Ethics CyberEthics Ethical and Legal Issues In Cyberspace Mark Snyder MSA Consulting Group Notes: CyberEthics Objectives Define the Scope of the Problem Review Current Ethical and Legal Issues Copyright Law – Rights and Responsibilities Recommendations CyberEthics Page 2 Notes: CyberEthics The Problem Immediate Availability of “Really Good Stuff” Technological Ease of Use Myths, Lies, and Statistics New Laws – New Rules Teachers and Schools Make Easy Targets CyberEthics Page 3 Notes: CyberEthics Issues Facing Educators
Plagiarism Code and Content Theft Viruses Pornography Copyright Infringement CyberEthics Page 4 Notes: CyberEthics Plagiarism Online “Knowledge Brokers” Dissertation and Thesis Downloads Article Cut & Paste Chat Rooms & E-Mail “Straight A” Clubs Obscure Journal Availability Proving Plagiarism – New Tools for Teachers Defined Policy and Consequences CyberEthics Page 5 Notes: Plagiarism tools and web sites: www. Plagiarism. org, www. TurnItIn. com Typical online papers may cost $10-$20 for Elementary school grades, up to several hundred dollars for High School and College papers.
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Notes: Virus Information and Notification Site: Symantec Antivirus Research Center (SARC) www. symantec. com This is the parent company for Norton Antivirus© software. CyberEthics Pornography Multi-Billion Dollar Industry Unlimited Resources They DO NOT Want Kids Accessing Their Sites Barriers to Entry are Available – and Unused School and Library Networks are Vulnerable Parental Involvement is Mandatory Defined Policy and Consequences CyberEthics Page 8 Notes: Microsoft Internet Explorer 5.
X – Content Advisor Surf Watch, Cyber Patrol, Net Nanny, WebGuard, Yahooligans CyberEthics Copyright Infringement Enormous Potential for Abuse and Legal Action “Who Will Ever Know…” “Copyright Police” & Digital Tracking Watermarks Digital Download Trace Web Bots & Search Spiders CyberEthics Page 9 Notes: 21 BILLION copyrighted pages, songs, photos, gif’s, and videos on the www. New CRIMINAL, not CIVIL, penalties carry FELONY convictions . Ten copies of any copyrighted work, distributed for use, can result in a $100,000 fine and five years in prison.
Consider 1. 5 MILLION downloads on KaZaA every day. CyberEthics Internet Copyright Myths No © Symbol Means No Copyright Exists Material On the Net Is Automatically OK to Copy It’s Free Advertising and Distribution for the Author Attribution Makes Using the Material Legal Copyrighted Material on a Free Website Is OK to Use Material On the Web is Public Domain I’m a Teacher…Fair Use Protects Me CyberEthics Page 10 Notes: The Hague Accords (1998) give copyright protection the instant material is created and saved in any retrievable format.
A © symbol is not required. Attribution or author credit provides NO protection from copyright rules. Failing to include author or publisher metadata may yield additional penalties. Fair Use Doctrine allows limited use of copyrighted material for Research, Scholarship, Criticism, Commentary, News Reporting, or Non-Profit Education. Posting a DILBERT cartoon to your school web site is a clear copyright violation…Fair Use will NOT protect you. CyberEthics Intellectual Property Copyright Law Patent Law Trademark Law Trade Secret Law
CyberEthics Page 11 Notes: Copyright Law – Protects original works of authorship i. e. , literary works, musical works, dramatic works Patent Law – Protects new inventions and processes Trademark Law – Protects words, names, and symbols used by manufacturers to identify products, goods, or services Trade Secret Law – Protects proprietary information, not generally known, that has been kept secret by its owner as a competitive advantage “An Intellectual Property Law Primer For Multimedia and Web Developers. ” J. Dianne Brinson and Mark F.
Radcliffe © 1996 http://www. eff. org/pub/CAF/law/ip-primer (Accessed 6/15/01) CyberEthics The Five Rights of Copyright Holders Reproduction Right Modification Right Public Performance Right Public Display Right Distribution Right CyberEthics Page 12 Notes: Reproduction Right – Right to copy, duplicate or transform work in a fixed form. Modification Right – Right to modify work or to create a new work from the old. Public Performance Right – Right to recite, play, or show the work in a public place or through transmission.
Does not apply to sound recordings Public Display Right – Right to show a copy of the work directly, by film or television, in a public place or through transmission. Distribution Right – Right to distribute copies to the public. *Moral Right – Limits modification or use of the author’s name without permission. CyberEthics Types of Copyright Infringement Direct Infringement – Includes Wholesale Reproduction and Distribution of Copyrighted Works Contributory Infringement Infringing Activity – Knowingly Encouraging
Vicarious Infringement to for Financial Benefit CyberEthics – Violation Occurs When Manager Has the Ability to Supervise Users, but Chooses Not Page 13 Notes: Direct Infringement – Reproduction and distribution of copyrighted works. Contributory Infringement – Knowingly encouraging infringing activity. Vicarious Infringement – Violation occurs when a manager has the ability to supervise users, but chooses not to. CyberEthics New Laws – New Rules The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (1998) The Napster© Case Hollywood vs.
The DVD Hackers (DeCSS) Strict Liability Applies Statutory Damages of $20,000 Per Case $100,000 Per Case for “Willful Infringement” Fair Use DOES NOT Protect Teachers CyberEthics Page 14 Notes: CyberEthics Getting Permission Public Domain Material is Free of Copyright The Copyright Clearance Center – Books, Magazines Media Image Resource Alliance – Photos, Gifs United Media – Cartoons, Newspapers Universal Press – Cartoons, Newspapers ASCAP – BMI – Music, Recordings, Compositions Harry Fox Agency – Mechanical Rights for Music Motion Picture Licensing Corp. Film, Video Clips CyberEthics Page 15 Notes: The Copyright Clearance Center – www. copyright. com Media Image Resource Alliance – www. mira. com United Media – www. unitedmedia. com Universal Press – www. uexpress. com ASCAP – www. ascap. com BMI – http://bmi. com Harry Fox Agency – www. nmpa. org/hfa. html Motion Picture Licensing Corp. – www. mplc. com CyberEthics Recommendations Set System-Wide Ethical Use Policies Monitor Student Publications and Web Sites Post Internet Rules In Every Classroom Register Your Site Under DMCA ($30. 0) Include Parents In Internet Use Briefings Get A Personal E-Mail Address “Clean Up” Your Hard Drives and Servers Logon to ETHIX – www. ethix. org CyberEthics Page 16 Notes: ETHIX – The Institute for Business, Technology & Ethics – www. ethix. org CyberEthics Copyright Resources The U. S. Copyright Office http://www. loc. gov/copyright/ Fair Use: 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals – New York http://eon. law. harvard. edu/openlaw/DVD/NY/ “Fair Use of Copyrighted Works: A Crucial Element in Educating America” http://www. cetus. org/fairindex. html CyberEthics Page 17 Notes: