Developmental Psych CH. 1 & 2

Research on immigrant children and their families has been lacking in
all of these
Bob wishes to undertake a study of the students at his college comparing their grade point averages and drinking behaviors. He draws up a document explaining the purpose of his study, the type of data to be collected, and the way the data will be used. The document states that participants have the right to terminate participation at any time during the study. Before beginning to collect his data he gets each participant to sign the document. Bob is obtaining:
Informed Consent
A developmental psychologist wants to determine the chances that a particular ninth-grade student will graduate from high school. This best illustrates:
prediction
Marcia has childhood arthritis. She takes part in an experiment designed to determine if a new drug will relieve the suffering of childhood arthritis. She reports to the lab every week and is examined by a doctor, but she receives a pill that contains no medication. According to your text, what is the best explanation for Marcia’s receiving a pill with no drug?
Marcia is a subject who is in the control group
An age cohort is
a group of people born in the same historical time period

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According to your text’s discussion of the timing of developmental events, influences that involve unique turning points that cause people to change direction in their lives are known as:
nonnormative life events
All of the following are limitations of the case study method EXCEPT
researcher and subject are unlikely to have close contact
Age strata
use ranking of people as higher or lower
A psychologist wants to know whether there is a cause-effect relationship between how much effort a child expends on completing a puzzle and how much he or she likes it. According to your text, which method should she use?
experiment
The scientific method differs from ordinary inquiry because
it specifies a systematic, formal process to gather facts
Dr. Yu wishes to study the effect of home schooling on children across the United States. He prepares a set of questions to mail to the parents of children who are being home schooled. He mails the questionnaire with a return envelope. This is known as what type of research method?
social survey
A psychologist wishes to know why there is an increase in childhood obesity. This is related to which goal of developmental psychology?
explanation
The changes that are most likely to occur because a person is at a particular stage of development, such as infancy, adolescence, or adulthood, are characteristic of
normative age-graded influences
The numerical expression of the degree or extent of relationship between two variables or conditions is called the
correlation coefficient
The factor that a researcher manipulates in an experimental situation is called the
independent variable
The method that combines collecting data over time as well as across study groups to measure more than one cohort over time is called the
sequential method
Mary’s personality has become more outgoing as she has grown older. The changes in Mary’s personality illustrate which kind of development?
emotional-social
A psychologist conducts a study of 800 children who have mental disabilities using subjects from several schools. She follows them from the age of 4 through adulthood. This study is based on which research method?
longitudinal
The case-study method of research
focuses on an individual
A major advantage of using the cross-sectional approach to research is that
researchers need not wait a long time until subjects reach the age for retesting
it requires making certain periodic readjustments associated with staff turnover
The more or less automatic unfolding of biological potential in a set, irreversible sequence is known as
maturation
As her son Jamal grows older, Nadia is particularly fascinated with his ability to think more abstractly and logically. The changes in Jamal’s thinking patterns illustrate which kind of development?
cognitive
The changes that occur in sensation, perception, memory, thought, reasoning, and language refer to
cognitive development
A major advantage of using the cross-sectional approach to research is that
researchers need not wait a long time until subjects reach the age for retesting
The changes that occur in a person’s height, weight, and organ, skeletal, muscular, and neurological structures refer to
physical development
Correlational analysis
can be used for predictive purposes
The major reason experimental designs are not used in developmental studies is
it is impossible to exercise the control necessary to conduct them
According to Bronfenbrenner’s model, the macrosystem consists of
the overarching cultural patterns of a society
The cross-sectional method of research
compares different age groups of people at the same point in time
A psychologist wants to know whether there is a cause-effect relationship between how much effort a child expends on completing a puzzle and how much he or she likes it. According to your text, which method should she use?
experiment
The factor that a researcher manipulates in an experimental situation is called the
independent variable
Dr. Robertson is interested in studying temperament changes over the course of adolescence. She would like to avoid the disadvantages associated with longitudinal and cross-sectional research. What could you suggest she use to complete her study?
sequential methods
All of the following are limitations of the social survey method EXCEPT
it has a higher response rate than many other research methods do
Keisha wins the lottery and is awarded 10 million dollars. She buys a house in France and a new sports car and organizes and finances a charitable institute for disadvantaged youth. According to your text’s discussion of the timing of developmental events, this is an example of
nonnormative life events
According to Bronfenbrenner’s model, the microsystem consists of
the network of social relations and physical settings the person experiences daily
All of the following are drawbacks of cross-cultural research EXCEPT
most cultures do not respect the work of developmentalists
According to Bronfenbrenner’s model, the exosystem consists of
social structures that directly or indirectly affect a person’s life
According to your text’s discussion of the timing of developmental events, influences that involve unique turning points that cause people to change direction in their lives are known as
nonnormative life events
Which research method compares data obtained from two or more societies
cross-cultural
Mary’s personality has become more outgoing as she has grown older. The changes in Mary’s personality illustrate which kind of development?
emotional-social
According to Bronfenbrenner’s model, the macrosystem consists of
Dr. Robertson is interested in studying temperament changes over the course of adolescence. She would like to avoid the disadvantages associated with longitudinal and cross-sectional research. What could you suggest she use to complete her study?
sequential methods
Having been born in the United States, Jami would have a macrosystem likely to consist of all of the following EXCEPT:
a communist-inspired ideal for the economy
An age cohort is
a group of people born in the same historical time period
Intelligence tests are given to all the students at Evergreen School and Horace Mann School. The scores from all grades at the two schools are compared. This is an example of a study using which type of research method
cross-sectional method
A psychologist conducts a study of 800 children who have mental disabilities using subjects from several schools. She follows them from the age of 4 through adulthood. This study is based on which research method?
longitudinal
Justin’s 55-year-old mother attends rock concerts and political rallies against the war. According to your text’s discussion of the timing of developmental events, the activities Justin’s mother engages in probably result from
normative history-graded influences
John, Rodrigo, and Marla are sixth-graders who are all feeling a little anxious about making the transition to junior high school. According to your text’s discussion of the timing of developmental events, their anxieties can be attributed to
normative age-graded influences
Based on recent research findings, a developmental psychologist advises that an infant born with an inherited disorder be put on a special diet to avoid intellectual impairment. This best illustrates
intervention
Dr. Sheehan observes preschool children in a Head Start program. She watches and records their interactions with teachers and adults in the classroom every 10 seconds. This is an example of
time sampling
Dr. Gillespie is studying relationships between children and grandparents. She examined data from the United States, Japan, and Botswana related to this topic. She is engaging in
cross-cultural research
On the basis of the discussion in your text, what is the most important advantage of using a cross-sectional approach?
It saves a great deal of time and money over longitudinal research.
A developmental psychologist wants to determine the chances that a particular ninth-grade student will graduate from high school. This best illustrates:
prediction
Dr. Benson conducts a study to determine the effect of rewards on altruistic behavior. The measure of altruistic behavior would be an example of the
dependent variable
All of the following are limitations of the naturalistic observation method EXCEPT
the researcher has complete control of the subjects
A control group is a necessary part of which research method?
experimental
According to your text’s discussion of the timing of developmental events, when a generation of people experience social, political, and economic events at the same time they will likely experience
normative history-graded influences
Developmental psychology is mainly concerned with
studying how we change and remain the same over time
studying socio-economic influences on individuals
An advantage of longitudinal research is
a more accurate view of developmental continuity can be found
One of the most noticeable features of early development is the increase in size of the individual. This is dependent on the metabolic processes that take place within the body. This is known as
growth
The more or less automatic unfolding of biological potential in a set, irreversible sequence is known as
maturation
In terms of Bronfenbrenner’s model, 10-year old Melissa’s microsystem would most likely include all of the following EXCEPT
the office of Melissa’s mother
Which research method compares data obtained from two or more societies?
cross-cultural
The definition of “old age”
is now divided into “young-old” and “old-old”
The ecological approach to human development
exemplifies the difficulty of studying people in multiple contexts
The changes that occur in an individual’s personality, emotions, and relationships with others refer to
emotional-social development
Having been born in the United States, Jami would have a macrosystem likely to consist of all of the following EXCEPT
a communist-inspired ideal for the economy
When each member has an equally likely probability of being chosen in a sample population, it is called
random sampling
The students in Mr. Bertram’s class are very noisy when he leaves the room but become quiet when he returns. If this were an experiment, what would the independent variable be?
Mr. Bertram’s presence or absence in the room
According to Bronfenbrenner’s model, the exosystem consists of:
social structures that directly or indirectly affect a person’s life
The relatively permanent modification in behavior that results from the individual’s experience in the environment is known as
learning
Bronfenbrenner’s approach asserts that developmental influences include all of the following EXCEPT
six levels of environmental influence
Jean Piaget observed and tested individual children on the conservation task between the ages of 4 and 5. Two years later he tested the children again on the same task. The results were recorded for each individual child. This is an example of research using which method?
case study
Mr. Brown is undertaking research in which he is watching the behavior of people as they wait in line at the Department of Labor. He observes over a period of 2 weeks. Each day he goes to the site and tapes conversations as he observes and takes notes. This type of research is called
naturalistic observation
The theory developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner that centers on the relationship between the developing individual and the changing environmental systems is known as
ecological theory
Piaget put forth the idea that development occurs in sequential periods of growth or maturing of an individual’s ability to think. This is called
cognitive stages of development
Scientists who study the behavior patterns of organisms from a biological point of view and believe that babies are biologically preadapted with certain behaviors to elicit caring behaviors in adults are known as
ethologists
According to Freud, the phase when children suppress most of their sexual feelings and are more interested in play and same-sex friendships is called
latency
The correct chronological sequence of psychosexual stages is
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Which statement does NOT reflect the ideas of Piaget?
Children’s thoughts are miniature versions of adults’ thoughts.
Another name for behavioral theory is
learning theory
Erikson himself referred to the developmental tasks in his model as:
opportunities
Which theory is Erik Erikson most associated with?
psychosocial theory
Erikson’s developmental tasks are referred to as:
psychosocial stages
Behavioral theorists divide the environment into units called:
stimuli
The idea that human development has a specifically historical charter—that it is affected by where and when a person grows up—is associated with which theory of development?
sociocultural theory
The process of taking in new information and interpreting it so that it conforms to a currently held model of the world is what Piaget termed:
assimilation
In contrast to psychoanalysis and behavior modification, humanistic psychology is:
more self-directed
When the processes of accommodation and assimilation are in balance, it is known as ______________ according to Piaget.
equilibrium
According to Freudian theory, the tendency to stay at a particular stage is called:
fixation
The organismic model views a human being as
a structured whole, inherently active
All of the following are true about a theory EXCEPT:
it proves that events occur for the reasons stated
Freud’s theories have been critiqued on the basis of:
explanations that are based solely on adult patients
A type of learning in which the consequences of a behavior alter the strength of that behavior is called:
operant conditioning
Erikson’s theory differs from Freud’s because it
states that personality develops over the life span
In Piaget’s theory, cognitive structures that people evolve for dealing with specific kinds of situations in their environments are known as
schemas
Millie and her brother are being raised by their grandmother. Millie’s grandmother and brother comprise her
microsystem
An approach in psychology that maintains that humans are different from all other organisms in that they actively intervene in the course of events to control their destinies and shape the world around them is known as
humanistic psychology
The theory that stresses the role of unconscious motivation on behavior is most closely associated with:
Freud’s psychosexual theory
Erikson believed that each part of the personality has a particular time in the life span when it must develop (if it is to develop at all). If a particular stage of development is not completed the stages that should follow it will be hindered. This is based on the
epigenetic principle
When the ball that 9-month-old Reggie was playing with rolls under the bed he begins searching for it in the direction that it rolled. According to Piaget’s stages of development, which stage corresponds to Reggie’s behavior?
sensorimotor
Marisol is very bright with a tested IQ of 135. She likes school despite the fact that her first-grade teacher was very strict and punished students who failed tests by denying privileges such as play time. Marisol is a good student, but when she knows that a test will be given at school, she wakes up on those days with a headache and nausea. A behaviorist would argue that Marisol’s reaction could be the result of
classical conditioning
Five-year-old Nora is excited to see that it is starting to snow. She exclaims, “Wow, it’s snowing so that I can make a snowman!” This kind of egocentric thinking is related to which of Piaget’s stages of development?
preoperational
Emotions have not been researched with the same vigor as cognition until recently because:
emotions are hard to quantify and measure
Which view sees development as similar to metamorphosis, where change is abrupt and constitutes a difference of kind rather than a difference of degree?
discontinuity
An approach that applies learning theory and experimental psychology to altering maladaptive behavior is called
behavior modification
Two-year-old Amina sees a cat for the first time. After watching her mother stroke the cat’s back, Amina begins to stroke the cat’s back, too. This is an example of
cognitive learning
Kagan’s studies on timidity indicate all of the following EXCEPT:
Over 50 percent of all children are predisposed to shyness.
When a person learns how to respond to something that he or she has not yet encountered from observing someone else’s response, this is called
cognitive learning
Behavioral theorists divide the environment into units called
stimuli
A set of interrelated statements that provides an explanation for a class of events is called a
Theory
The theory most closely related to the view that personality is fashioned progressively as the individual passes through various psychosexual stages is:
psychoanalytic theory
An approach which allows psychologists to choose from various theories and models is called
eclectic
When a person learns how to respond to something that he or she has not yet encountered from observing someone else’s response, this is called:
cognitive learning
The term self-actualization means:
realizing one’s potential to the fullest
An approach in psychology that maintains that humans are different from all other organisms in that they actively intervene in the course of events to control their destinies and shape the world around them is known as:
humanistic psychology
Eight-year-old Margie is watching her little brother Harry play with clay. When Harry takes the lump of clay and rolls it into a “snake,” he comments, “Look, I made it bigger.” Margie replies, “No silly, it’s the same amount of clay; you just stretched it.” Margie’s reasoning reflects which of Piaget’s stages of development?
concrete operations
An approach that applies learning theory and experimental psychology to altering maladaptive behavior is called:
behavior modification
The process of taking in new information and interpreting it so that it conforms to a currently held model of the world is what Piaget termed:
assimilation
Which research design would be best suited to the ecological approach to understanding human development?
longitudinal
On a visit to Sea Spectacular, an outdoor aquarium, your nephew notices that each time a dolphin performs a trick it is rewarded with a fish. You have read the brochure that explains that the dolphins are trained this way to ensure that they will continue to perform the tricks for several performances each day. This is an example of:
operant conditioning
According to Erikson’s theory, a person first establishes a sense of trust during which stage?
infancy
John is retired from a career in the army. He often looks at his medals and photographs from the places he had been stationed. He talks fondly about “the old days” with anyone who will listen. According to Erikson’s theory, John is probably in which stage of development?
integrity vs. despair
A field of study that focuses on individual differences and seeks to answer why individuals within a species exhibit different behaviors is called:
behavioral genetics
Erikson’s theory differs from Freud’s because it:
states that personality develops over the life span
The theory that human behavior arises out of a struggle between societal prohibitions and the instinctual drives associated with sex and aggression is attributed to
Sigmund Freud
Marie loves her baby niece Fiona because of her tiny fingers, big brown eyes, and cute smile. When Fiona cries Marie always responds by picking her up to soothe her. Fiona’s behaviors and characteristics are examples of what ethologists call
releasing stimuli
Sherry is 4 ½ years old and loves to play with the remote controls for the TV and DVD player as well as with her toys. Her kindergarten teacher reports that Sherry always follows the teacher’s directions and often helps to explain to her classmates why they are engaging in activities like lining up for lunch time. According to Erikson’s theory, Sherry is successfully going through which stage of development?
initiative vs. guilt
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