Be aware, this review document is meant to guide your preparations and may not be all inclusive of the material on the exam. The exam will be a mixture of matching, definitions, short answer, essay, and ‘other’ questions. Suggestions on where to focus your preparations are given below: • What are the 2 major forms of modern overexploitation? o Overfishing ? Fishery- fishing for a specific species • Populations have dropped so significantly that fisheries are stopping o Bushmeat ? The killing of tropical terrestrial animals for their meat and then selling this meat ?
Usually takes place in rural, third world areas so it is hard to enforce laws on.
? With exploitation rates rising, these targeted species face the potential for extinction • List and describe the types of overexploitation o Commercial ? Selling wildlife for profit ? Market for wild products ? Wealth, money changing hands, more wildlife to sell = more $ • i. e. rhino horn sold for ivory ? domestic substitutes not as desirable • wild caught salmon more desirable than farm raised ? increasing rarity increases value ? wild resources are communal- tragedy of the commons ? ild resources are remote- difficult to police a lot of acres of native ? capital to purchase technology- enterprises has $ to make them more efficient at harvesting resources ? currency disparities • resource is cheap in one country but can sell it for more in another, can make a lot of money o Subsistence ? Hunt because you need to live off of it (i.
e. Eskimos hunting whales) • Most rural folk do this to an extent ? Subsistence exploitation has increased with increased population size o Recreational Use of wildlife for entertainment ? Problems: sport hunting and fishing • Management of habitat • Stocking for sport fishing ? Negatives with ecotourism • Frighten animals, disrupt breeding, trampling plants and animals, divers touching coral ? Sport fishing and hunting pays for most conservation efforts ? Population control, hunters/fishers keep populations in check o Incidental ? Incidentally exploiting other species when trying to catch another species • I. e. tuna fishing, killing dolphins, trying to reduce this impact? Common in fishing industries o Indirect ? Roads, fences, livestock overgrazing, pets- housecats love killing things ? Human actions indirectly killing other organisms • What is subsistence exploitation? o Why should we be concerned with this? o Type of resource exploitation, most often used by rural people, in which wildlife is used to directly meet some portion of an individual’s personal needs o Wildlife or wildlife products are used to meet personal needs (clothing, food, shelter) • What is recreational exploitation? Incidental exploitation? Indirect exploitation?
Provide examples. • What are the consequences of overexploitation? o Small population problems (genetic drift, demographic stochasticity) o extinction o Population effects? ? Age and sex structure effects? • Effects reproductive capacity • Preferential hunting of males leads to low #’s and low reproductive rates, lower female pregnancy ? Genetic structure? • Change the genes of the population by selecting the acceptable trees • Ex. / high grading, selecting the most straight trees, take best form leaving diseased in place ?
Humans harvest largest middle age individuals • They are the biggest but have the highest potential fitness o Ecosystem effects? ? Sea otters and wolves as keystone species? ? Overexploiting a keystone species can have dramatic outcomes ? Humans overhunting sea otters, causes sea urchin population to increase, causing the kelp forests to become diminished • What are invasives and why should we be concerned with them? o Define the terms exotic, nonindigenous, nonnative, introduced and invasive ? Exotic species- species living outside of native range (i. . Zebra mussels in Great Lakes) ? Nonindigienous species- not native to an area, exotic species ? Nonnative- same as the above two ? Introduced species- exotic species introduced by humans, colonize an area that is not related to use ? Sometimes species immigrate naturally and become established • We as humans have enhanced these movements ? Invasive species- has become successfully established, causes significant economic, environmental or human problems ? Introduced species may become invasive How do invasives move? Provide examples of each way. ? Stowaway: microorganisms ? Subsistence/commerce: potatoes, tomatoes, horses, pigs • Feral pigs burrow for food, sailors released goats, pigs and chickens on oceanic islands ? Recreation • Planned introductions (brown trout for fishing) ? Aesthetics- plants people like to grow in lawns/garden • Ascape- become established in native community and begin breeding • Monoculture- one species that is in entire population ?
Biological Control • o What impacts do invasives have? ? Why do invasive do well in heavily impacted human environments? • Why do invasives generally not have much of an impact in these heavily impacted systems? • Provide examples of invasives that are harmful in these systems o List and discuss the effects of invasives in natural systems (e. g. , predators and grazers, parasites and pathogens). ? Provide examples of each. ? Why should we be concerned with hybridization? o Why are some invasives successful and some not? ? What makes for a successful invasive? Islands? • Disturbed ecosystems? • Early-successional species? • What criteria do conservation biologists use to select where to place a reserve? o Why is it better to use a coarse-filtered approach here? o What is GIS and how is it applicable to reserve selection? • What is GAP analysis and how is it useful in preserve siting? • What are some of the problems associated with a small preserve? • Why should a preserve designer identify current and future threats? Why is identification of these threats critical to the success of preserve siting and design? What effect(s) can the imminent threat of severe degradation have on siting a reserve? • How might the current condition of a site affect the decision to make it a reserve or not? • Why is it important to incorporate working with local landowners, political entities, etc. in siting a preserve? • List, describe and explain the relevance of Diamond’s six preserve design features. o What additional factors should be considered? • Why is a large preserve better than a small one? • Why is it important to consider the surrounding landscape when designing a reserve? o What is meant by saying reserve boundaries are permeable? What is buffering and how is this concept useful in preserve design? • What is connectivity and why should it be considered in preserve design? o Why is connectivity generally considered a good thing? o What types of movement does connectivity between preserves promote? o What is a corridor? Stepping stone preserves? ? What are the positives and negatives associated with corridors and stepping stone preserves? • What is reserve management? • What are some of the issues that reserve managers must deal with? o How might buffer zones help with some of these issues? o
Cite this Conservation Biology Study Guide
Conservation Biology Study Guide. (2016, Nov 13). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/conservation-biology-study-guide/