approach to Human Capital Management discusses the skills competency paradigm and offers guidance to organizations regarding the criteria and challenges of implementing a successful competency management program. HR. com has also produced a detailed guide to help organizations understand the great new opportunities and the factors that must be considered to successfully implement such an environment.

The guide, entitled The Emergence of Skills/Competencies Management is available at HR. com. |Career and Competency Pathing: | |The Competency Modeling Approach | |By Maggie LaRocca | |[pic] | |Introduction | |Competencies are behaviors that encompass the knowledge, skills, and attributes required for successful performance.

In addition to intelligence and aptitude, the | |underlying characteristics of a person, such as traits, habits, motives, social roles, and self-image, as well as the environment around them, enable a person to deliver| |superior performance in a given job, role, or situation. | |Competency modeling is the activity of determining the specific competencies that are characteristic of high performance and success in a given job. Competency modeling | |can be applied to a variety of human resource activities.

This research paper will describe how organizations identify their core competencies and how they are applying | |this competency data to improve performance. It will also explain some emerging trends in competency modeling. | |Developing Competency Models | |Competencies enable employees to achieve results, thereby creating value. It follows that competencies aligned with business objectives help foster an organization’s | |success.

Organizations must understand their core competency needs – the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and abilities that are necessary for people in key roles to | |deliver business results. | |According to Boulter, et al (1998), there are six stages involved in defining a competency model for a given job role. These stages are: | |Performance criteria – Defining the criteria for superior performance in the role.

| |Criterion sample – Choosing a sample of people performing the role for data collection. | |Data collection – Collecting sample data about behaviors that lead to success. | |Data analysis – Developing hypotheses about the competencies of outstanding performers and how these competencies work together to produce desired results. | |Validation – Validating the results of data collection and analysis. | |Application – Applying the competency models in human resource activities, as needed.

| |Using Competency Models | |In 2000, Schoonover Associates and Arthur Anderson conducted a study to determine how organizations are actually using competency data and to provide insights into | |real-life practices that lead to success. Respondents were asked to indicate the prevalence of competency use within their organization, describe their level of | |expertise in using competencies, characterize their use of competencies, and indicate the importance, satisfaction, and effectiveness of their experiences.

Key findings | |indicated that: | |Users were spread across all major business sectors and organizations of varying size. | |The use of competencies, in order of their effectiveness, includes hiring, job descriptions, training, performance management, development planning, and career pathing. | |The more sophisticated users of competencies were much more satisfied with outcomes. | |Common barriers that undermine success include lack of expertise in building models, limited support by top management, competing priorities, and lack of resources.

| |Best practices include ensuring a linkage between the competency initiative and the organizational strategy, focusing on integrating competencies with all HR processes, | |and focusing on implementation and ongoing evaluation. | |The findings from this study were distilled into one guiding principle, which is “Competency applications, like all significant change initiatives, will be successful | |when best practices related to development and implementation are consistently and relentlessly followed.

” | |Competency Models at HP | |Hewlett-Packard Company considers the development of competency models as a critical factor in its future success. One recent program at HP (2003) focused on using | |competency models to improve the overall quality and performance of its sales force. Working with Reza Sisakhti from Productivity Dynamics, the Sales Competency Modeling| |Program team followed the approach described in the graphic below.

| |[pic] | |Figure 1. Sisakhti Approach | |This project started by creating straw models for various job roles, using input from key stakeholders in particular geographies and businesses. These included the role | |requirements, key competencies for successful performance, and logical learning roadmaps and career paths.

| |The straw models were then validated through reviews and one-on-one interviews with practitioners, including managers and expert performers. During the interviews and | |subsequent analysis and validation, consideration was made for role similarity/overlap, account size and line-of business differences, and geographic variations. | |The program generated a Learning, Development, and Career Planning Toolkit, comprised of role-specific competency models, competency inventory and gap analyses, learning| |opportunity roadmaps, and suggested career paths.

To date, several thousand employees and managers in the sales function have undergone competency assessments, and the | |sales teams are rigorously using the learning roadmaps and career pathing information to improve overall performance. | |Another competency modeling project at HP (2004) focused on improving performance of the people in HP Workforce Development who are chartered with providing performance | |oriented solutions for the rest of HP. Competency models were created or each key WD job role.

These models separated competencies into three levels: foundational, core,| |and role excellence. | |As a result of this effort, new foundational training courses, along with other performance interventions, were developed for WD professionals, and the competency models| |were fully integrated into WD’s performance management processes. According to members of the project team, “The journey continues, and opportunities abound for | |improvement and further refinement.

We have already shifted the actual performance of the workforce closer to desired performance, but there is still a great deal of | |work to do. ” | |Future Trends in Competency Modeling | |As organizations increasingly focus on human assets as a competitive advantage, they expect higher levels of performance from their employees. Schoonover and Anderson | |(2000) anticipate the use of competencies as a strategic intervention to continue, and even to accelerate.

| |Moreover, Schoonover (2000) predicts that breakthroughs in information technology will have a big impact on HR activities such as competency modeling. Until recently, | |available software applications addressed various HR activities separately. Some applications are now starting to incorporate job descriptions, competency models, | |performance assessments, and development opportunities into a single integrated system so that data can be shared between the various processes.

| |According to Schoonover, “The ways human resource activities are performed must change substantially to respond to business challenges. New technology applications will | |be the most critical enabler. ” | | | |References | |Blair, D. & Greenwood, D. (2003). WD Competency Models and Roadmap.

Slides presented at an HP Workforce Development & Organizational Effectiveness eBrown Bag Series. | |Retrieved February 14, 2004, from http://www. hp. com/wd/professional_resource_ portal/htm | |Boulter, N. , Dalziel, M. , PhD. , & Hill, J. (Eds. ). (1998). Achieving the Perfect Fit. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company | |Martin, J. , Goldsmith, C. , Hodges, K. , Parskey, P. (2004).

Looking in the Mirror – Performance Improvement for Performance Improvers. International Society for | |Performance Improvement. Retrieved February 14, 2004, from http://www. hp. com/wd/professional_ resource_portal/htm | |Schoonover, S. , Schoonover, H. , Nemerov, D. , Ehly, C. (2000). Competency-Based HR Applications: Results of a Comprehensive Survey. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from | |http://www. humanasset. net/resources/htm | |Schoonover, S.

(2000). Applying Technology to Maximize Human Assts. Retrieved February 7, 2004, from http://www. humanasset. net/resources/htm | | | |Author Note | |Maggie LaRocca | |Learning Program Manager | |Hewlett-Packard Company | |maggie.

[email protected] com | | | |Introduction |Top | | | |Competency models identify the knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary to successfully perform critical work functions in an industry or occupation.

The Competency Model | |Clearinghouse offers the Building Blocks for Competency Models Tool to guide you through the creation of a competency model for your industry. This tool will enable you to | |create materials that assist businesses, educators, and workforce professionals in identifying the skills needed for success in 21st century careers.

| | | |Building Blocks for Competency Models |Top | | | |The Building Blocks for Competency Models consist of a set of “building blocks” for competency model development.

These “building blocks” are arranged in nine tiers with | |each tier containing a set of related competencies. The arrangement of the tiers in a pyramidal shape represents the increasing level of specificity and specialization of | |content. As a user moves up through the various tiers of the model, the competencies become specific to certain industries and/or occupations.

The nine tiers are grouped | |into three categories: | | | |Occupation-Related Competencies |[pic] | | | | |Tier 9 – Management Competencies | | |Tier 8 – Occupation-Specific Requirements | | |Tier 7 – Occupation-Specific Technical Competencies | | |Tier 6 – Occupation-Specific Knowledge Competencies | | | | | |Industry-Related Competencies | | | | | |Tier 5 – Industry-Sector Technical Competencies | | |Tier 4 – Industry-Wide Technical Competencies | | | | | |Foundational Competencies | | |

| | |Tier 3 – Workplace Competencies | | |Tier 2 – Academic Competencies | | |Tier 1 – Personal Effectiveness Competencies | | | | |Foundational Competencies |Top | | | |At the base of the model, Tiers 1 through 3 represent competencies that provide the foundation for success in school and in the world of work. Foundational competencies are | |essential to a large number of occupations and industries. Employers have identified a link between foundational competencies and job performance and have also discovered | |that foundational competencies are a prerequisite for workers to learn industry-specific skills.

| | | |Industry-Related Competencies |Top | | | |The competencies shown on Tiers 4 and 5 are referred to as Industry Competencies and are specific to anindustry or industry sector. Industry-wide technical competencies cut | |across industry sub-sectors making it possible to create career lattices where a worker can move easily across industry sub-sectors. Rather than narrowly following a single | |occupational career ladder, this model supports the development of an agile workforce.

| | | |Occupation-Related Competencies |Top | | | |The competencies on Tiers 6, 7, 8, and 9 are referred to as Occupational Competencies. Occupational competency models are frequently developed to define performance in a | |workplace, to design competency-based curriculum, or to articulate the requirements for an occupational credential such as a license or certification. | | | |The Building Blocks for Competency Models Tool enables you to build a competency model for your industry from Tier 1 (Personal Effectiveness Competencies) through Tier 5 | |(Industry-Sector Technical Competencies).

| | | |How to Get Started |Top | | | |Before you begin building a competency model, you will be required to create an account by establishing a User Name and password. Your account lets you save your competency | |models so you can build, revise, or edit them at your convenience. | | | |The competency models you create will not be shared with the public or other users. Please see our Privacy Policy for more details regarding how the information we collect | |is used and safeguarded.

| | | |Building Blocks for Competency Models Tool Overview |Top | | | |The Building Blocks for Competency Models Tool enables you to build industry competency models that can serve as the foundation for important human resource functions such | |as recruitment and hiring, training and development, career planning, and performance management. | | | |The tool requires you to choose a competency framework to guide model development. The competency model frameworks contain competencies for you to review and possibly | |incorporate at each tier of your industry competency model.

You will be asked to choose either: | |a pre-existing industry model or | |the generic building blocks model | |The industry model frameworks are based on the building blocks competency model, but have been modified to represent particular industries. Subject matter experts within | |industries have worked together to develop foundational (Tiers 1-3), industry-wide (Tier 4), and in some cases, industry-sector (Tier 5) competencies for the industry. The | |industry models are listed as either approved (verified by subject matter experts) or draft (currently under review by subject matter experts).

Draft models are being | |confirmed by industry experts and thus may require future revision. | | | |If no industry model exists for the industry for which you are developing your competency model, you should select the generic building blocks model. The generic building | |blocks model was developed to apply to all occupations, regardless of industry. As such, the generic model competencies are broadly focused and may require editing to make | |them reflect your industry. In fact, all existing model frameworks can be edited in the tool to reflect your particular needs.

| | | |The industry models and the generic building blocks model contain up to five tiers of competencies that represent the knowledge, skills, and abilities essential for | |successful performance in the industry or occupation represented by the model. You are encouraged to become familiar with the structure and content of the generic building | |blocks model and relevant industry models before you begin building your model. The generic building blocks model and industry models are available for your review in the | |”Think About” section of the Web site. | |

| |Building Your Model |Top | | | |Once you have chosen your model framework, you will need to build the individual tiers of your model. The development of each tier is a separate step in the tool. When you | |begin building each tier, take time to review the competencies and key behaviors associated with your chosen model framework that are listed on the screen. You should think | |about whether the competencies are appropriate for your industry and whether the key behaviors adequately describe the relevant activities. | | | |Once you have evaluated the information provided, you are ready to begin selecting, revising, and/or creating competencies and key behaviors.

| | | |At each tier, you have the option to: | |select key behaviors listed under each competency to include in your model, | |include all competencies and key behaviors by checking the appropriate box, | |add more key behaviors to existing competencies, | |edit existing key behaviors on some competencies, and | |add new competencies and associated key behaviors. | |As you complete each tier, the tool will automatically save your work to your account. | | | |See the sections below for more detailed instructions on how to select and add competencies and key behaviors to your model.

| | | |Select Existing Competencies and Key Behaviors |Top | | | |Tiers 1-4 | |As you progress through Tiers 1-4, you will see pre-existing competencies and key behaviors associated with each tier. You may choose to include all the pre-existing | |competencies and key behaviors in your model by checking the “Include All” box. | | | |Alternatively, you may determine that only some of the competencies are relevant to your industry.

If this is the case, you may include a competency by checking the boxes | |next to specific key behaviors associated with that competency. The checked key behaviors and competency linked to those behaviors will be included in your model. | | | |Tier 5 | |When you reach Tier 5 for industry models, you will have to select a pre-existing industry sector before reviewing competencies and key behaviors. After you choose a sector,| |the procedure for selecting competencies and key behaviors is the same as the procedure followed for Tiers 1-4.

| | | |For the generic building blocks model, there are no pre-existing competencies associated with Tier 5. If you choose to use the generic model, you can create your own | |competencies at the Tier 5 level. | | | |Add Key Behaviors to Existing Competencies |Top | | | |At each tier, you may select the “Add Key Behavior” link to add new key behaviors to pre-existing competencies.

Once you have selected the link, a new screen will appear on | |which you must select the name of the competencyfor which you are adding the key behavior and type the title of your new key behavior in the field provided. You are not | |required to provide a description of the key behavior. See the appendix for more information on writing key behaviors. | | | |You may keep adding new key behaviors to the selected competency by clicking the “Add Another Key Behavior” link at the bottom of the screen. When you are finished adding | |key behaviors to that competency, click “Done” and the new key behaviors will be included in your model.

| | | |If you start adding a new Key Behavior and decide not to add that behavior, click “Cancel” to return to the list of competencies. If you have entered several Key Behaviors | |that you do not want to include, click on “Cancel All” to return to the list of competencies. Remember, you can always “uncheck” a Key Behavior from the list of competencies| |if you would like to delete it from your list. | | | |To add new key behaviors to a different competency, select a new competency, and follow the same procedures outlined above.

| | | |Editing Key Behaviors in Existing Competencies |Top | | | |Tiers 1-4 | |For some pre-existing competencies, you have the option to edit the text associated with existing key behaviors. If a key behavior has a “+” sign next to it, there is | |associated text available for editing.

Click on the “+” sign to review the text. If you would like to revise the text, click “Edit”. An editable text box will appear | |containing the key behavior text you selected. Once you have finished editing the key behavior, click “Save”, and your revisions will be incorporated into your model. | | | |Tier 5 | |Remember, there are no pre-existing competencies associated with Tier 5 of the generic building blocks model. If you choose to use the generic framework, you will not have | |any competencies or key behaviors to edit at Tier 5.

| | | |Add Your Own Competency |Top | | | |Tiers 1-3 | |If you want to add new competencies to Tiers 1-3 of your model, click “Add Competency”. A new screen will appear where you can enter the name of the competency, a brief | |definition, and key behaviors that describe the competency. To add a new competency you must enter the name of the competency and at least one key behavior.

Though providing| |a definition of the competency and description(s) of the key behavior(s) are optional fields, we recommend you provide as much information as you can during model | |development. See the appendixfor more information on developing competencies. | | | |You may include more than one key behavior to describe a new competency by clicking “Add Another Key Behavior”. A new screen will appear on which the name of your competency| |will be entered in the name of the competency field. You should enter the additional key behavior and optional key behavior description on this screen. Repeat this process | |until you have entered all key behaviors for the new competency.

Click “Add Competency” and your new competency and key behaviors will be included in your model. Tiers 4-5 | |You may also use the “Add Competency” feature to include additional competencies on Tier 4 (industry-wide) and Tier 5 (industry-sector). The procedure for adding a | |competency at Tiers 4 and 5 is similar to the one followed in Tiers 1-3 with one exception. At Tiers 4 and 5, you have the option to assign a “level” to competencies. | |Establishing a competency level is one way to distinguish between competencies for entry-level positions and competencies for more advanced level positions (e. g. , technician| |or management) within an industry. | |

| |Finalizing Your Model |Top | | | |As you complete each tier, the tool will automatically save your work to your account. You may return at any time to view, edit, or revise your work. Once you have finished | |building your model, you may download your work as a Word document. Remember that if you make changes to the Word document, they WILL NOT be saved to the model in your | |account. | | | |Once you build a model through Tier 4, you will be able to move to the Career Ladder/Lattice Tool to begin building a career ladder/lattice. See the Career Ladder/Lattice | |General Instructions for more information how to build a career ladder/lattice.

| | | |Appendix | | | |Competency Tip: |Top | |Remember that a competency is the capability to use a set of related knowledge, skills, and abilities to successfully perform tasks in a defined work setting, in school, and| |in everyday life. | | | |As you develop competencies for your model, think about the type of competencies that make up the first five tiers of the building blocks model. For example, if you are | |working on Tier 3 (Workplace Competencies) of your model, think about the type of competencies found at this tier of the model. Then, proceed through the following steps to | |develop new competencies.

| |Think about the knowledge, skills, abilities, or other requirements needed to successfully perform in all jobs in the workplace. | |Review the workplace competencies associated with your chosen model framework. | |Determine if the framework competencies cover all the related knowledge, skills, and abilities necessary for successful performance in all jobs across all industries. | |Ask yourself if there are any competencies that would make the model more complete. | |Add new competencies to your model. | |For example, you might determine that your model lacks a competency to represent the knowledge, skills, and abilities related to working with others.

As a result you might | |include a competency called “Teamwork” which you might define as: | |Working effectively with others, regardless of organizational level, background, gender, race or ethnicity to resolve disagreements, persuade others and reach agreements. | |Remember, the more detail you can provide to your model, the more valuable your model will be to your end user. | | | |Key Behavior Tip: |Top | |Make sure your key behaviors are measurable and observable activities associated with a competency. You should use key behaviors to provide a more complete description of | |the competency to help clarify its meaning.

For example, the following behaviors could be associated with the competency “Teamwork”: | |Handles differences in work styles effectively when working with coworkers | |Capitalizes on strengths of others on a team to get work done | |Anticipates potential conflicts and addressing them directly and effectively | |Motivates others to contribute opinions and suggestions | |Demonstrates a personal commitment to group goals | |Remember, you should begin a key behavior

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