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Course notes history CIE o levels

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History complete notes

Fall of Mughal Empire

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. the collapse of the Mansabdari System.
The local rulers that were ruling the parts of Mughal Empire on behalf of the Mughals started rising after the death of Aurangzeb as there was not strong ruler in Dehli.

· The religious policies of the Aurangzeb
The religious policies of Aurangzeb such as ban on Suttee, Gambling, and drinking wine offended the large Hindu contingent of the Mughal Empire.

· Arrival of the British
The British soon became strong as there was no check on their activities from a strong ruler in the centre.

They also attracted the people by bring new innovations to the infrastructure in India. Not only this they also assisted the local rulers to rise against the Mughals and weaken the foundation of the Empire.

·Foreign intruders like the Persians Nadir Shah and Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Persians has been looking forward to the weakening Mughal Empire since the death of Aurangzeb and Nadir Shah seized the opportunity to plunder the Mughal Empire in 1738.


. Wars of Succession between the Mughal Royal Family.

The continuous practice of the Mughal princes to fight with each other for the throne after thedeath of the emperor inflicted multiple wounds for the empire including the loss of precious lives, empire leading to bankruptcy and the revealing all its weakness to the enemies within and abroad. War of Independence 1857

· Lack of Coordination
There was no coordination what so ever among the rebels. The lack of national leaders during the war was yet another reason for the war to fail. The rebels did not have any coordination and could not communicate and the need of reinforcements was also not fulfilled when ever required.

· No general plan of action
the rebels were fairly disorganized and therefore did not have contingency plans in case the actual plans failed. On the other hand the British were very well prepared and far more organized to win the war. The war started and continued in an abrupt manner and even ended in a disorganized manner. Uprising at Meerut, Bengal

The simultaneous uprising at the Bengal and Meerut cantonments caused problems for the rebels and forced them to divert their attention from the main stream of war.

· British were able to conquer Delhi
The British were very quick in responding to the attacks of the rebels and captured Delhi within few month of fighting. This was a major setback to the rebels as the fall of Delhi was a psychological factor that helped the British to overpower the rebels.

· British Strength
The British were experienced and had well-equipped troops unlike the rebels. The level of discipline, organization and planning for counterattacks was far better than the rebels and became a major difference between the two. Diplomacy, bribery and the communities to fight on another side with British were also some important reason that caused the failure of the rebels in the war of independence. Furthermore the technology and modern warfare tactics also helped the British to overpower the rebels in such a small time.

· Lack of Unity
1. Fighting for different objectives.
2. Weak Mughal Emperor had no concern for leading the war.
3. No nationalism (Sindh, Punjab, Bengal)

· Military Causes
1. Greased Cartridge incident.
2. Officer rank was British only. Pay scales differed.
3. Soldiers feared they might be forced to convert.
4. Loose cast didn’t want to fight in Afghanistan

· Religious/Social Problems
1. Resentment of British culture, language and way of life
2. Indians were treated inferior
3. Educational reforms, Christianity spread by missionaries and their schools.

Doctrine of Lapse
1. Doctrine of Lapse
2. Mistreatment of Emperor
3. Lack of opportunities for the locals of India.
· Economic
1. High taxes, peasants found it difficult to pay them
2. Low salary of sepoys
3. British textiles – fall in the standard and scale of local goods. Bengal Partition 1905

· Administration problems
· Political problems
· Economic problems

· Muslims
1. More political power
2. More religious freedom
3. Social development
4. Economic development

· Hindus
1. Said it was Britain’s divide and rule policy
2. Began protests and strikes
3. Labor strikes – production decreased dramatically
4. Swadeshi movement
5. Assassination attempt on Minto
6. Faced competition in politics from Muslims
7. Unable to suppress Muslims
· Swadeshi Movement
· Riots, Rallies
· Assassination attempt on Minto
· Hindus’ reaction to 1909 reforms
Simla Deputation 1906
· To show importance of partition of Bengal for Muslims
· To prove Muslims were loyal to British
· To put down Muslim demands to the Liberal Party.
· Separate electorates for Muslims
· System of weightage in government
· Continue Bengal Partition
· Proved loyalty towards British
· Communal tension on constitution plane
· Showed that there was no faith in Congress
· Approval of separate electorates proved that Muslims were a separate nation · Led to the formation of Muslim League
· Many Muslims broke away from Congress to form separate political party Muslim League
· To protect the rights of Muslims (Arya Samaj)
· To protect political rights – protect Bengal from reversal · To organize Two-Nation Theory and Simla Deputation supporters towards one objective · To counter Congress’s claim that they represented whole of India, and to show
the League is representative of the Muslims

· To protect the rights of Muslims
· To represent the demands of Muslims, discuss their problems with British · To promote the feeling of loyalty towards British
· To prevent the rise of hostility against any political party · To remove misunderstanding among the Muslims against the Government. Role in Pakistan Movement
· 1909 Morley-Minto reforms
· 1916 Lucknow Pact – represented Muslims
· 1919 Montague-Chelmsford Reforms – opposed reforms
· 1919 Khilafat Movement
· 1927 Delhi Proposals
· 1927 Simon Commission – objected it
· 1928 Nehru Report – rejected it
· Jinnah’s 14 points – supported it
· 1930-1932 Round Table Conferences (I, II and III) – participated · 1935 Government of India Act – demanded for reforms and more participation · 1937 elections – represented Muslims
· 1939 Day of Deliverance – observed it
· 1940 Pakistan Resolution
· 1942 Cripps Mission – rejected it
· 1942 Quit India Movement – opposed it
· 1944 Gandhi-Jinnah Talks
· 1945 elections – participated
· 1946 Cabinet Mission
· 3rd June Plan
· Radcliffe Awards
Morley-Minto Reforms 1909
· Imperial Council increased to 60/majority still of official workers · Executive Council increased with 60 new members
· Provincial Assemblies increased to 50 in large provinces and 30 in small provinces · Separate electorates for Muslims
· Muslims
1. Separate electorates – proved Muslims as a nation
2. Weightage
3. More political power and role in governing the state
4. Made Muslims able to counter Congress
· Hindus
1. More roles in government which they were asking for a long time. · British
1. Suppressed demands of Congress
2. Showed that they were willing to give power to Indians
3. They made it clear that they are not going to give self-rule for which Congress was asking.

Lucknow Pact 1916
· Shifting Muslim League policy
· Failure of British to grant rights to Indians, brought Hindus and Muslims closer. · Persuasion of Jinnah
· Joint demands pressing the British.
· Joint demands were made.
· Separate electorates and partition accepted by Hindus
· Congress worked with Muslims
· High-mark of Hindu-Muslim unity

Rowlatt Act 1919
· To impose Montague-Chelmsford Reforms
· Stop non-cooperation movement.
· To show that British in not willing to give more part in politics · Revolutionary activities – silk letter conspiracy

Khilafat Movement 1919
· Fear of breakup of Turkey
· To save the Caliph of Turkey
· Muslims mistrust of West/Afghan, Persian
· Cooperation of Hindu-Muslims – Lucknow Pact/Non-cooperation Movement. Failure
· Aim of Hindus/Gandhi – Self-rule/Chaura Chauri incident · Hijrat Movement
· Abolishment of Khilafat – 1924
· United Muslims and Hindus against British Rule
· Muslims realized that they have political power and can fight for their rights · Muslims realized they can’t rely on Hindus or British, brought them closer to Pakistan. Effects
· Because of failure of Hijrat Movement, Muslims lost their jobs, property and education. · Communal violence – different opinion on self-rule

Delhi Proposal 1927
· Growth of Congress which worked only for Hindus
· Congress refused to support Muslim demands for provincial autonomy · Hindu revivalist Movement “Hindu Mahasabha” – 1923
· Muslims should be given 1/3rd of the seats in Central Legislature through joint electorates. · Sindh should be separated from Bombay and given full provincial status. · All British reforms should be extended to Balochistan and N.W.F.P. · Number of seats to be given to Muslims in Punjab and Bengal should be proportional to the Muslim population living there.

Simon Commission 1927
· As stated in 1919 reforms – a commission will be set up after 10 years to enquire into the workings of the reforms · To frame further constitutions
· Abolishment of Diarchy
· Federal system – maximum Indian autonomy
· Separate electorates for Muslims
· Muslims should not have 1/3rd of seats in central legislature, no reserved seats · Sindh was to be a part of Bombay
· Status of N.W.F.P. and Balochistan should remain the same Objections
· Hindus
1. Commission only contains British members
2. Federal system
3. Separate electorates for Muslims
· Muslims
1. No reserved seats in central legislature
2. Sindh was to remain a part of Bombay
3. Status of N.W.F.P. and Balochistan should remain the same

Nehru Report 1928
· To make some proposals which might be a part of a future Indian constitution · To counter British claim that Indians cannot produce an acceptable constitution· To counter Simon Commission Proposals

· Dominion status with two-chamber Parliament
· If full religious liberty is given then no need for separate electorates for Muslims · No reserved seats for Muslims in center
· No weightage
· Unitary form of government
· Hindi should be main language
· Vote for all men and women
Proposed Amendments by Jinnah
· 1/3rd of seats in Central Legislature should be Muslim
· Federal form of government – provincial autonomy
· In Punjab and Bengal Muslims should have seats according to their population

Jinnah’s 14 Points
· Rejection of Delhi Proposals
· Nehru Report
· Simon Commission
· Rejection of Jinnah’s amendments of Nehru Report
· Sign of parting of ways of Muslim League and Congress
· All future constitutions would be according to these points · Negotiations with British/Hindus to protect Muslim rights · To unite different shades of Muslims
· Muslims to get all sorts of safeguards

Allahabad Address
· Partition of India/Muslim League policy
· Two Nation Theory – father of ideology of Pakistan
· Inspiration to other thinkers
· Inspiration for other people to defend their rights

Round Table Conferences 1930-1932
· To decide a future for India
· Failure of Simon Commission/Nehru Report
· 14 points/Hindu-Muslim unity breakdown
· 1st R.T.C.
1. Princely states agreed to join future federal India.
2. British agreed that representative government should be introduced at provincial level · 2nd R.T.C.
1. Sindh was to be made province with governor
2. All reforms would be introduced in N.W.F.P. and Balochistan · 3rd R.T.C.
1. Communal Award
§ Separate electorates for minorities
§ Weightage in Hindu dominated provinces
§ Muslim majority in Punjab and Bengal was reduced
· Absence of Congress – unable to achieve anything without major party · Presence of Congress – Gandhi’s stubborn attitude
· Absence of all major political parties.

Government of India Act 1935
· Federation/princely states
· Bicameral structure
1. Council 150 seats, 104 princely states
2. Assembly 250 seats, 125 princely states
· Diarchy in centre
· 11 provinces
· Distribution of seats according to Communal Award 1932
· Property qualification lowered – more Indians could vote · Sindh, Orissa and NWFP given provincial status
· Special Power (Governor-General)
· Diarchy in Centre – Viceroy can exert power on reserved subjects · Princes didn’t like arrangements of central government so it was not implemented · Only 25% population was allowed to vote
· Last reforms given by British, which were opposed by Hindus and Muslims resulting in the expulsion of British Provincial autonomy – federal government
· Benefitted Muslims in Muslim majority provinces but threatened them in Hindu majority areas · Misuse of powers by Congress – led to the growing feeling of nationalism

1937 Elections
Reasons for Failure of Muslim League
· First major elections
· Image problem – as though Muslim League was only composed of aristocrats · Not popular among masses including Muslim majority areas as they were not threatened by Hindu Domination · Poor organization and planning

· Differences and rifts within the party itself
· Source of experience for League for later elections
· Helped to unify the party
· Realized that it had to improve its organization and planning · Realized that their main support lies in Muslim minority areas – so they worked to
get support of Muslim majority areas as well · Realized the image problem.

Congress Rule 1937-1939
Reasons of Tyrannical Rule
· Won elections and formed government in 8 provinces
· Assurance from Viceroy Linlithgow that governors will not use emergency powers · To accomplish their mission/desire that India is a nation of Hindus – through erasing the culture and religion of Muslims Measures taken by Congress in their Rule

· Bande Matram – Hindu nationalist song forced to be sung by Muslims as well which contained the Hindu commitment of over throwing the Muslims from the Sub continent. · Wardha Scheme – Hindu-oriented education scheme

· Oppression, Tyranny done on Muslims
1. Muslims were killed and abused by Hindus without charges
2. Hindi enforced as official language
3. Muslim worshippers were attacked
· Tricolor flag hoisted on government buildings
· No interference by Muslims in official matters

Pakistan Resolution 1940
· Since the arrival of British, Muslims were second-class citizens and so they wanted a homeland which they themselves could rule · Western democracy was a threat to Muslims as they were always a minority · All efforts to protect Muslim interests were in vain, and now the only solution was proposed i.e. partition · Congress Rule 1937-39

· Showed Muslims how to protect their rights
· All negotiations between British/Hindus on this issue
· Muslim League was the voice of the Muslims and Jinnah was declared the undisputed leader.

Cripps Mission Plan 1942
· To tell Indians how serious the war was to the British as well as sub-continent · To persuade Congress and Muslim League to support Britain in the war · To promise them self-rule at the end of the war

· Indian Union would be set up with Dominion status
· After war Constituent Assembly should frame new constitution · Immediately after war elections for Constituent Assembly shall be held · Provinces could opt out of the Union
· Defense and Finance ministries still under British control Failure
· No partition was mentioned in the plan/1940 Resolution
· Congress wanted immediate control of Central Government
· British were negotiating from a weak position
· Muslim League showed that they will not accept anything less than Pakistan · British realized they can’t rule India for a long period now · Muslim League realized that Congress was totally against Pakistan · British for the first tine allowed Indians to make their own constitutions

Gandhi-Jinnah Talks 1944
· To discuss about when British will leave India
· To discuss matters related to separate homeland
· Failure of Cripps Mission
· Forced Congress to negotiate with Muslim League on equal footing · By agreeing to negotiate on possible terms of particular accepted the Muslim League claim to speak for Muslims · Jinnah’s standing went up, allowing him to deal with the problem in Muslim ranks especially in Punjab Failure

· Gandhi claimed to speak not for Congress but for whole India · Gandhi rejected the idea of Nationhood for Muslims
· Provinces of Punjab, Bengal and Assam to be governed along communal law ·
Gandhi wanted Muslim League to cooperate with Congress and ask for partition after British departure · Gandhi wanted Defense and Foreign policy to be in centre while Jinnah wanted them in the provinces

Simla Conference 1945
· To form an interim Executive Council to transfer power to the Indians · British decided to leave
· Congress insisted to nominate Muslim members in the total Muslim quota of the Executive Council · Jinnah objected this as Muslim League is the only representative of Muslims and Muslims would also be able to nominate Hindu members · The Sikhs and scheduled castes will always support Congress Importance

· Equal number of seats for Muslims in Executive Council showed that they have same political power and rights as those of Hindus/Congress · Showed that Muslim League is also friendly towards Hindus · Realized that they should be more careful against Sikhs and other minorities · Muslim League was proven as only representative of Muslims · Showed that without the League no reforms would be accepted

1945 Elections
Why Muslim League did well
· More organized and united
· 1940 Resolution – clear cut idea for what Muslim League was fighting for · Congress Rule experience
· Experience from 1937 elections
· Muslim League as major political party representing all Muslims of India · Vote to Muslim League meant vote for Pakistan
· No settlement could be reached unless Muslim League agreed to it

Cabinet Mission Plan 1946
· Failure of Simla Conference
· Failure of Cripps Mission
· Hand over power to Indians
· Two choices of separate homeland
· Demand of Congress – defence, foreign affairs

3rd June Plan 1947
Proposals (decided)
· British would leave in August 1947
· Sub-continent divided into 2 parts – India and Pakistan · Constitutions would be of 1935 Government of India Act· Dominion status · Option for princely states to decide
· Division of Assets
Unresolved Problems
· Issue of accession of princely states
· Division of financial and military assets
· Relationship of the British Crown to the 2 new dominions

Quaid-e-Azam 1947-48
· Building government
· Building economy
· National security
· Building nationhood
· Kashmir issue remained unresolved (ceasefire)
· Canal Water Dispute
· Unable to make constitution

Liaquat Ali Khan
Objectives Resolution
· First move towards constitutional development
· Focused on principles of Islam and human rights
· Designed to deflect criticism from religious leaders
· Objectives Resolution
· Minority Pact 1950
· Proper handling of coup (Rawalpindi conspiracy)
· Managed to keep economy going and produce surplus budgets for new state Failures
· Failed to frame constitution
· Failed to handle Hyderabad crisis
· Unable to resolve Kashmir issue (ceasefire)

Malik Ghulam Muhammad 1951-55
· Economic development
1. 1951 – Planning Commission 5 years plan
2. 1953 – Planning Board further 5 year plan
· Repealed PRODA
· Foreign aid – wheat, CENTO
· Political instability – dissolved assembly
· Campaigns against Ahmedis – Forced to expel Zafarullah Khan (Foreign Minister) · Improper handling of drought – led to riots
· Unable to make constitution

Major General Iskander Mirza 1955-58
· 1956 Constitution
· Modernization
1. Rural development program
2. Industrialization
3. Karachi airport established (1955)
4. Telephone system expanded
5. Provision in health, education services
· Establishment of Defence Pacts
· One Unit Scheme
· Rise of Nationalism in East Pakistan – they realized that they needed to take solid steps to protect their rights · Undemocratic Rule (Martial Law)
· Political instability – changed prime ministers too much

Ayub Khan 1958-69
· 1962 Constitution
· Positive reforms – land reforms, wealth increase
· Defended in 1965 war
· 1965 war – unable to solve Kashmir issue
· Negative reforms
· Presidential form of government
· Curtailing civil liberties

Yahya Khan 1969-71
· Abolished One Unit Scheme
· Abolished Basic Democratic System/elections
· LFO – Legal Framework Order – one man, one vote
· Seats distributed according to Pakistan
· Fair elections
· 1971 war with India
· Civil war separation of East Pakistan (immediate causes) · Unable to implement results of the elections

Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto1972-77
· 1973 Constitution
· Reforms (land, health, education, administrative)
· Controlled army
· Simla Agreement 1972
· FSF in 1975
· 1973 – dissolved Balochistan Assembly
· 1974 – press freedom and political opponents/parties banned · Negative reforms (industrial and administration

Zia-ul-Haq 1979-88
· Reforms – economic, industrial
· Economic Development (Afghan Miracle)
· Banned FSF
· Improved relations with Balochistan
· Islamisation
· Foreign Policy
· Negative effects of Afghan Miracle
· Hanging of Bhutto – made him unpopular
· Amendments of judiciary reforms – PCO (1980), CAA (1979) · 8th Amendment – took over complete power
· Political instability – removal of Junejo and dissolved assembly

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Course notes history CIE o levels. (2016, Dec 07). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/course-notes-history-cie-o-levels/

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