Concepts of Population Epidemiology

Concepts of Population Epidemiology

I.                   Introduction

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a.      Problem and its Background

Epidemiology is the study of disease occurrence and transference in human population wherein its focus involves the distribution and determinants of disease throughout the involved population - Concepts of Population Epidemiology introduction. It is frequently used in public health as a systematic and scientific approach for understanding diseases and health problems (Waning & Montagne, 2001 p.1). The essential aim of epidemiology is to establish awareness of disease causation and improve the general health conditions of the public (Woodward, 2005 p.2).

            The paper discusses various population epidemiologic concepts, specifically confounding, standardization and risk adjustments. The following concepts are associated in health care practice and situations wherein practical analyzed applications are involved. Detailed explanation and comparisons are also included in the entire discussion.

b.      Scope and Limitation

The research paper shall deal with the following concepts mention in above portion of the paper. The following shall be the entire objectives of the study itself.

c.       To be able to describe and elaborate the concepts of population epidemiology

d.      To be able to associate these concepts in health care setting, practice and other applications concerned.

II.                Concept Presentation

a.      Confounding

The concept of compounding is the central study of epidemiology wherein the focus occurs in experimental research; however, it is a considerably more essential issue in the field of non-experimental research. Confounding starts by incorporating the manner in which effects are estimated. In terms of health care application, we study the degree to which exposure has changed the frequency of disease in exposed cohort. In such case, we provide estimation of the frequency of disease per say in an unexposed cohort and correlate it in the area with exposed cohort (Rothman & Greenland, 1998 p.120).

b.      Standardization

Perspective involved in standardization is the utilization and preference of data organization and gathering that makes use of comparable case and controls of the exposed or unexposed cohort (Maglaya, 2005 p.176). This process negates the utilization of purse-type data gathering that usually involves the classic conversational gathering of data, and the investigative interview, since this direct obtain information out of the subject’s perspectives, which denotes subjectivity of data gathered (Maglaya, 2005 p.177). The use of such concept is greatly manifested in terms of data gathering especially in disease-epidemiologic records. In this concept, comparison of data collected in the past and present is the main conceptual approach.

c.       Risk Adjustments

The concept of risk adjustments incorporates the risk factors associated in the disease-progression in a given exposed cohort. The perspective involved is the organization and prioritization of risks according to potentially causal or non-potentially causal. By such concept, the risk factors are adjusted according to importance and priority; hence, the need to address the most essential causality is then achieved. The pattern involving the over-all assessment of risks are quite complex and requires through investigation of both subjective and objective evident cues. The epidemiologic data in this concept are obtained primarily through critical assessment and review of records, data collected and previous situations involved (Walter, 1998 p.411).


Maglaya, A. S. (2005). Nursing Practice in the Community. Marikina City: Argonauta Corporation.

Rothman, K. J., & Greenland, S. (1998). Modern Epidemiology. Niagara, New York: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 0316757802

Walter, S. D. (1998, September 1). Attributable Risk in Practice. American Journal of Epidemiology, 148, 5, 411-413.

Waning, B., & Montagne, M. (2001). Pharmacoepidemiology: Principles and Practice. New York USA. McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 0071355073

Woodward, M. (2005). Epidemiology: Study Design and Data Analysis. New York, USA CRC Press. ISBN 1584884150

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