Determining the need to establish a mentoring program in the US Army - USA Essay Example

 

ABSTRACT
There has been a significant difference in the environment, stress level and the challenges in the modern day activities of army and other defense force - Determining the need to establish a mentoring program in the US Army introduction. This has brought into picture the importance of leadership during crisis, preparedness and skills of army. As the army resources are required to get involved in larger number of activities and the training resources and the time available for training becomes shorter, continuous learning and development becomes critical. Mentorship plays an important part in the continuous development of the army.

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This research uses independent data from the field to find out the relevance of mentorship in the current scenario. It finds out if mentorship is an indispensable tool for the army. Further it explores the effectiveness of mentorship and the factors that makes mentorship successful.

 

 

 
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
Background of the problem
“It is the men and women of America who will fill that need. One mentor, one person, can change a life forever.”

President George W. Bush

State of the Union Address

January 28, 2003

Mentoring in the army has gained more importance in the recent years, demonstrated by the call by the president on mentorship. Also, there is an increased acceptance that mentorship alone can help transform many factors in the army that are difficult to do with other formal programs and by the normal operational procedures of the army.

Mentoring in the military
In 1985, Chief of Staff of the Army General John A. Wickham, Jr., announced the year’s theme as ‘leadership’ and introduced a framework to produce effective leaders. This framework was based on senior leaders asking all leaders in the army to be the mentors to their subordinates. This soon became a paradigm in the Army.

(Hunsinger, 2004)

The Army Training and Leader Development Report specifically identifies mentoring as a task covered by the role of Army civilians. Mentoring is identified as a one of the 6 recommendations for life long learning in the report. It also identifies mentoring as one of the key elements in life long learning along with training, education and development, operational assignments and self-development. The report also cites the feedback from the sites where the army civilians would like more emphasis on mentoring.

One of the recommendations of the report is to publish and make accessible the guidelines, definition and best practices for mentoring partnerships. (Riley, 2003)

On July 14, 2005, the Executive Office Headquarters, Department of Army launched the new Army Mentorship Strategy – “ Leaving a Legacy Through Mentorship” and AKO Mentorship Community. This was done with the intent of reemphasizing and reinvigorating mentorship through the army and also to encourage soldiers and the DA civilians to benefit from mentorship. (Jackson, 2006)

Researcher’s Work Setting and Role
Statement of the Problem
Mentoring is a powerful tool which can be used to develop, and grow future leaders and help army to be in a state of preparedness throughout. This research is intended to study the following:

Effect of mentorship;
Study if mentorship can positively influence the functioning of the army and what are the factors that would impact the mentorship;
Identify the factors that are critical for the success of mentorship.
This research looks at mentoring from a developmental perspective and finds out the critical factors that affect mentoring in the army. First, the different aspects and applications of mentorship in the army and other defense areas are looked into. Next the research finds out the status of mentorship in the army by analyzing data from the research questionnaire. It also brings out the different factors that are critical to the success of mentorship from the data obtained. In the next section, various ways of implementation and the design of mentorship program according to the survey result is provided as a recommendation. It specifically looks at sustainable models of mentorship.

The objective of this research is to confirm the following hypothesis on mentorship in the army and specifically the aviation wing:

A mentoring program is an indispensable tool for the functioning of army in an effective manner, especially with the changing military environment around the world.
It is feasible to establish and maintaining the program on a continuous basis.
The research also identifies the different options available for the army to suit the different requirements and handle different scenarios of working of the army.

Specifically, this study also seeks to answer the following questions:

1        How do the Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs) in the United States Army perceive Mentorship in relation to their career development?

2        Do they have positive attitude towards it?

3        Do the NCOs feel the need to have a formal mentorship program in the Army?

4        Is an informal program amenable to them?

5        What mentoring model do they see could best benefit them?

6        Granting that a particular mentoring model cannot be provided to them for whatever reason, are they willing to adopt and undergo another model?

7        What characteristics of a mentor would they prefer?

8        Are they willing to mentor would-be protégés in the future?

Significance of the Problem
In the current environment in which the military and especially the army operates, it is important that the army has the capability to handle the different scenarios. Further, there is a need for the army to be ever prepared for the new challenges posed by different situations. Moreover the rules of war and peace operations have changed with the increased influence of terrorism and other aspects of modern life. This challenges the army in the following ways:

Requirement to attain new skill quickly;
Have the army motivated and integrated;
Maintain the army culture with recruitments from diverse backgrounds;
Constant learning for updating themselves above the normal training and other developmental programs;
Continuous development of leaders who have the skill and knowledge;
Attain technical, leadership and personal development.
With the army moving at a rapid pace and challenging to stretch its capabilities for every assignment, it is necessary to identify a formal mechanism that facilitates the above requirements.

Limitations
This research specifically looks into the mentorship aspects. While mentorship is a good tool to prepare the army for the current and future challenges, it has limited scope and is dependent on other areas of the army such as technical training, leadership development, recruitment, integration programs and so on. This study however does not delve into the relationship with such areas and treats mentorship independently.

The research data is collected from a limited segment of the army. Hence the research result may have biases that are related to this segment. Other segments and departments of the army may treat mentorship differently due to their backgrounds. Application of the result to all the segments would require further analysis.

Assumptions
The research is based on the following assumptions:

There are no significant policy decisions that change the perspective of mentorship during the period of research;
There are no incidents related to mentorship that may cause the data to be biased significantly. These may be negative incidents related to mentorship in that particular group and may influence the result of the study.
There is minimum amount of awareness about mentorship in the group under study. This minimum level of awareness is what is expected throughout the army.
Definition
Mentoring is an very powerful tool for development of professionals in both military as well as business sectors. Specifically for military, mentorship provides the following key benefits:

Improves technical and tactical competence
Improves leadership skills
Improves self-awareness
Improves morale and retention.
Mentorship in army is defined as:

“The voluntary, developmental relationship that exists between a person of greater experience and a person of lesser experience that is characterized by mutual trust and respect.” (Army mentorship handbook, 2005)

The army leadership doctrine, the Field Manual 22-100 defines mentoring as:

“The proactive development of each subordinate through observing, assessing, coaching, teaching, developmental counseling, and evaluating that results in people being treated with fairness and equal opportunity. Mentoring is an inclusive process (not an exclusive one) for everyone under a leader’s charge”

The Army Training and Leader Development Panel Report (Civilians) provides a more detailed definition with reference to the implementation.

“Mentorship refers to the voluntary, developmental relationship that exists between aperson of greater experience and a person of lesser experience. It involves a proactive, selfless commitment to foster personal and professional growth in others based on mutual trust and respect, sustained through careful listening, sincere caring, and sharing of knowledge and life experiences for the betterment of the individual and the Army. Mentoring reinforces Army values and develops leaders who can meet the challenges of the future”

The United States Marine Corps provides the following definitions associated with mentorship

Mentor –  A senior who voluntarily undertakes to  coach, advise and guide a younger marine in order to enhance technical/leadership skills and intellectual/ professional development.

Mentee – A junior who voluntarily accepts tutelage from a more senior marine for the purpose of enhancing skills and professional development.

Mentoring Connection – A voluntary professional association between a mentor and mentee. (United States Marine Corps, 1998)
Reference

Department of Army (2005). Army Mentorship Handbook (1st ed.)

Rigotti, M.Y. (1997) Mentoring of women in the United States Air Force, Air Command and Staff College.

United States Marine Corps, (1998) User’s guide to marine corps values, Marine Corps University.

Department of the Army (2006) Leaving a legacy through mentorship.

Hunsinger, N. (2004)  Mentorship: Growing company grade officers, Military Review, 78-85

Jackson, L. (2006) Information Paper – Army mentorship: Leaving a legacy through mentorship, Individual Readiness Policy Division.

Sullivan, M.M. (1993) Mentoring in the military: Preliminary study of gender differences, United States Naval Academy.

Martin, G. F, Reed, G. E., Collins, R. B., Dial, C. K. (2002) Road to mentoring: Paved with good intentions, Parameters, 115-127

Hamilton, M. H. (1994) The enduring legacy: Leader development for America’s Army, Department of the Army Pamphlet, 350-358.

Hudson, J.B. (1995) Civilian personnel: Mentoring for civilian members of the force, Department of the Army Pamphlet, 690-746
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND RESEARCH
Relationship of mentoring to army operations
In order to understand the need for mentorship in the current world scenario, it is important to look at the factors that could influence the operations of the Army currently and the future. There are several trends that suggest the need for the Army leadership to have deep roots in the organisation as well as develop an organisation that has the agility and preparedness to take up the challenges of the future.

Underlying principles of Army operations governing effectiveness
Mentoring is considered to be a highly effective tool in ensuring that army personnel is well prepared. In order to understand the effectiveness of mentoring, it is important to analyse the factors that govern the effectiveness of army operations as a whole and how mentoring can influence these factors.

1.            Extensive capabilities required by Army personnel

Army relies on four types of operations, namely – Offence, defence, stability and support. The army personnel is expected to fare equally well in all four roles. The army leadership requires high degree of technical and tactical competence and leadership skills to execute each of these operations.

Offensive environment is characterised by high intensity which decreases as the operation moves into defence, stability and support. However, now the personnel has to handle the ambiguities that are associated with the stability operations and support operations. This means that the personnel now has to now lookout for opportunities to interact with local populations and displaced people and collect information on continuous basis. This is because stability operations may explode into an offensive or defensive situation at any time.

With new types of situations such as that of Army in Iraq and Afghanistan, it is important that the Army has the capability to carry out each of the different operations with equal effectiveness.

Figure i – Spectrum of operations of the army

(The Army training and leader development panel officer study, 200

Increasingly, there is need for the army personnel for move between the different roles. The Army depends on the leaders and the units to have the required competencies and leadership skills to execute the full spectrum of operations. It requires them to manage the high-intensity combat and the ambiguities in operations involving stability and support. In addition, they need the capability to match the competencies of their opponents in new operating conditions.

2.            Army Vision and Importance of People

The Army Vision clearly lays out the importance of contribution of people in the functioning of army. The army specifies the following specifies the following order of importance:

§    People

§    Readiness

§    Transformation

Having the right people with the expertise, knowledge and the mental fit for the army is essential for the army to function effectively. Any amount of funds, technology will help in ensuring that army is ready and prepared for the challenges.

Development of leadership, training and constantly updating the personnel is critical for ensuring that people are ready and prepared. (Campbell, K., 2001)

3.            Changing nature of conflicts and preparedness of army

With the changing nature of conflicts, it is essential for the army to constantly develop leadership and prepare the unit for handling the new challenges. Today’s threats for the states are mostly from the terrorists and radical insurgents that operate without borders and within the national states as much as from outside. This makes it an unlimited war more than a limited scope of war in a traditional conflict environment. This means that then entire army is prepared to equal extent. (Barth, F.L., 2001)

4.            Requirements from transformation process

Every facet of the army is engaged in transformation process as the army moves towards the Objective Force of 2025 objective. The background to mentorship was laid out clearly by General Eric K Shinseki, Chief of Staff, Army.

“The Army is transforming itself into a new force for the future. They (soldiers and leaders) must be agile and adaptive in order to employ the capabilities that the future Army must possess. The Army must begin now to train the solders and grow the leaders for the Objective Force”

One of the critical pieces in this transformation is leadership as they are the key elements in implementing change. Hence leadership development has been identified as the key area of focus. This naturally leads to tools like mentorship.

In addition, operational pace in the current environment is increasing due to more demands from the army. This means that the army personnel need to be trained in a short time. This can cause degradation of the quality of the training and leader development. It also reduces the quality of operational and educational experiences thereby affecting the leader development. Further it affects the readiness and the officer job satisfaction, which in turn can lead to micromanagement. Micromanagement is a major cause for the attrition among the Army personnel.

5.            Managing Diversity and Minorities

As the country demographics change, it is necessary to include people from different communities into the army. Certain segments of the community such as the Hispanics are expected to increase the population and also their contribution to the total population, it is essential that the Army have a long term strategy to attract them and help them be successful.

One of the key requirements for the inclusion of different communities is the ability of the organisation to help the people from different communities to come up the leadership path.

6.            Maintaining the Army culture

As the Army recruits with different backgrounds, demographics and beliefs, it becomes imminent for the Army to align them to the culture and traditions of the Army. Sometimes there is friction between the Army beliefs and practices. When such friction occurs, it affects the preparedness.

Figure ii – Army culture, beliefs and practices

Army culture can be considered to be healthy when there is trust that the beliefs that it states is equated to the actual practice. Although they could still be frictions, it must exist within the ‘Band of Tolerance’.  An example is difference between the field officers and new recruits. The officers in the field demonstrate strong support for the underpinnings of an Army Service Ethic:

§    Pride in their profession

§    Commitment to the Army and its values

§    Belief in the essential purposes of military and

§    Patriotism

Although the recruits may have the frame of mind, it is essential for them to imbibe these to ensure a smooth transition into the fields.

Training and other conventional methods of passing on information and knowledge has limited capability to influence the entire Army. It is necessary to have a continuous program that can provide information and reinforce it.

7.            Retention

Studies such as the ‘ATLDP Officer Study Report’ have indicated that there is a significant issue across three officer cohorts in terms of retention.

§    Lieutenants

§    Captains and Majors

§    Lieutenant Colonels and Colonels

ATLDP identified the following causes to be the major contributor to the exits:

§    A perceived lack of commitment from the Army to the officers in terms of not enabling them to meet their expectations to lead soldiers.

§    A perceived lack of commitment from the Army to their families despite the fact that Army expects them to show high degree of commitment from them.

§    Limitations on spouse employment

§    A perceived imbalance between the expectations of the army and the family

§    Lack of work predictability and limited control over their assignments.

Further, the study revealed that officers wanted predictability, stability and more control over their assignments.

Summary
The army in the new environment need to be able to support life long learning that helps it to scale and prepare for the new challenges and environments. This emphasises the need for leadership skills that enables the unit to

§    Become aware of the need to attain competencies in rapidly changing environments

§    Methodology and know-how to develop the new competencies required

§    Transfer the learning and associated competencies quickly to other leaders and units that are not exposed to these changes

§    Institutionalise continuous learning in the Army’s culture

§    Develop systems and techniques to increase self-awareness and adaptability.

This brings out the need for the army to

§    Constantly be in touch with the different layers of the army to quickly understand the dynamics of the organisation and gauge the preparedness of the organisation for new environments.

§    Develop mechanism to quickly transfer the knowledge in one part of the organisation to another beyond the scope of training and other limited initiatives.

§    Provide the new comers and the sections of the Army that are unfamiliar with the culture, traditions and the working models of the organisation as people join into the organisation or moving between the organisation layers

§    Provide framework to enable an environment for continuous learning thereby increasing the capability of the organisation on a continuous basis.

§    Provide effective channel for the leadership to manage change and transform the organisation in a structured manner

§    Create an environment where individuals are able to nurture their ambitions in a structured manner, thereby helping them to align their personal goals with the organisational goals.

§    Provide a mechanism for the leadership to get feedback from lower ranks, thereby enabling a self-awareness as well as continuous improvement mechanism. It also provides early indication of symptoms that need to be looked into and associated issues to be resolved.

§    Ensure that there is a mechanism for army culture to be adequately communicated to the entire organisation and imbibed into all ranks.

§    A mechanism from the lower levels on important aspects of management such as micro-management and the level of operation pace.

§    Provide a mechanism for feedback on retention issues and causes.

 

 

Mentoring applications in the military
The military has effectively used mentoring in several areas. Although the use of mentorship is not new to the military, there has been a lack of formal structure in various parts of the organisation. Mentorship has been specifically used in several scenarios.

Mentoring for Active Component/ Reserve Component Integration
The U.S. Army War College research looked at the different aspects of mentorship and how it influences the army. Richard Torres focussed on the integration of active and research forces, it brings out certain critical aspects of mentoring and how mentoring can help in bridging gap between an active and passive group. This can translate very well into an active group as well as the challenges of preparing an individual is less complex. This research demonstrates how mentorship has been successful in a complex relationship environment.

Mentoring functions address those aspects of a developmental relationship that enhances the individual’s growth as well as advancement. The army has always emphasised on the need of self improvement and development of subordinates. The Field Manual 22-100 manual describes the need for developmental counselling, which it identifies as a skill that all the army leaders must possess. This skill ensures that the leaders can leave behind an organisation and quality of people better than they found them when they were serving.

Mentoring usually focuses on career development at a time when the junior person is transitioning laterally or vertically through the army organisation. Some examples of such transitioning is when the junior officer receives the first assignment or a staff officer is transferred to a higher level of staff and command structure than what the officer is trained and familiar with.

Active and reserve components of the army represent two critical force of the army. A strong army requires the service of both the forces as well as need to ensure that both the units are prepared to the fullest extend. However, being in reserve environment generates gaps in the way both the units operate. Mentorship has been found to be an effective forum for integration between the two components of the army. It helps to expand the service member education and maintain military links with society and help in ensuring preparedness of the reserve force.

The culture of the active force is heavily linked to the post where the soldiers are assigned and is localised through soldier and leadership development in the respective units. This tight relationship can be mainly attributed to the chain of command that governs the units. However the reserve unit does not enjoy this close relationship and are heavily involved in the day-to-day operations of a community civilian environment. The personnel is characterised by strong attention to their professional or vocational operations that has very little in common with the army life. This creates a large gap between the active forces and reserve forces.

The effect of mentorship can be understood if the extend of difference between these groups can be understood.

The research identifies mentorship as a critical tool to grow and advance the active and research components beyond integration into a seamless Total Force. This ensures that the force is characterised by responsiveness, deployability, agility, versatility, lethality, survivability and sustainability of all the components of the force irrespective of their way of operations. This is achieved by constant interaction between the active and reserve forces and hence acknowledging the reserve force as a full partner in the military strategy. (Torres. R, 2005)

Hispanics: An untapped leadership resource
Lisa C. Firmin provides another perspective for mentorship. Mentorship has been found to be effective in integration of different sections of the army such as a diverse group. This research focuses on integration of Hispanic population into the U.S. Air Force. This is important for the Air Force because Hispanic population is the largest growing minority nationally and would grow more than any other race or ethnic group till 2050. This means that by 2050, one of every four persons in the U.S would be Hispanic. This research focuses on various strategies for integration of the Hispanic groups.

It was found that in Corporate America also that the path to executive levels was not same for minorities compared to the whites. The whites are promoted much faster and steadily compared to the minorities. The minorities had to repeatedly exceed performance standards and expectations to gain promotion as they had to build confidence and credibility.

One of the successful method of integration of minorities and providing them equal path to the higher levels is using mentoring. Several of the Services have taken up mentoring programs specifically for the minorities. Examples of these are

§    Air Force Cadet/ Officer Mentor Action Program

§    Association of Naval Services Officers

§    National Naval Officers Association

§    The Army ROCKS.

The Navy has developed a virtual mentoring website that focuses on minorities where the senior officers can register. This is a voluntary program aimed at helping the juniors by mentoring and guiding them. The website also allows the junior officers to provide feedback to senior officers.

The research recommends development of a mentoring program for all personnel including Hispanics. Such a program has been implemented for blacks for a considerable period of time with high level of success. The mentoring program educates young Hispanic officers on key assignments, professional education and other growth potential opportunities.

The research recommends a virtual Hispanic officer mentoring website similar to the Navy. In this program, Hispanic officers could register themselves and mentor and also receive feedback on a continuous basis. (Firmin, L.C., 2002)

Mentorship for Officer Professional Development
Melanson et al describes approaches adopted by the United States Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine (USACHPPM) to ensure technical and tactical excellence in junior officer ranks. The command introduced Officer Professional Development (OPD) Program in summer of 2000. Although it started as an informal chat session, it was soon formalised as a program.

The OPD involved weekly meetings scheduled by the junior officers without conflicting with the other functions. The meetings facilitated the junior officers to meet up with the senior officers. This was mostly personalised to suit the junior officers and evolved as a one-on-one sessions. Some of the common discussion points in the meetings were potential future assignments, strengthening officer’s officer evaluation report support form. Some of the additional sessions were reading sessions for professional development. There were several reading lists releases for each levels: one list for cadets, soldiers and junior non-commissioned officers (NCO)s, second list for company grade officers and NCOs, another list for field grade officers and senior NCOs and final list focussed towards senior NCOs and leaders above Brigade level.

For the junior officers who have received direct commissions, who are new to the Army, at least one OPD session each month is dedicated to military topics exclusively. Some of the topics discussed here include ethics, values, leadership and officer – enlisted relations. Some of these readings also included sections of FM 22-100, Army Leadership and Army professional journals such as Military Review and Parameters, case studies, ware stories etc. This sometimes was followed by discussions on real cases and how people dealt with the challenges.

To maintain the technical proficiency, the Health Physics Journal Club session dealt with topics enabling continuous study and practice that is required for the field. One session each month was dedicated to specific topics in this area. This session involved readings, discussions on the relevance to the Army for the topic. An initiative to pass on the experience from other senior leaders was to conduct guest lectures from several senior and retired officers.

When the senior officer is not available, the next ranking officer led the sessions, thereby reinforcing the importance of the chain of command and ensuring continuity of the program.

In short, the program helped to effectively meet both technical and tactical development needs of juniors through a mentoring program when the rest of the Army found it to provide mentoring on time. The program benefited from the structured and planned initiatives that were aimed at developing different aspects. The command found that the program raised the officer morale apart from improving the proficiency and preparedness of the group. (Meanson, M. A. et al, 2003)

Mentoring women and minority officers in the U.S Military
Darrell E. Adams focuses on the application of mentoring in developing leaders among women and minority officers in the U.S. Military in this research. The research cites the importance of mentorship in the civilian business sector and how successful the program has been in that area.

The research also cites ten critical behaviours that translate into mentoring:

§    Teaching – instructing the mentee in a specific skill and providing knowledge necessary for successful job performance and assisting in career development.

§    Guiding – orients the mentee in learning the organisation’s unwritten rules.

§    Advising – normally initiated by the mentee, provides advice to the mentee different from others due to the mentor’s high degree of competence and experience.

§    Counselling – provides emotional support in stressful times, listens to mentees concerns, helps crystallize career goals and assists in developing a plan of action to achieve the goals that the mentee has decided to pursue.

§    Sponsoring – provides growth opportunities by associating with the mentor that opens opportunities for the mentee.

§    Role modelling – provides a model that the mentee can emulate. This usually occurs subconsciously and the mentee tries to follow the traits and behaviours of the mentor.

§    Validating – the mentor evaluates and endorses the goals and aspirations of the mentees.

§    Motivating – the mentor provides encouragement and impetus for the mentee to act towards achieving specific goals that are pursued.

§    Protecting – the mentor provides a cushion to the mentee thereby allowing the mentee to take additional risk and provides an environment where the mentee can afford to make mistakes without any loss of self-confidence. It also makes it easier for the mentee to take decisions in the time of uncertainty.

§    Communicating – establishes open communication channels where all the concerns can be addressed.

The research also identifies the need for mentoring among women. In the military, women face a lack of upward mobility compared to their male counterparts. This is largely due to the stereotyping of women as lower status and mis-identified as clerical workers. Women who develop mentoring relationships fare better in organisations. Mentors help women advance by building their self-confidence and providing career guidance and direction. The mentor may also train women about the ‘ins and outs’ of the organisation. In addition, a mentor can provide information on the upcoming opportunities. Also mentors help women to overcome the gender related obstacles and provides visibility with the organisation.

One of the important ways of mentorship help minorities is by providing networking. Networking provides a forum for greater interaction between the mentors and mentees. One such example is the Women Military Aviators (WMA). It was formed to educate the public about the roles of women aviators and bond women together and bring in a sense of belongingness that other people are experiencing the same things as they are. Its membership includes former pilots, flight surgeons, aircrew members from all five Services and former members of Women Air Force Service Pilots. In WMA, it established a network through mentoring and helped women to adjust to the demands of military life. (Adams, D. E, 1997)
References

Torres. R (2005) Mentoring: An extension of AC/RC Integration, U.S. Army Wary College.

Firmin, L.C. (2002) Hispanics: An untapped leadership resource, Air War College, 37-46.

Adams, D. E. (1997) Mentoring women and minority officers in the U.S Military, Air Command and Staff College.

Melanson, M. A, Winstead, A.D. (2003) Officer professional development: A case study in officer mentorship, Army Medical Department Journal, 7-10.

Rigotti, M.Y. (1997) Mentoring of women in the United States Air Force, Air Command and Staff College.

Thurmond, T (2003) The Army Training and Leader Development Panel Report Phase IV Civilian Study, Department of the Army.

Hudson, J.B. (1995) Civilian personnel: Mentoring for civilian members of the force, Department of the Army Pamphlet, 690-746
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLGY

Research Model
The methodology used for this research is qualitative and exploratory. The data for the research was based on the structured interviews with various people involved in mentorship. In the interviews, the respondents recorded answers to specific questions on their experience of mentorship. The interviews were conducted for both mentors and mentees. Since the interviews were exploratory in nature, special attention was made not to guide the respondent towards the researcher’s view point.  As part of the exploratory approach, the researcher also took the opportunity to discuss the different aspects of mentorship that could provide more insights on the subject.

Survey Population
The questionnaire is circulated among the active army personnel who are selected from the command associated with the researcher’s profession. The survey was conducted with XX personnel. This was done during the researcher’s posting in Iraq where the researcher was closely associated with the army operations. This ensured that the research included sufficient representation from the combative force in stabilization environment. This is one of the most challenging environments and one of the situations where the lack of or effect of mentorship could be noticed. This also allowed the researcher to gain important insight into the operations including the stressful operative environments.

Sources of Data
The data for the research is collected from the following types of army personnel

Mentors: There are two types of mentors that are targeted
–          Mentors who are currently doing mentorship or who have done mentorship in the recent past (within one year).

–          Mentors who have not done mentorship, but are likely to do or who are keen to do the mentorship. This category of mentors is required to have minimum awareness about mentorship.

Mentees: There are two types of mentees who are targeted for the research.
–          Mentees who are currently doing mentorship or who have been involved in mentorship in the recent past (within one year).

–          Mentees who have not been involved in mentorship yet, but are likely to be mentees or keen to do mentorship. This category of mentors is required to have minimum awareness about mentorship.

The Questionnaire
Design
The questionnaire is prepared with intention of collecting as much information through structured questions and unstructured ones to bring out as much information as possible.

Questions 1-3 attempts to understand the background of the interviewee with respect to mentorship. This enables to weigh the response to see if there is any correlation of benefits of mentorship with the period of mentorship.
Questions 5-6 tries to identify the background of the mentor. These questions tries to identify the correlation of benefits of mentorship with the background of the mentor.
The questions 7- 10 provides input into the style and effectiveness of the mentorship.
The open ended question encourages the respondent to provide additional information for exploratory research into the subject.
Questions 12 to 13 provides perspective of a prospective mentee and provides information on the expectation on mentorship.
The second section of the questionnaire is focussed on the mentor.
Questions 1 to 3 attempts to understand the background of the mentor.
Questions 4 to 5 provide information on the exposure of the interviewee with mentorship.
Questions 5 to 6 provide information on the background of the mentee.
Questions 7 to 11 provide insight into the style and the effectiveness of the mentoring.
The open ended question encourages the respondent to provide additional information for exploratory research into the subject.
Questions 13 to 15 provide perspective of a prospective mentor.
Pilot Study
The questionnaire developed was provided to a set of known respondents to understand the effectiveness and the interpretation as found by the respondents. This allowed the researcher to make the necessary changes. These changes were primarily to ease the process of answering, easy readability and the right interpretation. In addition, it also provided information on the time required to complete the questionnaire. This was taken as the basis for planning for the rest of the survey.

Questionnaire Reliability
The reliability of the questionnaire was checked during the pilot study. The answers to the questionnaire were discussed in detail with the select number of respondents to understand whether the questionnaire was correctly interpreted and responded to. In addition, the questionnaire was done for a set of mentor and mentee. This enabled the researcher to cross-check the response to verify the effectiveness in collecting the right information for the critical questions. Further, the questionnaire provides questions such as the period for which the mentorship was done, rank of the officer etc. that allows to correlate between the type of response and the answers. This enables the researcher to understand if there is a lack of understanding about mentorship when the respondent is not experienced or less experienced in mentorship.

Procedures
The research data collection and analysis consisted of the following steps:

Circulation of the questionnaire: The questionnaire is circulated to the list of respondents through different means. This included email, snail mail, handing over the forms in person.
Collection of the data through email, mails, telephones and through person: Once the respondent has had enough time to understand the questionnaire, each of the respondent is followed up to ensure that data is received in time scheduled. This is usually done in 2 – 5 days time after the questionnaire reaches the respondent.
Initial validation of the response data for completeness of essential data. This step involves checking of data for important questions as well as checking for the values to ensure that data is reasonable. For e.g. any response with number of years of mentorship of more than 30 years needs to be validated with the rank of the person and the experience in the army.
Collection of data and aggregation of data: This step involved collection of all responses to data analysis tool for calculation of necessary statistical methods. This involved transferring of the data from the questionnaire formats to tool electronic format.
Calculation of correlation coefficients for each of the factors: Here correlation coefficients are calculated for the selected fields. These correlations are then validated in the following ways:
–          Validations of correlations in terms of the minimum correlation that is suitable for the research. This step ensures that

–          Validation of correlation in terms of the relevance to the research

Analysis of correlated data: The correlated data is then analysed in terms of the information related to the mentoring. This also involves interpretation of the statistical result with respect to mentoring.
Extraction of result: The result corresponding to each of the hypothesis is now extracted.
Summarisation of result: All the result is summarised to prepare the conclusion of the data analysis and research. This forms the basis for the recommendation as well.

CHAPTER IV
RESULTS

CHAPTER V
DISCUSSION
CHAPTER VI
CONCLUSION
CHAPTER VIII
RECOMMENDATIONS – IMPLEMENTING EFFECTIVE MENTORSHIP
Common mentoring issues in army
Difference between mentoring and counselling

Most common misunderstanding among the army is the confusion between mentoring and counselling. It is common to find that most of the leaders in the army provide counselling to their subordinates rather than mentoring them. One of the critical reason for this fact is that army requires leaders to conduct counselling that requires extensive documentation with meticulous logs of the counselling sessions. This makes it a time consuming effort requiring the leadership and the subordinates to spend considerable effort. This leads them to believe that they are fully engaged in a mentoring relationship when they are only carrying out the counselling activities as expected from a responsible leader and an efficient bureaucrat.

Misconception that mentoring is only reserved for few

Lack of mentoring in certain functions can be attributed to the perception that mentoring is a function that requires an investment of time for personal introspection and commitment. This makes it appeared reserved only for a few who have the time and the initiative to perform this. The lack of compulsory mentorship for everybody causes many to perceive negatively about the program. Also a loose structure causes lack of uniform opportunity for the certain section of the army. This is evidenced by the observation that more junior leaders refer to senior leaders as mentors than senior leaders refer to junior leaders as a mentee. This also shows lack of mentoring guidance and puts mentoring in the background and does not appear as a priority. (Torres. R, 2005)

Lack of good documentation on mentoring in Army

In an Army War College research project, Merrill Anderson Ashcraft conducted a content analysis of about 64 essays on mentoring submitted by the members. In this about 71 percent of the statements in the papers addressed negative aspects of mentoring. Additional analysis indicated that there are misunderstandings regarding mentoring goals, mentoring strategies and methods of implementation

Availability of mentorship structure

A lack of mentorship structure has prevented the army and the key personnel involved in mentoring to set aside time for mentoring. This has resulted in lack of resources available for mentorship on a constant basis.

Mentoring as a solution
According to FM 22-100, mentoring is to be applied at different levels of leadership namely,

§    Tactical

§    Operational and

§    Strategic

Benefits of mentoring in Army

Mentorship provides many opportunities for both the mentor and mentees.

For the mentor

The benefits include the following:

§    Career Advancement

Mentorship enables the mentor to be identified in a group as they help groom high performers. They get more visibility as they attract more highly qualified, high potential individuals who are looking for opportunities of high growth. This can help in development of their own talents as well as provides better chances for career progression as they become known across the organisation, especially through the success of their mentees.

§    Information gathering

Mentors usually serving in higher level positions gets isolated in terms of the information from the ground level. Mentees can be an important source of information on general army data, feedback, critical developments and details of issues that are hidden about the army, traditions etc, as well as feedback on how people at different levels of the army things and the perception at different levels.

§    Sharpening of management, leadership and interpersonal skills

Mentoring provides an excellent opportunity for mentors to sharpen their skills as they challenge and coach the mentee.

§    Source of recognition

Successful mentors usually get good visibility in the organisation and are well respected at all levels of the Army.

§    Personal satisfaction

A mentee being able to develop, grow and contribute in a significant way to the organisation provides a great sense of pride to the mentor.

§    Expanded professional contacts

Mentors are able to develop many rewarding professional contacts as a result of the interaction during the mentoring process. Mentors usually interact with other mentors, supervisors and others with respect to the mentors.

To the mentee

Mentoring offers the following advantage to the mentees:

§    Builds confidence

Having the mentor looking and guiding in critical decision making, especially which related to the personal, provides confidence and encourages the individual to grow beyond the normal expected levels.

§    Sounding board

Mentor provides a good sounding board and usually are role models for the mentees.

§    Greater understanding

Mentoring provides the mentees better insight into the army and what is required to succeed and advance their career.

§    Greater satisfaction and performance

Studies have shown that mentees show greater career satisfaction and their performance and productivity ratings are higher than the others.

For the Army:

Mentoring provides the following benefits to the army:

§    Increased commitment to the army and increased retention

Mentoring increases the mentees understanding and hence the greater acceptance of Army goals, Army values and Warrior Ethos as a result of the knowledge that the mentor can transfer to the mentee. This helps the mentees feel that they are an integral part of the Army.

§    Improved performance

Mentoring has found to increase the performance of both mentors and mentees as they get an opportunity to expand their technical, interpersonal and leadership skills through the relationship. It helps the mentees to identify their goals clearly. These enable them to define the positions that best fits their interest and needs and more importantly the army. Having clearly define these, mentees can then prepare for the positions effectively. Also mentees help the mentors to further crystallize their career roadmaps.

§    Improved flow of information

Mentoring encourages and facilitates sharing of information between different levels in the army and mentees act as linking pins between the structural layers.

§    Leadership development

Mentoring outside the chain of command increases the effectiveness of leadership development and produces leaders who are comfortable with interacting with different levels in the organisation as well as taking up responsibilities of senior level positions.

§    Leadership succession

 

 

Mentoring facilitates a smooth transfer of fundamentals of army fibre namely, the culture, traditions, values, warrior ethos to the next generation and new comers into the army. It makes sure that the entire army organisation is aligned.

§    Recruitment

The mentoring program helps army to communicate the benefits and the experience to the potential recruits. It opens up multiple channels to reach to the potential candidates. It also shows that the Army cares about its people and their professional and personal development. (Army mentorship handbook, 2005)

Feasibility of establishing and maintaining mentoring program
Critical steps in ensuring success of a mentoring program
 
References

1        Washington, B.R. (2002) Mentorship: An Army dilemma, U.S Army War College.

2        Barth, F.L. (2001) The challenges of leadership development in the United States Army, Army Command and General Staff Coll Fort Leavenworth KS School of Advanced Military Studies.

3        Campbell, K. (2001) The Army training and leader development panel officer study – Report to the Army.
APPENDIX A – RESEARCH QUESTIONNAIRE
Section A – Mentee

Name:        ______________________________

Gender:    Male           Female

Designation:  ____________________________

No of years of experience in army:       ________

 

Do you have a mentor?
Yes
No
Did you have any mentor in the past?
Yes
No
If ‘No’ to Question (1) and (2), please go to Question (12)

 

How long have you been mentored?
———— months/years
How much time is/was spent on mentoring
———— hours per month
Who is your current mentor or the mentor in the past?
A commissioned officer
A warrant officer
A non-commissioned officer
A junior enlisted soldier
A DA civilian
Other ___________________________
What is the profile of your mentor – Is your mentor
Your rater
Your senior rater
A persons who is/ was higher in rank with you, but not your rater or your senior rater.
A person who is/was at your same rank
A person who is/was in a lower rank than you
A person who is/was not in the military at the time of mentoring.
Have mentoring being helpful to you?
Yes
No
For your current mentor or a mentor in the recent past, how would you rate the mentorship in the following areas:
A.    Teaches job skills

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
B.     Gives feedback on your job performance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
C.     Assigns challenging tasks

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
D.    Helps develop your competencies for future assignments

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
E.     Provides support and encouragement

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
F.      Provides personal and social guidance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
G.    Provide career guidance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
H.    Help crystallize career objectives

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
I.       Provides sponsorship/ contacts to advance your career

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
J.       Provides insights into “unwritten rules” in the army

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
K.    Advices on organisational politics

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
A.    Helped you get more opportunities

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
L.     Demonstrates trust

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
M.   Acts as a role model

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
N.    Protects you

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
O.    Invites you to observe activities at his/her level

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
P.      Instils Army values

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
Q.    Help nurture army culture in you

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
R.     Provides moral/ethical guidance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
S.      Helps you develop your technical competence

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
If you have been mentored when you were new to the army,
Did mentoring help you in orienting yourself to the army faster?

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
Are you keen to continue your mentorship?
Yes
No
Any other comments about mentorship that you would like to add (your positive or negative experiences)
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­­________________________________________________________________

END OF QUESTIONNAIRE

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND EFFORT
Are you keen to start mentorship?
Yes
No
What are the areas that you are looking to have mentorship?
B.     Teach job skills

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
C.     Give feedback on your job performance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
D.    Assign challenging tasks

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
E.     Help develop your competencies for future assignments

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
F.      Provide support and encouragement

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
G.    Provide personal and social guidance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
H.    Provide career guidance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
I.       Help crystallize career objectives

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
J.       Provide sponsorship/ contacts to advance your career

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
K.    Provide insights into “unwritten rules” in the army

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
L.     Advice on organisational politics

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
M.   Help you get more opportunities

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
N.    Mentor as a role model

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
O.    Protects you

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
P.      Inviting you to observe activities at his/her level

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
Q.    Instils Army values

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
R.     Help nurture army culture in you

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
S.      Provides moral/ethical guidance

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
T.      Helps you develop your technical competence

Not provided
Extremely helpful
Very helpful
Moderately helpful
Slightly helpful
Not alt all helpful
END

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND EFFORT

 
Section B – Mentor

Name:        ______________________________

Gender:    Male           Female

Designation:  ____________________________

No of years of experience in army:       ________

 

Are you currently mentoring any officer?
Yes
No
Have you mentored any officers in the past?
Yes
No
If ‘No’ to Question (1) and (2), please go to Question (13)

 

How long have you been involved in mentoring?
———— months/years
How much time is/was spent on mentoring
———— hours per month
Who is your current mentee or the mentor in the past?
A commissioned officer
A warrant officer
A non-commissioned officer
A junior enlisted soldier
A DA civilian
Other ___________________________
What is the profile of your mentee – Is your mentor
Your next line of command
Your line of command but not next
A person who is/ was lower in rank with you, but not in your line of command.
A person who is/was at your same rank
A person who is/was in a higher rank than you
A person who is/was not in the military at the time of mentoring.
Have mentoring being helpful to you?
Yes
No
Do you think your mentoring was helpful to the mentee?
Yes
No
For your current mentee or a mentee in the recent past, how would you you’re your mentorship (your view of how much help you have been to the mentee) in the following areas:
A.    Teach job skills

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
B.     Give feedback on mentees job performance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
C.     Assign challenging tasks to the mentee

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
D.    Helps develop mentee’s competencies for future assignments

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
E.     Provides support and encouragement

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
F.      Provides personal and social guidance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
G.    Provide career guidance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
H.    Help crystallize career objectives for the mentees

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
I.       Provides sponsorship/ contacts to advance mentees career

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
J.       Provides insights into “unwritten rules” in the army

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
K.    Advice on organisational politics

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
L.     Invites mentee to observe your activities at your level

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
M.   Focus on instilling Army values

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
N.    Focus on nurturing army culture

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
O.    Provides moral/ethical guidance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
P.      Specifically helps to develop technical competence

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
Has mentoring helped you in your career
A.    Specifically helps to develop technical competence

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
B.     Being in constant touch with the different layers in the army

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
C.     Use mentorship to transfer knowledge better to the officers opening up new communication channels for you

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
D.    Help orient newcomers faster and better and hence enhance preparedness in your command

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
E.     Can be used as a framework for constant learning for the mentee and hence enhance preparedness in your command

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
F.      Help in change management, especially areas like culture, tradition etc.

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
G.    Get feedback for your personal growth

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
H.    Helped to crystallise your career objectives (as a result of mentoring somebody)

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
I.       Have been able to retain more officers as a result of mentoring by getting knowledge of issues that could affect retention and being able to address it.

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
Are you keen to continue mentorship?
Yes
No
Any other comments about mentorship that you would like to add (your positive or negative experiences)
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________­­­­­­­­­­­­________________________________________________________________

END OF QUESTIONNAIRE

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME AND EFFORT

 
Are you keen to start mentorship?
Yes
No
If you were to start mentorship for someone, how do you think you would help the person you are mentoring:
A.    Teach job skills

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
B.     Give feedback on mentees job performance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
C.     Assign challenging tasks to the mentee

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
D.    Helps develop mentee’s competencies for future assignments

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
E.     Provides support and encouragement

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
F.      Provides personal and social guidance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
G.    Provide career guidance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
H.    Help crystallize career objectives for the mentees

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
I.       Provides sponsorship/ contacts to advance mentees career

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
J.       Provides insights into “unwritten rules” in the army

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
K.    Advice on organisational politics

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
L.     Invites mentee to observe your activities at your level

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
M.   Focus on instilling Army values

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
N.    Focus on nurturing army culture

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
O.    Provides moral/ethical guidance

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
P.      Specifically helps to develop technical competence

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
Do you think you can benefit from mentoring:
A.    Help to be in constant touch with the different layers in the army

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
B.     Use mentorship to transfer knowledge better to the officers opening up new communication channels for you

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
C.     Help orient newcomers faster and better and hence enhance preparedness in your command

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
D.    Can be used as a framework for constant learning for the mentee and hence enhance preparedness in your command

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
E.     Help in change management, especially areas like culture, tradition etc.

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
F.      Get feedback for your personal growth

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
G.    Helped to crystallise your career objectives (as a result of mentoring somebody)

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all
H.    Have been able to retain more officers as a result of mentoring by getting knowledge of issues that could affect retention and being able to address it.

Not applicable
Always
Often
Sometimes
Rarely
Not at all

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