Customized learning Theory: Annotated Bibliography Essay

Customized learning Theory: Annotated Bibliography

The fact that people have different learning capacities and that people can absorb content differently is fueling the rise and acceptance of customized learning. Is customized learning the way to go in ensuring that every student needs are met? Many still are proponents of the traditional method of instruction citing the massive resources required for adoption and full implementation of customized learning. Despite this, is am a serious proponent of quality rather than quantity and therefore my position is that customized learning I the way to go.

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The argument for resources is rather weak because if a student needs are not met (in traditional instruction method) the resources will go to waste anyway. Bograd, M., & McCollum, E.BOOKMARKS: A man for our seasons. Family Therapy Networker, 24, 2000 Retrieved from In their article, Bograd and McCollum examine the work of Erikson, a great analyst of children and a developmental theorist.The authors present four sections that mirror Erikson’smain theoretical passions: psychoanalysis, human development, children, leaders and moral matters.

Erikson social theory discusses about the stages of human development and the impact of culture and society on the developmental process. Erikson talks about identity crisis among the adolescents, as they try to evaluate, identify and select what they want for their future. Erikson theory also talks about the stages of life. As a child develops, he/she passes through several developmental stages, with each stage determining the future of the child.

The author also says that Erikson had challenged the notion that personality is a set of phenomena from childhood. To prove he was right, Erikson offered an elaborate description of the stages that the development of emotion grows throughout the life span of a person. The authors seem to be supporting their point of view that childhood is responsible for differences found in adults. I find this article useful because it will support my argument of customized learning because it highlights the differences that human beings acquire in the process of growing up and therefore the need for customization of the learning process. The authors are credible because they cite authorities to support their arguments rather than presenting their points of view. They really appeal to logic because they allow the reader to see that each one of us has a different growth curve, which is bound to bring about personal differences. This source has strong points; why people may grow to be different. However, it focuses too much on the growth process as the only way people may be different, it does not factor in the issue of genes and hereditary that is very vital in explaining differences in people. DeVries, Rheta. Educational Researcher, Vol. 26, No. 2, pp. 4-17 Published by:American Educational Research Association Article Stable URL:, 1997 DeVries discusses the Piaget’s social theory in this article. DeVries argues that the current debate on the role of individual and social factors in development often present Piaget as giving primacy to individual cognitive process in contrast to Vygotsky’s view of the primacy of social and cultural factors.

Today, it is popular to refer to Piaget’s child as a solitary scientist who is constructing knowledge apart from the social context. However, according DeVries, this view is erroneous.DeVries offers a way to counterthe inaccurate assumptions through the summarizedPiaget’s theory, including an account of his consideration of the relations between the individual and the social in socio-moral, affective andintellectual development. Piaget arguments of the role of norms or rules in development are emphasized in this article. In this article, Piaget’s view of the cognitive operations identity and social operations is discussed with examples. DeVries raises several concerns over Piaget’s social theory. The book also has complete discussion of the cooperative context favoring operational development in terms of general principles of teaching that apply in all levels of learning. I find this source useful for offering counterargument of my point of view because it sees individual as part of the system and therefore, what they do is greatly influences by the group. It seems to suggest that apart from the group the individual cannot do anything and hence the reason for traditional method of instruction. Hamman, D., & Hendricks, C. The Role of the Generations in Identity Formation.

Clearing House, 79(2), 72-75, 2005 The authors argue that there is no shortage of research results with description of how educators can improve the academic and social achievement of adolescents. The authors argue that despite the soundness of the research, and the earnest application in its recommendations, teachers of both early and middle adolescents maystill feel themselves in last place when it comes to their positions in adolescent’s pantheon of admiration and influence. The article talks about the importance of adults in the lives of adolescents. The author describes Erikson’s (1968) theory, which detailed the process of identity formation during adolescence and the prominent role played by adults. Erickson’s theory points to ways of thinking about the teacher-pupil relationship that, along with more recent research findings, may help teachers exert a positive influence on adolescent’sfuture, especially those at greatest risk of failure or dropping out of school. Erickson’s theory of psychological development is unique among of the developmental studies in that it attempts to describe the process of development over the course of the lifespan. The theory says that the process would require one to complete certain psychological tasks during the eight developmental periods. Erickson also argues that the adolescents are trying to identify and relate to the world. According to Erickson, there psychological development tasks include the evaluation, identification and selection of values and roles for their adult life.

Webb, P. Piaget: Implications for Teaching. Theory into Practice, 19(2), 93, 2006 Webbexplains that the current debate on education on the role of individual and social factors in development often present Piaget as giving primacy to individual cognitive processes, contrally to Vygotsky’s view of the primacy of social and cultural processes. According to the book, it has become popular to refer to Piaget’s child as a solitary scientist trying to construct knowledge apart from social context. However, according to Webb, this position is incorrect and

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