Design Principles and Application The scale for the design that has been decided is a scale of 1:500. This has been chosen as it is the most appropriate and realistic size for the construction company to work from. The plan that has been sketched, has detail of the basic materials that will be used for the roof, walls and window types. Having looked at the area of where the construction will take place, the look that has been chosen is more of a modern but cosy home like feel to it.
This has been decided as a vintage or a futuristic design will not work as the homes are aimed for families and for both young people and old people. This will attract a wider audience and will sell more. Accuracy is an important factor in the construction company, as slight errors will delay the work and the costs will increase. If the design and construction work do not co-ordinate together then there would be a big risk of poor quality within the building.
This will also lead to health and safety issues which would need to be addresses and well planned before starting work to avoid very risky and dangerous situations. Therefore it was concluded that the most sensible way to avoid such situations and extra costs is to hire a CIRIA company. This company is a construction industry research and information association. The company will do a thorough investigation of the design and the building site. If faults are detected earlier the cost of repair and damage will be reduced. The investigation is carried out before tendering.
The ground risks will also be dealt with and factored in at the design stage, avoiding costly delays. It is also made vital that the structural, soil and civil engineers have a contribution where the design is necessary. The association will also plan for essential site production requirements such as the sight layout. It should be taken into consideration the nature of the sight and the stages of construction. The practical side should be taken into consideration such as site access and movement within the site, especially on overcrowded sites.
Also the areas where the material would be stored should have easy access to it, so time is not wasted Another way the construction company has chosen to reserve time, money and effort is by the building control regulations. Such regulations are health and safety for people in and around the buildings. Facilities that need to be looked into are for those with disabilities so they also have access in and around the facilities. Building control however does not look at the quality control or the way the building looks and are separate to planning legislations.
The building design and development must also comply with the laws relating to the planning and building control. The areas covered by the building regulations are the structural stability and whether the building can carry the anticipated loadings. Fire precautions need to be taken to make sure that the buildings can be evacuated in an event of a fire. It is also important to prevent dampness and condensation in buildings incase of damage such as growing fungus or the damage of the foundation. The regulations also consist of sound resistance of walls and floors between dwellings.
Other regulations that are included are electrical safety within the dwellings, safe positioning of glazing in windows and doors, and access to buildings and facilities. It is necessary to plan a building scheme as a building or refurbishment scheme take months or even years to complete. The process also has many uncertainties which need to be managed. It is also important to ensure a profitable process. That is why it is important produce a detailed and accurate RIBA plan. The RIBA plan consists of 11 stages from A-K, in which each stage identifies the duties of the team members, for example the architect and the contractor.
Below is a developed RIBA plan showing the process of the design, leading onto the construction. It also shows the staff involved and what their roles are. | |RIBA Work |People |Purpose of work and decisions |Tasks to be undertaken | | |Stage and |involved |needed | | | |stage | | | | |reference | | | | |PREPA|Stage A | |Identification of Client’s |Set up development main group, and identify the | |RATIO| | |requirements and any possible |needs and requirements and key performance | |N | |All client |constraints on development. |indicators (KPIs) for the project. | |Appraisal |interests, |Preparation of studies to enable |Consider funding and procurement strategy | | | |architect/ |the Client to decide whether to |(traditional). | | | |lead designer |proceed and to select the probable |To also consider which contract to apply for. | | | | |procurement method. The final stage|Suggest funding proposition. | | | | |is a particularly important |Hire Design Team. | | | |decision, as it will determine the |Prepare option assessment. | | | | |way in which project resources, |Submit outline business case. | | | | |responsibilities and risks are |Obtain business case approval. | | | | |apportioned between the Client and |Fix budget for project. | | | | |its consultants and contractors. Select associate contractor. | | | | | |Develop scheme with client and contractor to | | | | | |determine budget. | | | | | |Employ design advisor. | | | | | |Set up Client Organisation for briefing. | |Stage B | |Preparation of general outline of |Studies of user requirements, site conditions, | | | | |requirements and planning of future|planning, design and cost etc, as necessary to reach| | | |Client’s |action on behalf of, the client |decisions. | | |Strategic |representatives, |with client confirming key |Observe performance against the vision and KPIs for | | |Brief |partnering team |requirements and constraints. the project. | | | |members, architects,|Identification of procedures, |Sketch design proposals | | | |and engineers |Organisational structure and range |Cost check against budget | | | | |of consultants and others to be |Prepare final detailed brief. | | | | |engaged for the project.
The |Evaluate sample designs (BSF) | | | | |strategic brief is a key output |Decide Partnering Programme (workshops etc. ) | | | | |from this stage and becomes the |Cost check against budget | | | | |clear responsibility of the client. | | |DESIG|Stage C | |Provide the client with an |Develop the brief further. |N | | |evaluation and recommendation in |Do studies on user requirements, technical aspects, | | | |All client |order that they may determine the |planning, design and costs as necessary to reach | | |Outline |interests, |form in which the project is to |decisions. | | |proposals |consortium/ |proceed. Ensure that it is feasible|Monitor performance against the mental picture and | | | |Partnering team |functionally, technically and |KPIs for the project. | | |members, architects,|financially. At this point the |Detailed design and tender documentation produced | | | |engineers, QS and |development of the strategic brief |Finalise contract details. | | | |specialists are |into the full project brief begins |Final design developed jointly within budget | | | |required. |and outline design proposals and |constraints, most likely to an Agreed Maximum Price | | | | |cost estimates are prepared. |(AMP). | |. |DESIG|Stage D |All client |Determines the general approach to |Complete final development brief and full design of | |N | |interests, |the layout, design and construction|the project by the architect. | | | |architects, |in order to obtain dependable |Engineers prepare preliminary design. | | |Detailed |engineers, |approval of the client on the |Preparation of cost plan and full explanatory | | |Proposals |specialists and |outline proposals. The project |report. | | |all statutory and |brief will be fully developed and |Submit proposals for all approvals. | | | |other approving |detailed proposals will be made and|Monitor performance against the vision and KPIs for | | | |authorities, |compiled. The application for full |the project. | | | |contractor (if |development control approval will |Detailed design and tender documentation produced. | | | |appointed). |be made at this point. |Finalise contract details. | | | | |: Final design developed jointly within budget | | | | | |constraints, most likely to an Agreed Maximum Price | | | | | |(AMP). | |DESIG|Stage E |All client |Completion of the brief with |Full design of every aspect and part of the building| |N | |interests, |decisions made on the planning |by association of all concerned.
Complete cost | | | |architects, |arrangement, appearance, |checking of designs. | | |Final proposals. |engineers, |construction method, outline |Monitor performance against the vision and KPIs for | | | |specialists and |specification and cost of the |the project. | | | |all statutory and |project. All approvals will be |Detailed design and tender documentation produced. | | |other approving |obtained at this stage, including |Negotiations with preferred Bidder to finalise | | | |authorities, |for Building Regulations. |contract details. | | | |contractor | |Final design developed jointly within budget | | | |(If appointed). | |constraints most likely to an Agreed Maximum Price | | | | | |(AMP). | | |DESIG|Stage F |Architects, |Final decisions taken on every |Prepare final production information i. e. drawings, | |N | |engineers and |matter related to design, |schedules and specifications. | | | |specialists, |specification, construction and |Monitor performance against the vision and KPIs for | | |Production |contractor (if |cost.
For a traditional procurement|the project. | | |information |appointed). |process, production information is |Detailed design and tender documentation produced. | | | | |first prepared in sufficient detail|Contract has been finalised. | | | | |to enable a tender or tenders to be|Final design developed jointly within budget | | | | |obtained.
Any further production |constraints, most likely to an Agreed Maximum Price | | | | |information required under the |(AMP). | | | | |building contract to complete the | | | | | |information for construction is | | | | | |then prepared. All statutory | | | | |approvals should be obtained by the| | | | | |end of this phase. | | |DESIG|Stage G |Architects, |Prepare and gather tender |Prepare Bills of Quantities and tender documents. | |N | |engineers and |documentation in sufficient detail |Monitor performance against the vision and KPIs for | | | |specialists. to enable a tender or tenders to be|the project. | | |Tender |Contractor (if |obtained for the construction of |Tendering process – contractor selected. | | |documents; |appointed) |the Project. It should be noted |Negotiations with contractor for future phases. | | | | |that this Stage is much more |Contract signed. | | | |relevant to Traditional forms of |Maximum price (AMP) fixed. | | | | |procurement. | | |DESIG|Stage H |Architects, |Prepare and complete all |Hold pre-tender briefing for potential contractors | |N | |engineers, |information and arrangements for |to ensure they have a good project understanding. | | |contractor, and |obtaining tender(s). Identify |Obtain and evaluate tenders. | | |Tender action |client. |potential contractors and/or |Appoint contractor. | | | | |specialists for the construction of|Monitor performance against the mental picture and | | | | |the project. |KPIs for the project. | | | |Tenders obtained and appraised with| | | | | |recommendations made to the client | | | | | |body or Steering Group to allow an | | | | | |appointment to be made. It is | | | | |important that the contractors’ | | | | | |understanding of, and commitment | | | | | |to, the project vision and its | | | | | |sustainability is tested at this | | | | | |stage.
This can be achieved by the | | | | | |inclusion of this as a key | | | | | |selection criterion early in the | | | | | |procurement process. | |CONST| |Architects, |Building contract let and |Take action in accordance with the RIBA Plan of | |RUCT |Stage I |engineers, |contractor appointed. |Work. | | | |contractor, and |Production information issued to |Appoint contractor. | |CONST| |client |the contractor. Hand over site to contractor to prepare prior to | |RUCT |Mobilisation | |Site is handed over to the |construction. | | | | |contractor. |Monitor performance against the mental picture and | |CONST| | | |KPIs for the project. | |RUCT | | | |Construction monitored by design team. | | | | |Construction of first phase. | | | | | |Facilities Management (FM) service delivery start on| | | | | |completion. | | | | | Contractor, design team and client continue to | | | | | |‘partner’ to achieve budget/programme | | | | | | | | | |Contractors, |Contractor programmes the work in |Take action in accordance with the RIBA Plan of Work| | |Stage J |sub-contractors |accordance with the contract and |A regular site inspection of work to ensure it meets| | | | |commences work on site. The client|specification. | |Construction to | |or their representative – the |Monitor performance against the mental picture and | | |Practical | |architect in Traditional |KPIs for the project | | |Completion | |procurement – administers the | | | | | |building contract up to and | | | | | |including practical completion | | | | | |(this is the point at which the | | | | | |contractor hands back ownership of | | | | | |the site and completed project to | | | | | |the client). Further information | | | | | |supplied to the contractor as and | | | | | |when reasonably required. | | | |Architects, |This Stage is clearly separated |Take action in accordance with the RIBA Plan of Work| | |Stage K |engineers, |from the construction phase. Final |Monitor performance against the mental picture and | | |After Practical |contractors, |inspections are made to ensure |KPIs for the project | | |Completion |sub-contractors, |specifications have been met. In | | | | |and, client |addition, the final account is | | | | | |settled | |