Curricula of Philippine Schools
Republic of the Philippines Palawan State University GRADUATE SCHOOL S. Y. 2012 – 2013 course No. : Ed 210 Topic: The Curricula in the Philippines Course Title: Philosophical, Historical and Legal Foundation SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: 1. Discuss the Philippine educational ladder. 2. Explain the objectives of the two level of the educational ladder (basic/tertiary). 3. Cite and expound the provisions of Presidential Decree No. 1139. Introduction
The curriculum is the sum total of all the learners’ experiences which are in any way affected by the school. The co-curricular experiences which the school offers is definitely a part of the curricular experiences. Education in the Philippines went through several stages of development from the pre-Spanish times to the present to match the changing objectives of education. Before the coming of the Spaniards, education was informal and religion-oriented. It was for the elite, especially in the early years of Spanish colonization.
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Access to education by the Filipinos was later liberalized through the enactment of the Educational Decree of 1863 giving the Filipinos a complete educational system from elementary to the tertiary level. During the American Regime, the aim of education was to realize the objectives of American democracy. It changed during the Japanese Regime. Love of work and dignity of labor was emphasized. With the declaration of Martial Law in 1972, education became relevant to the goals of national development. The Philippine educational system includes three levels of instruction: elementary, secondary and tertiary levels.
PHILIPPINE EDUCATIONAL LADDER Yrs. In School| Normal Age| Level| Graduate Post Graduate Studies| 87654321| 2322212019181716| THIRDHigher Education| COLLEGES/UNIVERSITIESGeneral Higher EducationVocational/Technical EducationMedicalLawOther professional courses| 4321| 15141312| SECONDSecondary Education| SECONDARY SCHOOLSGeneral EducationVocational/Technical Secondary| 654321| 11109876| FIRSTElementary Education| INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLSPRIMARY SCHOOLS| 21| 54| | NURSERY AND KINDERGARTEN| PRESCHOOL EDUCATION
Pre-school education in the country is given in public normal laboratory schools, in a few public schools and has almost remained to be associated with Bureau of private Schools, especially with the religious groups. It aims to develop children in all aspects (physical, social, emotional, and cognitive) to be better prepared to adjust and cope with life situations and the demands of formal schooling; and to maximize the children’s potential through a variety of carefully selected and meaningful experiences considering their interests and capabilities. The curriculum focuses on physical, personal-social, affective, and cognitive development.
In some private schools, a child goes to nursery, kindergarten and then prep school, others only have two levels. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION Elementary level provides basic education. It is divided into two categories: primary level which is from first to fourth grades and the intermediate which is from fifth to sixth grade. It aims to enable every Filipino child to acquire the basic skills, knowledge, habits, attitudes, appreciation, and ideas to make him an efficient and intelligent citizen in a democratic society. The New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC)
Return to basic education wherein the educational system will undergo a change in structure and methodology to be relevant to the changing society. One of the changes is the “Operation: Return to the Basics” which aims to upgrade pupil achievement in reading, language and mathematics which should involve the development of thinking skills. If a child developed these skills it will not only enhance his learning capabilities but will also enhance his values which will enable him to become a productive, self-reliant, versatile, civic-minded, physically fit and consequently, totally developed citizen.
In the NESC, there will be fewer learning areas and more emphasis on mastery learning and development of intellectual skills which are important as work skills. There will be more time for subjects concern with the basic skills development specifically the 3 r’s. There will be focus on the development of sense of humanity and nationhood in all the learning areas and as well as values for social living and health. The elementary school year shall consist of not less than forty-two (42) calendar weeks with a minimum of 200 class days inclusive of examination days.
The learning areas in the NESC are character building activities, Filipino, English, Mathematics, Civic and Culture, History/Geography/Civics, Science and Health, Arts and Physical Education, Home Economics and Livelihood Education. SECONDARY EDUCATION The secondary education corresponds to four years of high school. The prerequisite is the completion of elementary education. There are two types of secondary school according curricular offerings: the general high school and vocational high school.
General high schools offer the four-year general academic secondary curriculum while vocational high school offers the same secondary curriculum with additional vocational courses. Science high schools offer an enriched Science, mathematics, and English curriculum in addition to requirements of the New Secondary Curriculum (NESC). The objectives of secondary education are: 1) continuation of general education started in elementary school, 2) preparation for a vocation or for the world of work and/or 3) preparation for college.
The New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) It is a cognitive-affective-manipulative based curriculum which focuses on the substantive and process content, values development, productivity and technology. The learning areas include English, Mathematics, Science and Technology, Technology and Home Economics, Filipino, Araling Panlipunan, Edukasyon Pangkalusugan, Pangkatawan at Musika, Edukasyon sa Pagpapahalaga. The secondary school year shall consist of not less than forty-two (42) calendar weeks with a minimum of 200 class days inclusive of examination days.
The objectives of the NSEC are the following: 1. Develop an enlightened commitment to the national ideals by cherishing, preserving and developing moral, spiritual, and socio-cultural values as well as other desirable aspects of the Filipino heritage. 2. Obtain knowledge and form desirable attitudes for understanding the nature and purpose of man and, therefore, of one’s self, one’s own people and other races, places and times, thus promoting a keen sense of self, family and national and international communities. 3.
Develop skills in higher intellectual operations and more complex comprehension and expression activities, and in thinking intelligently, critically and creatively in life situations. 4. Acquire work skills, knowledge and information and a set of work ethics essential for making an intelligent choice of an occupation or career and for specialized training in a specific occupation. 5. Broaden and heighten one’s abilities in and appreciation for the arts, science and technology as a means for maximizing one’s potentials for self-fulfilment and for promoting the welfare of others.
The 2002 Basic Education Curriculum (BEC) The restructuring of NESC and NSEC. It aims to empower Filipino learners to be capable of self-development throughout one’s life and to be patriotic, benevolent, ecologically aware and Godly. The learning areas in elementary and high school has been compressed from eight to five. The subjects are Math, Science, English, Filipino, and Makabayan. The subjects History, Economics, Values Education and Physical Education, Health and Music will be incorporated in these five subjects.
Makabayan is an integration of four learning areas namely, Social Studies, Values Education, Technology and Home Economics and Physical Education, Health and Music. The Objectives of Elementary and Secondary Education According to the Education Act of 1982 or Batas Pambansa Blg. 232, the objectives of the elementary and secondary education are as follow: 1. Provide the pupils with knowledge and develop the skills, attitudes and values essential for personal development and a productive life. 2. Promote and intensify awareness of, identification with, and love for our nation and the community in which the learner develops. . Promote experiences that develop the learner’s orientation to the world of work and prepare the learner to engage in honest and gainful work. TERTIARY EDUCATION The tertiary education is comprised of degree and non-degree programs. Post secondary or technical/vocational courses are non-creditable to degree programs and these cover one month to three years of schooling. The higher education or degree programs normally require at least four years of schooling. The primary admission requirement for entry is a high school diploma.
Most colleges and universities have their own entrance examinations which the students must complete or pass in order to be admitted. Most degree program requires completion of 135 – 160 semester units to graduate, although some four-year programs require as few as 120 or as many as 200 units. At the undergraduate level, two degrees are awarded: two-year associate degrees and four-to-five year bachelor’s degree. Upon completion of the bachelor’s degree program, students may be eligible to continue their studies at the master’s or doctoral level.
Master’s programs are generally two-to-three-years in duration and doctoral degrees a further three-to-four years. The following shows the duration of study of programs offered in the Philippines: 4 years Course Programs| 4 -5 years Course Programs| 6 years Course Programs| 8 years Course Programs| Graduate| Science and Mathematics| Health -Related| Veterinary Medicine| Medicine (4 yrs. Baccalaureate plus 4 years proper)| Master’s program (2)| Humanities, Social Sciences and Communication| Engineering and Architecture (5)| Dentistry (2 yrs. Pre-dental plus 4 years proper)| Law (4 yrs. Baccalaureate plus 4 yrs. roper)| Doctoral program (3)| Information Technology| | | | | Business and Management| | | | | Agriculture Education| | | | | Teacher Education| | | | | Criminology| | | | | Marine Engineering| | | | | The Objectives of Tertiary Education The objective of Philippine education on the tertiary level is the holistic education of Filipinos who contribute humanely and professionally to the development of a just and economically-robust society in an environmentally-sustainable world through competent and innovative leadership, as well as productive and responsible citizenship. VOCATIONAL EDUCATION
The Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has two types, the formal and the non-formal. The formal TVET is established within the formal educational system, and exists both at secondary and tertiary level. This is usually offered in Technical vocational High Schools and in Polytechnic Colleges. It combines the formal component of classroom learning with an extra component of skills training. It usually takes about six months to three years duration leading to a certificate in a specialized field. The Non-formal TVET is composed of a variety of short-term programmes targeting a special group of clientele.
The courses are skills-oriented and provide students with practical knowledge needed to engage in working life. The targeted students are the poor youth who can’t afford university courses. They are reaching out for the out-of-school youth, adult illiterates, unemployed, disadvantaged women, and people with disabilities. SPECIAL EDUCATION Special education is an arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings, and other interventions designed to address the needs of students with learning differences, mental health issues, physical and developmental disabilities, and giftedness.
The Special Education Act of 2007 identifies ten groups of Children with Special Needs (CSNs): 1. Gifted children and fast learners 7. Children with special health problems 2. Mentally handicapped/mentally retarded 8. Children with learning disabilities (perceptual 3. Visually impaired handicap, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, 4. Hearing impaired dyslexia and developmental aphasia. 5. Children with behaviour problems 9. Speech impaired 6. Orthopedically handicapped 10. Persons with autism
The Department of Education’s goal is to provide children with special needs appropriate services within the main stream of basic education. This education will help them realize their potential for development and productivity and as well as being capable of self-expression of their rights in society. More importantly, they should be God-loving and proud of being a Filipino. ADULT EDUCATION Adult education aim is to eradicate illiteracy and to promote citizenship and vocational training. It has two aspects; literacy and vocational improvement.
Literacy work is conducted in organized classes. Adults are taught to read and write with emphasis on functional literacy which should enable the student to read and appreciate simple messages, write notes, and short letters, and understand ordinary instruments of business and communication, such as paper money, billboard notices, trademarks, and similar daily and common information. The vocational improvement teaching is generally carried out in connection with the work of the regular public schools.
There are adult short-term courses in homemaking, sewing, furniture making, carpentry, mechanics and other vocational courses. NON-FORMAL EDUCATION/ALTERNATIVE LEARNING SYSTEM Non-formal Education (NFE) is any organized, systematic educational activity carried outside the framework of the formal system to provide selected types of learning to a segment of the population. Its aim is to empower people to obtain vocational guidance, for them to have knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that will enable them to think critically and creatively for improving the quality of their lives.
Its function is to serve the needs of those unable to avail formal education, to expand access to educational opportunities and to provide opportunities for the acquisition of skills to ensure employment. It has four thrusts – family life skills, including health, nutrition, childcare, household management, and family planning; vocational skills; functional literacy and livelihood skills. This branch of education is governed by the DECS Bureau of Nonformal Education (BNFE) and was created to provide civic educational lectures in towns and barrios (ACT No. 829). After six years, the act was amended to assign teachers in public schools to give the lectures. The New Commonwealth government passes Act No. 80 in 1936 to crete the Office of Adult Education as part of then department of Instruction. A decade later, this branch was transformed into the Adult and Community Education Devision of Bureau of Public Schools. After the declaration of Martial Law, the Marcos government’s Philippine constitution of 1973 created the position of the Undersecretary of Nonformal Education. PRESIDENTIAL DECREE No. 1139
CREATING THE POSITION OF UNDERSECRETARY OF EDUCATION AND CULTURE FOR NON-FORMAL EDUCATION WHEREAS, non-formal education as a means of providing learning to the sector of the population who are not in a position to avail themselves of the facilities of formal education, is fast gaining support and acceptance among the people; WHEREAS, various agencies of the government are now implementing non-formal education programs as part of the government-wide campaign to upgrade manpower skills for industry, improve the literacy of the large masses of the people, and reorient them towards the new values posed by development;
WHEREAS, despite the efforts of these agencies much is yet be done to achieve progress in non-formal education which would make it as least comparable to formal education; WHEREAS, there is a further need to insure utmost coordination of the non-formal programs of various government agencies by way of rationalizing and integrating these efforts. NOW, THEREFORE, I, FERDINAND E. MARCOS, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution, do hereby decree and order the following:
Section 1. There shall be created in the Department of Education and Culture the position of Undersecretary of Education and Culture with overall responsibility for the non-formal education program of the Department. Section 2. It shall likewise be the responsibility of the Undersecretary for Non-formal Education to establish linkages with institutions with similar programs, both government and non-government, to assure effective and integrated implementation of these programs. Section 3.
Immediately after his appointment, the Undersecretary for Non-formal Education shall make an overall assessment of the existing non-formal education programs and submit his report with recommendations to the Secretary of Education and Culture. Section 4. This Decree shall take effect immediately. DONE in the City of Manila, this 13th day of May, in the year of Our Lord, nineteen hundred and seventy-seven. Alternative Learning System Teachers that are involved in this program are called mobile teachers because they often go about teaching in rural and depressed areas where a majority of their clientele can be found.
Their clientele are the unemployed adults; industry based undergraduate workers, members of cultural minorities, persons with disabilities/physically challenged, inmates, rebels and soldiers. Barangay halls or community learning centers are used as classrooms. After completion, they are to take the Accreditation and Equivalency Test (A&E). Passers of either the Elementary or Secondary Level receive a certificate that s/he be integrated into formal education giving chance to be enrolled for a college degree or in technical and vocational courses K + 12 CURRICULUM
K to 12 means kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. The model is K-6-4-2. It involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (grades 7-10) and two years of senior high school (grades 11 – 12). The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. Kindergarten and the 12 years of quality basic education will be provided by the government and will be free. In each level (elementary, junior high school and senior high school), there will be a diploma.
And the full 12 years basic education will eventually be required for entry into tertiary level. In Senior high school, students are to experience specialization depending on the occupation/career track they wish to pursue, acquire skills and competencies relevant to the job market, to provide time for students to strengthen academic skills and competencies. The curriculum will allow specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship. The DepEd basis to the K+12 curriculum are: 1) Insufficient mastery of basic competencies due the congested curriculum. ) High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity 3) other countries view the 10-year education as insufficient. The implementation of the said curriculum will result to students to acquire mastery of the basic competencies; to be more emotionally mature, to be more socially aware, pro-active, involved in public and civic affairs; to be adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education; to be legally employed with potential for better earnings; to be globally competitive; to be an empowered individual.
ACTIVITY 1 Talking Points: 1. How many years should a child experience preschool education? Explain your answer. 2. Do you think it’s better to integrate four subjects (Social Studies, Technology and Home Economics, Values Education, Physical Education, Health and Music) into one subject (Makabayan)? 3. Do you think K+12 curriculum can attain its objectives? Why/Why not? 4. Do you think the K+12 will produce globally competitive students? ACTIVITY 3 .Make a Semantic Web of the Presidential Decree No. 1139 showing what it is about.
ACTIVITY 2 Make a Venn diagram to compare and contrast the objectives of the Basic and Tertiary Education REFERENCES: Briefer on the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education. (02 November, 2010). Available at http://www. gov. ph/2010/11/02/briefer-on-the-enhanced-k12-basic-education-program/ Education Process in the Philippines. Available at http://www. scribd. com/doc/11629615/Education-Process-in-the-Philippines Educational System of the Philippines. Available at http://als. gensantos. org/about-als/history/
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