INTRODUCTION Cultural Adaptation explores how creative ideas are packaged and nationalised to meet local taste, maps the cultural economy of adaptation in entertainment media ranging from motion pictures to mobile phones, and even probes the role of cultural recipes and formats in mutating participatory experiences of theme parks and sporting spectacles. Written in a lively and accessible manner, the book also provides insight into remaking in lifestyle and consumption cultures including fashion, food, drink, and gambling.
Essential for communication, cultural, media, leisure and consumption studies scholars and students alike, this book opens up important new perspectives on how we understand global creativity.
This project gives a detailed how the two countries USA and JAPAN top three manufacturers has entered the market of each other through cultural adaptation. US Top Three Car Manufactures The following are the three largest car manufacturing companies in US. 1. General Motors 2. DaimlerChrysler 3. Ford GM ranked No. 1 among global automakers in total annual revenue, with $193. billion last year, DaimlerChrysler with 6.
6 billion, Ford with $171. 7 billion. Marketing Strategy in Japan Japanese consumers simply love new and innovative products, perhaps in response to the rapid modernization that Japan has seen in the post-war era. A common strategy for a Japanese company or an American company wanting to target the Japanese market is to attempt to fill every niche, or to accommodate every possible desire that a consumer may have for variation, the idea being that such a strategy will result in a larger total share of the market.
One of the biggest competitive strategies in Japanese business is variety, much more than in the West, and Japanese consumers respond well to it. Product variations, like Pepsi White and the dozens of other soft drink variations that Suntory has come up with are typically created and introduced quickly. The same strategy is used by other companies as well, in other food and beverage products, electronics, and even in the automotive industry. The following points should consider while entering to Japan market. Intuition versus Market Research:
Many companies in Japan rely on common sense and intuition when developing products for launch rather than lengthy and expensive market research. Many companies will often follow their intuition and launch a new product on a small scale and then incrementally scale and improve it based on the feedback they get from actual customers. This makes a lot of sense when consider that a high percentage of new products that flop despite extensive market testing and research. It is extremely difficult to accurately predict consumer behavior as even the best executed research can be dead wrong.
Many internet companies take this approach by releasing a beta version of their site and continuously improving upon it. Imitation and Churning: Japanese companies are very adept at quickly imitating innovations. When one company launches a unique product, the competition is quick to go to market with similar versions. Churning refers to the fast cycle of innovation and imitation. Churning makes it difficult for anyone to maintain a first mover advantage but the positive is that consumers are less afraid to be early adapters since several companies have created a similar product.
This helps the whole category to grow and this inherently helps the leader although there is less of a first mover advantage. This also creates an environment that encourages fast adoption of new technology. The Buyer is the Master: There are obviously many differences in the culture in Japan, and one that can be striking is the relationship between buyer and seller. Too often in the US, the buyer is at the mercy of the seller, take auto mechanics or cell phone carriers for instance. Also, buyers in the US often have a confrontational approach with sellers who may try to push things they don’t eed or charge the highest price possible. In Japan the buyer is the master and the seller is like a servant. This changes the whole dynamic of how products are sold and marketed. The seller is concerned with what the buyer wants, rather than what they want to sell. When the customer’s interest is put before the profit of the company, this can lead to strong and lasting relationships between the buyer and seller. GENERAL MOTORS [pic] About General Motors industry: The General Motors Corporation was founded in 1908 and is currently the world’s largest producer of automobiles.
Currently, the United States holds the “largest national market” for General Motors. China, Canada, the UK, and Germany follow the United States for GM’s largest markets. General Motors, also known as GM, currently employs people from all parts of the world with an employee population of 326,999 . The current headquarters of the company resides in Detroit, Michigan. Some of the brands that GM encompasses consist of: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, GM Daewoo, Holden, Hummer, Oldsmobile, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn, and Vauxhall. Within all of these companies, GM produces vehicles in 33 countries and in 2005 9. 7 million GM cars and trucks were sold globally. Along within the vehicle aspect of GM, the company also owns a financial company known as GMAC Financial Services. This sector of GM offers residential and commercial financing and insurance. Another sector within General Motors is a subsidiary company known as OnStar, which provides vehicle safety, security, and information services. General Motors has “purchasing collaborations” with such companies as Suzuki Motor Corporation, Isuzu Motors Ltd of Japan, Toyota Motor Corporation of Japan, DaimlerChrysler AG, and BMW AG of Germany.
The company as a whole also has manufacturing ventures with several automakers around the world, including Toyota, Suzuki, Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China, AutoVAZ of Russia, and Renault SA of France. General Motors also offers vehicle accessories and parts through GM owned brands such as GM Goodwrench and ACDelco. GM brand engines and transmissions are marketed through the GM Powertrain line. General Motors in Japan: General Motors’ success in Japan in marketing the Cadillac meant acknowledging the differences in market, in buying patterns, and in preferences for style.
General Motors’ sales campaign in Japan included giving seminars and driving lessons to women in major Japanese cities, including Tokyo and Osaka. The campaign acknowledged that a woman’s opinion when a married couple is buying a car is often the deciding factor, and the campaign taught women in their 30s to drive the larger Seville. But the campaign didn’t stop there, it even went on to suggest which color was most appropriate for each driver, based on the color of their hair, favorite colors, and clothing style. The marketing campaign was very successful.
Even today, although Cadillac still has only a small share of the Japanese market, its success continues with newer models such as the CTS. General Motors may not dominate the roads in Japan, but they’ve earned a place there because they understood the local market, took time to understand how to market to Japanese drivers, and took time to adapt their products for the Japanese market. DAIMLER CHRYSLER [pic] About Daimler Chrysler Industry: Daimler Chrysler AG–the third-largest car maker in the world–is the product of the November 1998 merger of Daimler-Benz AG of Germany and Chrysler Corporation of the United States.
Vehicles built by the resultant powerhouse include Mercedes-Benz luxury passenger cars; a microcompact car sold under the name Smart; Chrysler, Jeep, and Dodge cars, pickup trucks, minivans, and sport utility vehicles; and commercial vehicles, including vans, trucks, and buses, under the brand names Mercedes-Benz, Freightliner, Sterling, Setra, and Western Star Trucks. The company’s revenue stream is heavily weighted toward the United States and Europe the Mercedes Car Group and the Chrysler Group divisions account for the majority of company sales. DaimlerChrysler in Japan:
DaimlerChrysler established a Vehicle Preparation Center in ’91, a Distribution Center / Training Center in ’92 and a Commercial Vehicle Preparation Center in ’97 in Toyohashi City, and Toyohashi Plant is now the biggest logistics and technical center in our company. The major reasons why DaimlerChrysler established in Toyohashi are: ? Invitation, support and cooperation from local government such as Toyohashi City and Aichi Prefecture, the Port and Custom Authority and non-official and civil organizations such as the Toyohashi Chamber of Commerce and Industry and others. Superior infrastructure for port / inland traffic. ? Toyohashi is near Japan’s 3 largest markets (Tokyo, Osaka and Nagoya), but with cheaper land prices than those regions. Tokyo Gas Co. , Ltd. has entered a partnership agreement with DaimlerChrysler Japan Co. , Ltd. (DCJ)) regarding the use of “F-Cell” fuel cell passenger cars to support DaimlerChrysler in its efforts to encourage broader use of hydrogen energy and fuel cell vehicles, and so further the development of an environmentally friendlier society.
Under this program, a total of 60 F-Cell cars in four countries Japan, Germany, the United States, and Singapore are to be introduced during 2003 and 2004, and this marks the first participation in the program by a company in Japan. FORD The Ford Motor Company Ford Motor Company is the world’s second largest producer of cars and trucks in terms of revenues and units sold, and one of the largest providers of automotive financial services. They market the vehicles under the eight brands. During 2002, they made 7 million vehicles and employed 350,000 people worldwide.
Their business partners include 28,000 dealers and more than 10,000 suppliers. They subsidiaries – Ford Credit and Hertz – provide financing and leasing services to retail and fleet customers. Quality Care, Motor craft and Extended Service Plan provide customer service support to their dealer brands. Ford Motor Company offers a wealth of variety to the automotive consumer. Each of their automotive brands has a unique personality and holds a distinct place in the Ford Motor Company family.
In 2002, it was estimated that Asia-Pacific was to account for over half the growth in the global auto industry in the next 10 years, and almost half of this would occur in Japan. The opportunities and complexities it represents are immense. They then planned to participate profitably and responsibly in Japan’s automotive market and had plans in place to expand in well-measured steps. Ford was well aware about what happened with the Chevy Nova car, when it was introduced in Europe. Its makers did not realize that “no va” mean “won’t go” in Spanish.
This was an oversight that had immensely cost the company in many ways, mainly its reputation in Spanish-speaking countries. Probably, this was the reason why Ford took precautionary measures in culturally adapting to host countries. When Ford added the 2005 F-150 Lobo edition to its line-up, the company was careful to ensure that “Lobo,” which means “wolf” in Spanish, would be properly received by multiple audiences. Moreover, the company launched the Lobo in conjunction with Cinco de Mayo and even incorporated well-known singer Pablo Montero into the advertising campaign.
The key to Ford’s success was noted to be proper translation combined with cultural adaptation that identified strong and timely cultural elements. Apart from the various business strategies the company follows to enter global markets, cultural adaptation is a vital area. The result has to be authentic, meaningful marketing around the globe, not just translation. It is one of the most important issues in localizing content and advertising, and it is considered an essential and separate step for any materials destined for a distinct ethnic target market.
Multicultural marketing is more than just translating a piece of direct mail or an advertisement. To be successful in this area, marketers must actually embrace the nuance of a culture. When incorporating popular jargon or slang, or considering cultural nuances, the most successful companies demonstrate a deep understanding of – and respect for – different cultures throughout all of their initiatives. Ford’s Japanese culture adaptation process: The biggest rivals which changed the face of the world in the World War II forming alliance in spite of huge cultural differences is probably toughest job to be done.
But with proper cross-cultural analyses, it doesn’t seem to be as tough as it looks. Ford, the American manufacturer when it entered Japan, though initially had to struggle, later synced with host culture. The following process explains the same. The differences in Japan and America are discussed and then Ford’s take on it. Cultural differences between America and Japan are drastic. For example The priority order of customers and suppliers is different for US and Japanese businesses: |Japan |America | |1.
Customer |1. Shareholder | |2. Employee |2. Customer | |3. Supplier |3. Employee* | |4. Community | | |5. Country | | |6.
Shareholder | | * but the employee is told the customer is number 1. The Japanese firm is organized for the employee. It is a more human orientation. Japanese build an organization, and find employees to fill it. Process versus Results—this seems to be the key difference between Americans and Japanese. Americans are more results oriented, Japan focus on process improvements. Once they learn how to do something, they work on small improvements—they evaluate effort not results.
Because Americans are process averse, they depend on manuals to tell what the results should be. The down side of the process focus is to squelch creativity. Basically, it means that customer is treated first and shareholder the last in Japan very much different to American culture. When it comes to flexibility, general management transfers to any department, it is fuzzy and easy to adopt. Americans tend to specialize, which leads to rigidity and difficulty in changing. In contrast, Japanese take the long-range view, and ask How long can you wait? This can also lead to a lack of decisiveness.
Ford has to take an important approach in this regard. Few shortcomings of Japanese practices are: Lack of Decisiveness: They are not transparent. Decisions sometimes take too long and they loose their timing. Individual Ability Ignored: Miss creative opportunities. Miss Strategic Opportunities: Too much delay and time. When Ford planned their entry in to Japan, its first step was to re-organize organization culture. Team Work, which is considered as two different words by Americans unlike Teamwork by Japanese, explains why a restructuring is essential.
Training is a hugely cost involved process, but for a deep-pocketed company like Ford, it doesn’t matter. So, it invested huge in training local Japanese employees by American executives. It followed a transnational approach with American employees at higher end in the initial phases to control the quality process. But it is projected to the customers in a manner that it relates to the local culture. Local advertising agents were hired to involve giving a softer touch to attract Japanese men. Projecting Ford, as a manly thing wouldn’t suit Asian culture, so Ford went with this step.
As Ford, involved head quarters’ employees for decision making, it rectified the first Japanese shortcoming, discussed above. Lower end blue collared employees are treated and given importance just like American culture. This attracted employees and choose Ford as their favourite employer locally. This improved brand image and legitimacy. In this way, Ford managed to balance Japanese shortcomings with American plus points and gave an image of “the local Japanese company”. Japan Top Three Car Manufactures 1. Honda 2. Toyota 3 . Nissan There cultural adaptation in USA: HONDA pic][pic] Company Profile: Headquartered in Japan, the Honda Company has had a long and successful history of making quality cars. The Honda Technology Research Institute Company is the 6th largest automobile manufacturer in the world and the biggest engine-builder in the world. Each year, Honda builds more than 14 million internal combustion engines. The company builds automobiles, motorcycles, trucks, scooters, robots, jets and jet engines, ATV, water craft, electrical generators, marine engines, lawn and garden equipment, mountain bikes, and aeronautical technologies.
In October 1946, Soichiro Honda established the Honda Technical Research Institute in Hamamatsu, Japan. The goal was to develop and build small 2-cycle motorbike engines. Two years later, Honda Motor Company, Ltd. was created. Honda’s first US storefront opened in 1959 in Los Angeles. Honda’s first production automobile was the T360 mini pick-up truck. The first production car from Honda was the S500 sports car. Chronological highlights of the history of behind Honda cars as reported by world. honda. com include: 1963 Honda’s first sports car (S500) and light truck (T360) released. 966 Sales and export of S800 begin. 1967 Front-wheel-drive minicar, N360, released. 1968 Export of N360 and N600 begin. • 1971 Life minicar released. • 1972 Civic released. • 1976 Accord CVCC (1600cc) released. • 1978 Prelude released. • 1981 City released. 1985 Today minicar and Legend released. Quint Integra released. • 1986 Honda expanded into the luxury automobile market with the creation of the Acura brand • 1989 Accord Inspire released. • 1990 NSX sports car released. 992 Worldwide automobile production reaches 20 million units. 1994 Odyssey released. • 1995 Worldwide Civic production reaches 10 million units. CR-V sports utility vehicle released. Worldwide automobile production reaches 30 million units. • 1996 Step WGN (Wagon) released. 1999 Honda S2000 sports car released. Lagreat Canadian-made minivan released. Insight hybrid released. • 2000 Life Almas, first minicar with features for the physically challenged, released. Stream minivan released. • 2001 Fit released.
Civic Hybrid released. • 2003 Honda becomes the first Japanese automaker to produce 10 million cars in the U. S. New Odyssey released. • 2005 Ridgeline next-generation truck released in U. S. American Honda Motor begins sales of Phill, the first home refueling appliance for natural gas vehicles. Leasing of FCX fuel cell vehicle for home use begins. Worldwide sales of Honda hybrid vehicles reached 100,000. • 2006 Zest unveiled. Performance of next-generation fuel-cell car FCX Concept demonstrated. • 2007 Crossroad released.
In August 2008, Honda surpassed Chrysler as the 4th largest automobile manufacturer in the United States. Currently, Honda is the second largest manufacturer in Japan behind Toyota and ahead of Nissan. Honda increased global production in September 2008 to meet demand for small cars in the U. S. and emerging markets. Due to the current global crisis, the company is now rearranging U. S. production to keep operations functioning, while building fewer minivans and sport utility vehicles. Honda introduced the second-generation Insight in its home nation of Japan in February 2009. The U.
S. market received the new Insight in April 2009. Honda expects to sell 200,000 of the vehicles each year, with half of those sales in the United States. Since 2002, Honda has been selling the Honda Civic Hybrid (2003 model) in the US market. It was followed by the Honda Accord Hybrid. The history of Honda Cars has been filled with many achievements. With the current economic slow down, Honda is making necessary adjustments to its business structure to ensure its future success. |Formula Honda Toronto offers Honda new cars, used cars, trucks, SUV’s, minivans and commercial cars.
Offering a large inventory of both Honda new | |and used cars in Toronto and the GTA. | | | |Honda’s Success In US: | |EXAMPLE : ‘Honda Accord’ | |The Honda Accord is the series of mid-size automobiles manufactured by Honda since 1976, and sold in most automotive markets throughout the world. |In 1982, the Accord — which has always been manufactured in Sayama, Japan — became the first Japanese car to be produced in the United States when | |production commenced in Marysville, Ohio at Honda’s Marysville Auto Plant. In addition, the Accord is, or has been, produced in Nelson, New | |Zealand Swindon, England, Guangzhou, China and Ayutthaya, Thailand. The Accord has achieved considerable success, especially in the United States, | |where it was the best-selling Japanese car for fifteen years (1982-97), topping its class in sales in 1991 and 2001, with around ten million vehicles| |sold.
Numerous tests, past and present count the Accord as one of the world’s most reliable vehicles. | | | |[pic] | |First generation (1976–1981) | | CONCEPT APPLIED : | |The first generation Honda Accord was launched in 1976 as a three-door hatchback with 68 hp (51 kW), a 93. 7-inch (2,380. mm) wheelbase, and a weight| |of about 2,000 pounds. It was larger than the tiny Honda Civic at 162 inches (4,115 mm) long. The Accord sold well, due to its moderate size and | |great fuel economy. It was the first Japanese small car with features like cloth seats, a tachometer, intermittent wipers, and an AM/FM radio as | |standard equipment. In 1978 an LX version of the coupe was added which came with air conditioning, digital clock, and power steering. In 1979 a | |four-door sedan was added to the lineup, and power went to 72 hp (54 kW) when the 1,599 cc (97. cu in) EL1 engine was supplemented and in certain | |markets replaced by the 1,751 cc (106. 9 cu in) EK-1 unit. In 1980 the optional two-speed automatic of previous years became a three-speed automatic. | |Slightly redesigned bumper trim, new grilles and taillamps, and remote mirrors on the 4-door (chrome) and the LX (black plastic) models. The CVCC | |badges were deleted. In 1981 an SE model was added for the first time, with novio-leather seats and power windows. Base model hatchbacks received the| |same smaller black plastic remote mirror that the 4-door, LX, and SE 4-door received at the same time.
Instrument cluster revised with mostly | |pictograms, instead of the worded warning lights and gauge markings. Nivorno Beige (code #Y-39) replaced with Oslo Beige (#YR-43). Dark brown was | |discontinued, as was the bronze metallic. Shifter redesigned to have a stronger spring to prevent unintentional engagement of reverse, instead of the| |spring-loaded shift knob of the 1976 through 1980 model cars. | |The Accord competed with Japanese competitors Toyota Corona, Nissan Stanza, Mazda Capella, and the Mitsubishi Galant. |Why are Honda vehicles so highly regarded by American drivers? | |By the early 1960s, the Honda had built its first automobiles for the Japanese home market and entered Formula One racing. But it wasn’t until 1970 | |that it imported its first car, the diminutive N600, to the U. S. The automaker initially had a hard time sparking interest in American buyers, but | |that all changed in 1973 with the introduction of the Civic. The car offered larger dimensions than Honda’s previous models even though it was still | |relatively petite compared to compact American cars.
The Civic’s fuel efficiency (an important selling point given that decade’s energy crisis) and | |affordability made it Honda’s first American success story. By 1976, the Civic had been joined by the Accord, which quickly became a favorite with | |U. S. consumers as well. | | | |By the 1980s, Honda’s success and its reputation as a maker of reliable cars and motorcycles continued to grow. It began building Accords in the U. S. | |in 1982 and by 1989 had earned the distinction of making America’s most popular car.
This was also the decade in which Honda created the Acura brand | |as a way to sell more upscale and luxurious vehicles. Throughout this decade and into the 1990s, Honda continued to innovate through such | |technologies as VTEC variable valve timing, aluminum body construction, improved safety features and new gasoline/electric hybrid powertrains. | |Today, Honda’s lineup runs the gamut. Included are fuel-sipping hybrids, spacious minivans, reliable family sedans, rugged SUVs and even a pickup. |The manufacturer is a standard-bearer in many segments; models like the Civic and the Accord are considered benchmarks in their respective classes. | | | TOYOTA [pic] [pic] Company Profile: Sakichi Toyoda, a prolific inventor, created the Toyoda Automatic Loom company based on his groundbreaking designs, one of which was licensed to a British concern for 1 million yen; this money was used to help found Toyota Motor Company, which was supported by the Japanese government partly because of the military applications.
The Japanese relied on foreign trucks in the war in Manchuria, but with the Depression, money was scarce. Domestic production would reduce costs, provide jobs, and make the country more independent. By 1936, just after the first successful Toyoda vehicles were produced, Japan demanded that any automakers selling in the country needed to have a majority of stockholders from Japan, along with all officers, and stopped nearly all imports.
Toyoda’s car operations were placed in the hands of Kiichiro Toyoda, Sakichi Toyoda’s son; they started experimenting with two cylinder engines at first, but ended up copying the Chevrolet 65-horsepower straight-six, using the same chassis and gearbox with styling copied from the Chrysler Airflow. The first engine was produced in 1934 (the Type A), the first car and truck in 1935 (the Model A1 and G1, respectively), and its second car design in 1936 (the model AA). In 1937, Toyota Motor Company was split off.
The first Toyoda truck was roughly a one-ton to one and a half-ton design, conventional in nature, using (after 1936) an overhead valve six-cylinder engine that appears to have been a clone of the Chevrolet engine of the time: indeed, a large number of parts were interchangeable, and Toyoda trucks captured in the war were serviced by the Allies with Chevrolet components. There was also a forty-horsepower four cylinder model, very similar to the six cylinder in design but rather underpowered for a truck with a full ton of capacity. An era of rapid expansion: post-war Toyota history;
In December 1945, Toyota was given permission by the United States military to startup up peacetime production. Toyota Motor Corporation had learned from the American War Department’s industrial training program, which worked on process improvement and employee development; the program, abandoned in 1945 by the United States, lived on in Japan as Taiichi Ohno built kaizen and lean manufacturing around it. (From globalspec). After World War II, Toyota was kept busy making trucks, but by 1947 it began making the Model SA, called the Toyopet, a name to stay with Toyota for decades, albeit attached to different cars.
The Toyopet was not powerful and had a low top speed – 55 mph from a 27 horsepower engine – but it was designed to be cheap, and to handle the rough roads of postwar Japan. In the five years the SA Toyopet was made, 215 were made. The SD may have been more successful; this taxi version saw 194 copies in just two years. The SF Toyopet was the first truly popular Toyota car, with a modified engine (still putting out 27 horsepower) and a taxi version. An RH model with a 48 horsepower engine came out shortly after By 1955, Toyota was making 8,400 cars per year; by 1965, 600,000 cars per year.
In addition to all these cars, Toyota started producing a civilian truck named the Land Cruiser. Styled like Jeeps, the original Land Cruisers were, according to Schreier, based heavily on the legendary Dodge half-ton weapons carrier as well as the Bantam (predecessor of the Jeep) They used a bigger engine than the Jeep (their Chevrolet-clone six) and a size and configuration more like the Dodge weapons carrier, whose capacity it shares (one half ton). Starting in 1955, Toyota produced its first luxury car, the Crown, powered by a four cylinder, 1. -liter engine with a three-speed column shift, followed by the 1-liter Corona; only 700 cars per month were made in 1955, but this rose to 11,750 in 1958, and 50,000 per month in 1964. The start of Toyota’s international sales: Toyota set up a headquarters in Hollywood in 1957; the first Toyota car registered in the United States was a 1958 Toyopet, sold in 1958; the California license plate was installed by Toyota Motor Sales (USA) president Shotaro Kamiya himself, in front of the California DMV.
Two vehicles were imported, the Land Cruiser and Toyopet. Neither sold well; the Toyopet was withdrawn while Toyota designed a car specifically modified for the American market – a strategy which later gave us the Avalon and Camry. Alan wrote: “I am the grandson of the first Toyota dealer in the US. It all started in Larkspur California (San Francisco Bay area). Only two vehicles were available, the Toyopet sedan and theLand Cruiser. San Francisco was where the first distribution center was set up.
The highlight of my grandfather’s pioneer Toyota dealership was a personal visit to his home and showroom from Mr Toyoda, the president of the company. His visit was to thank him for his being the first dealer in the US. He presented my grandfather with two Seiko watches which I still possess. I still have all the original ads, dealer licence plate frames, and many photos of the dealership. The dealership came to a close in 1968 with the passing of my grandfather. In addition to being the first dealer he also possessed the largest classic car collection west of the Mississippi.
He had over 100 classics including Hupmobiles, Packards, Reos, Dodges, Franklins, Marlots, Plymouths, Grahams, etc. The first Americanized Toyota — the Tiara, otherwise known as the Toyota Corona PT20 — came out in 1964. The six-passenger car had a 90 gross-horsepower engine (probably about 60-70 bhp net); it could reach 90 miles per hour, and was comfortable inside. One year later, the Corona was added at under $2,000; it offered an automatic and factory air as options, very unusual in imported small cars at the time (as was the engine’s horsepower rating).
Sales hit 6,400 in 1965, and reached 71,000 by 1968, nearly doubling each year until by 1971 Toyota was selling over 300,000 vehicles per year, a far cry from 1964’s 2,000. Toyota itself was very small in the late 1950s by world standards, and in 1963 was the 93rd largest non-American corporation in the world — but in 1966 was already 47th (in that time it went from being the 9th largest Japanese corporation to the 6th largest, and for that matter the tenth largest auto manufacturer in the world — it would steadily move up to the #3 position and will soon challenge Ford for #2).
In 1967, the Corona sold for a reasonable $1,760 – a little below the smallest Big Three sedans — with a good balance of performance, gas mileage, and comfort. By 1967, Toyota had become well established in the United States, albeit as a niche player. The Corona four-door sedan was seen as competing mainly against the Volkswagen Beetle, though this was hardly fair to the modern Corona, with its relatively large interior space and relatively comfortable ride.
The Corona was known from its early days for quality as well as a low price, though rust was a serious problem until the late 1970s, causing more than one Corona to simply rust in half before it became old enough to have mechanical problems. Toyota introduced another new car to the US in 1967: the Crown, available as a wagon or a sedan. The semi-luxury car boasted a brand new 137 cubic inch in-line six-cylinder engine delivering 115 horsepower (gross) at 5,200 rpm; that is a bit more than the biggest Plymouth slant six but less than the smallest American V8.
The engine was small but had seven main bearings, tuned induction, semi-hemispherical heads, and was built with lightweight alloys. The Crown came with a four-speed manual (at the time three speeds were normal) or a two-speed automatic (though most Americans were used to three speed automatics). One unusual feature was standard three-point seat belts, not to mention reclining bucket seats. The Crown was never a big seller but it certainly did better than many foreign cars in the segment; the sedan sold for $2,635, the wagon for $2,785. Torque was 127 lb-ft at 3,600 rpm, bore and stroke 2. 95 x 3. 35, 8. 8:1 compression, single two-barrel carburetor. The Plymouth slant six started at 170 cubic inches by comparison, and delivered 115 hp with 155 lb-ft of torque; the 225 cubic inch slant six put out 145 hp, 215 lb-ft. ) The Crown was noted for its road manners, smooth ride, and quiet interior. Soon, Toyota brought to the US the famous but rare 2000GT, which resembled a British sports car with a massive hood and nearly no cabin or trunk. The car had set 16 world speed and endurance records by 1966, with a ual overhead cam six-cylinder engine (150 hp, 121 cid) and five-speed manual transmission. A specially made convertible version was featured in You only live twice. The 2000 GT had surprisingly slow 0-60 times of over 10 seconds, but cornering apparently made up for it, and the quarter-mile went by in a decent enough 15. 9 seconds (about the same as a 1995 Neon). Not quite a muscle car, but it probably handled better than the best Detroit had to offer. Toyota also had a variety of trucks for sale in the late 1960s, as detailed in our various truck pages (see the top-of-page menu).
The Corolla, to be America’s favorite small car, was first imported in 1969, two years after its first Japanese production, followed by small pickups that earned a strong reputation for reliability and durability. It was the first Toyota built in the United States, starting in 1985, at the New United Motor Manufacturing (NUMMI) facility in Fremont, California — a joint venture with General Motors. CURRENT ISSUE Culture clash as US lawmakers grill Toyota: The topic was the safety woes of Toyota, but the hearing at the US Congress could also have been a study in cross-cultural communication as Japanese formality met American bluntness.
Waving papers, pointing fingers and occasionally raising their voices, US House members spent three hours grilling executives of the iconic Japanese company over auto defects blamed for more than 30 deaths in the United States. In scenes barely imaginable in Japan, Republican Representative John Mica thundered that Toyota had been “absolutely appalling” while Democrat Dennis Kucinich accused the executives of not giving him the “courtesy of a response. “Toyota Motor Corp. president Akio Toyoda and North American chief Yoshimi Inaba calmly pledged to take their concerns to heart.
They read statements in English accepting responsibility — but always kept their cool. Related article: Toyota chief apologies”There is a huge perception gap,” said Weston Konishi, an expert on Japan at the Mansfield Foundation think-tank. “The direct questions may strike the Japanese as accusatory or even aggressive,” he said. “And the formality of the Japanese approach may trigger some undue concern on the part of some members of Congress. “He said that the two nations’ media covered the Toyota earings from sharply different angles, with the US press seeing it as a story about public safety that had little to do with Japan. “For the Japanese side, it’s seen in much more of a conspiratorial light,” Konishi said. “Some see it as Toyota-bashing or Japan-bashing. “Americans are rarely considered a shy people and Washington’s 24-hour news culture is often seen as encouraging sharper responses by lawmakers. The Japanese, meanwhile, generally apologize by taking personal responsibility and showing humility — the most visible symbol of which is the deep bow. The danger is they may think they’re showing respect to Congress and showing contrition but come across as not feeling enough,” said Ian Condry, a cultural anthropologist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. But Condry suspected that some Japanese may quietly approve of the Toyota hearings — a phenomenon known as “gaiatsu,” or Japan taking tough decisions because of foreign pressure. “I suspect some might see the harsh questioning not as a cultural thing but as needed pressure for consumer advocacy, which has always had trouble in Japan,” Condry said.
The Toyota executives’ style was a striking departure from the American who testified before them — Transportation Secretary Ray LaHood. With constant gesticulation and a sometimes booming voice, LaHood at one point declared himself “on a rampage” on a separate issue of stopping Americans from texting behind the wheel. After the hearings, Toyoda went on CNN’s popular Larry King Live program in an attempt to connect with Americans concerned about the Toyota crisis, and he appeared concerned his message may have got lost in translation.
When asked whether he felt he was treated fairly in the hearing, Toyoda said: “I’m not sure if it was fair or not, but I would say I wonder to what extent people were able to understand what I was trying to say, and I would like to continue talking to people until they come to understand us. ” Toyoda, whose grandfather founded what became the world’s biggest automaker, is certain to have studied how to avoid the disastrous performance of the last Japanese executive to appear before Congress.
In 2000, the then chief executive of tire giant Bridgestone/Firestone, Masatoshi Ono, testified over the recall of millions of tires. Ono had a carefully rehearsed speech in English but became visibly flustered as members of Congress pressed him. He turned first to a translator and then to his deputies as he watched sullenly. He resigned shortly afterward. The Toyota executives did not bow on Capitol Hill and instead tried to follow local style, offering the occasional smile and laugh. Conversely, Westerners have had a mixed record adapting to Japanese customs.
President Barack Obama controversially gave a customary bow to greet Emperor Akihito in Tokyo last year, setting off criticism from some US conservatives who say the US leaders should always stand tall. But Westerners sometimes struggle to hit the right note in Japan. Swiss elevator and escalator maker Schindler felt Japan’s wrath in 2006 when one of its elevators malfunctioned in a Tokyo condominium, killing a 16-year-old boy. The company initially said little publicly other than that an investigation was under way and that poor maintenance may have been to blame.
By the time an executive flew into Tokyo to bow before the cameras, Japan had ordered a nationwide investigation of Schindler elevators and police had raided its Tokyo offices. NISSAN [pic] [pic] Company Profile: Nissan was born in Japan, and like other marques from its homeland, the brand is known for crafting vehicles that place an emphasis on edgy styling and performance. The company’s lineup of vehicles is broad, and includes sporty,coupes,familysedans,minivans and SUV’S. The automaker got its start in 1933 as the Jidosha Seico Co. Ltd. The following year, this outfit merged with another Japanese manufacturer, and the new company was christened Nissan Motor Company, Ltd. Nissan initially marketed its vehicles under the Datsun brand, with the first Datsuns being built in 1934. Postwar, the brand made its presence felt worldwide, building a partnership with the U. K. -based Austin Motor Co. and establishing a presence in the United States. The first Datsuns hit American shores in 1958. Vehicles like the Datsun 1000 were based on Austin platforms.
The ’60s witnessed Nissan’s merger with Prince Motor Company, a union that helped the Asian manufacturer create more luxury-focused vehicles. In the U. S. it began offering its first vehicle styled for the U. S. market, the Datsun 510 sedan. By the end of the decade, Datsun had exported more than 1 million vehicles. Datsun rose to prominence in the 1970s on the popularity of its 240Z sports car. Powered by an inline six-cylinder engine, the car was coveted for its blend of style, performance and affordability.
By the time the ’70s drew to a close, the automaker’s cumulative vehicle exports had surpassed the 10 million mark. In 1981, Nissan shelved the Datsun name and began selling vehicles worldwide under the Nissan moniker. The ’80s also saw Nissan’s launch of a tuning division called Nismo for the development of performance-oriented vehicles and accessories. Nissan also brought its production to American shores. The early ’90s saw Nissan’s fortunes rise in the U. S. thanks to fun-to-drive cars like the 300ZX, Maxima and Sentra.
But this trend didn’t last long and by the late ’90s Nissan’s offerings consisted of anonymous vehicles. The company’s furure was unceratain. After the turn of the new century, however, Nissan bounced back. Its redesigned Sentra and Altima were well-received, as were new models like the Titan and Armada. A 1999 alliance with Renault, a European automaker, also helped to shore up the company’s finances. Today the manufacturer is known for offering a wide range of vehicles capable of going head to head with the best of the best when it comes to overall quality, dependability and performance.
Coming to America: It’s a big site-selection plunge for any company, and it was the central focus at one workshop at IAMC’s Apr. 19-23 Professional Forum in Scottsdale, Ariz. Fittingly that session featured a trio of panelists with intimate knowledge of international projects — particularly high-ranking Nissan North America executive Jim Morton. Nissan, of course, has gotten to know a lot about coming to America in recent years. Nissan launched its maiden voyage into the U. S. in 2000, announcing that it had picked Canton, Miss. , for the company first American plant. One of the top concerns for us in entering a new country is adapting to a new and different culture,” said Morton, the assistant to Nissan North America’s CEO. “With a new plant, we’re usually looking at transferring some employees to the new location. ”That’s just what Nissan did with its Mississippi plant. The company wanted a cadre of corporate veterans on deck to ensure that its first U. S. production facility got off the ground smoothly. At the same time, though, Nissan wanted to ease transferred employees’ cultural transition. That’s why the company built a local school in the Magnolia State. That school allowed those employees’ children to continue in the educational system of the country from which they were relocating,” explained Morton, who was previously Nissan North America’s senior vice president for finance and administration. “It ensured that they would be current in their native system when their families were later transferred back. ” Creating Relationships or Keeping on Schedule? But needs vary among the foreign companies that expand into the U. S. market, pointed out McCallum Sweeney Consulting Senior Principal Ed McCallum, who moderated the Apr. 2nd workshop, “Doing Business in the USA: Cross-Border Viewpoints. ” “If it’s a company that doesn’t yet have a presence in the U. S. , its focus is on building relationships,” said McCallum, who’s consulted on a number of large American location projects, including Nissan’s Mississippi plant. “On the other hand, if the company already has a U. S. presence, then its focus is on the project schedule. ”Transferred employees’ needs vary as well, he added. “It makes a lot of difference where those people are with regard to their place in life,” explained McCallum. “Their visions can be totally different.
Those with children will concentrate on issues like education and crime. But [transferred employees’] focus is totally different if they have no children, or their children are grown. ” Nissan, of course, was focused on far more than cultural adaptation in coming to America. “Recruiting and hiring talent” is another “top concern” in new markets, said Morton. That process is complicated, he continued, by “a long lead time, with two and a half to three years from site selection to first production. A lot of things can happen in that time, [including] changes in product demand and currency fluctuations. On the other hand, the U. S. currency’s sagging fortunes are motivating many firms to start up U. S. plants, said McCallum. “It costs less for them to build in the U. S. with the American dollar than it does if they build with their own currency,” he said. Similarly, R is considerably cheaper to build in the U. S. , McCallum added. ‘Listen to the Prospect’ “Knowing how to proceed” is another major concern for Nissan in moving into new markets, said Morton. Consultants are major cogs in making that process run smoothly. “We find professionals who are in the [site-selection] business on a daily basis,” Morton noted. Our company might do a site selection every three to four years. Things change. We don’t stay current on things like changes in state investment climates and newly emerging locations. ” The consultants hired by Nissan work with a company team made up of all functions that will be involved in the new plant, he explained. The consultants also work with state and local economic developers in securing project assistance for things like training and hiring. All of that activity, however, proceeds with a very low profile. “We negotiate quietly,” Morton said. Listen to the prospect,” he advised the economic developers in the audience. “Make sure you know what it is they’re looking for. ” Added McCallum, “The ability of a community to embrace a new family” is a major factor in making some areas stand out in site-selection competition. “Communities that distinguish themselves exhibit a sense of welcoming that takes all the things off the company’s plate that they’re worrying about. ”Hard facts are also a persuasive tool in attracting companies, McCallum said. “To the extent that you can quantify your benefits to a company, do it,” he advised. “Numbers do not lie. ”
Cite this Cultural Adaptation
Cultural Adaptation. (2018, Mar 08). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/cultural-adaptation/