UNDERSTANDING LIFESPAN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. John Tatum a. | generated the first comprehensive theory of lifespan development. | b. | was the first African-American psychologist. | c. | won three gold medals at the 2009 National Senior Games. | d. | was the first black soldier to serve in an all-white unit in World War II. | ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:1OBJ:1. 1 2. Development is best defined as a. | individual differences in human behavior. | b. | systematic changes and continuities from conception to death. c. | the way people change in positive ways across time.
| d. | the systematic unfolding of genetic potential. | ANS:BDIF:EasyREF:2OBJ:1. 1 3. The fact that development often involves continuities speaks to the fact that over time humans tend to a. | remain the same. | c. | become less active. | b. | become more intelligent. | d. | undergo orderly patterns of change. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:3OBJ:1. 1 4. The three broad domains explored by developmental psychologists are a. | motor, interpersonal, cognitive. | c. | personality, motor, learning. | b. | physical, cognitive, psychosocial. d. | interpersonal, maturational, learning. | ANS:BDIF:EasyREF:2-3OBJ:1.
1 5. Albert, a developmental psychologist, conducts research on children’s emotional reactions to studying math in school. Albert is concerned with children’s _____ development. a. | cognitive| c. | physical| b. | maturational| d. | psychosocial| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:3OBJ:1. 1 6. Which is best categorized as being in the cognitive domain of development? a. | Physical maturation of the body| c. | Poor interpersonal skills| b. | A changing personality| d. | Language acquisition| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:2OBJ:1. 1 7.
Which does NOT belong on a list of key aspects of physical development? a. | Change in motor ability| c. | Change in short-term memory| b. | Change in body organ efficiency| d. | Change in skin tone (e. g. , wrinkling)| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:2OBJ:1. 1 8. Traditionally, growth has been defined as a. | physical changes that occur from conception to maturity. | b. | the biological unfolding of genetic potential. | c. | positive changes across the lifespan. | d. | gains, changes, and losses at each stage of the lifecycle. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:3OBJ:1. 1 9. _____ aging involves the deterioration of an organism that eventually results in eath. a. | Cognitive| c. | Behavioral| b. | Psychosocial| d. | Biological| ANS:DDIF:EasyREF:3OBJ:1. 1 10. _____ aspects of development follow the “gain-stability-loss” model. a. | All| c. | No| b. | Some| d. | Only physical| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:3OBJ:1. 1 11. Aging is most accurately defined as involving _____ in the maturing organism. a. | only negative changes| c. | both negative and positive changes| b. | only positive changes| d. | neither positive nor negative changes| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:3OBJ:1. 1 12. The term age grade refers to a. | a group of individuals who are all the same mental age. | b.
a socially defined age group, with culture-specific assigned roles, privileges, and responsibilities. | c. | a universally defined age group, with universal roles, privileges, and responsibilities. | d. | a group of children assigned at a specific age to a specific grade in school. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:4OBJ:1. 1 13. “Senior” discounts on meals available only to individuals over age 55 provide an excellent example of a(n) a. | age norm. | c. | age grade. | b. | social clock. | d. | social convoy. | ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:4OBJ:1. 1 14. The category of “teenager” best exemplifies an age a. | effect. | c. analysis. | b. | coefficient. | d. | grade. | ANS:DDIF:DifficultREF:4OBJ:1. 1 15. Male social age grades for the Arusha people of East Africa include a. | only boy or man. | c. | helpful and helpless. | b. | junior warriors and retired elders. | d. | boyish and girlish. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:4OBJ:1. 1 16. A rite of passage marks a transition from one _____ to another. a. | culture| c. | sex| b. | gender| d. | status| ANS:DDIF:EasyREF:4OBJ:1. 1 17. A quinceaneara a. | impacts only males. | c. | occurs at age 15. | b. | is a Jewish rite of passage. | d. | defines parenthood. | ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:5OBJ:1. 1 18.
A company requires employees to retire at the age of 65. This policy is an example of a. | age norms. | c. | the young-old principle. | b. | age stratification. | d. | growth norms. | ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:5OBJ:1. 1 19. When 60-year-old Madonna wore a miniskirt to a wedding, one of her friends commented, “I sure wish Madonna would act her age. ” This comment best illustrates the concept of a. | age norms. | c. | cohort effects. | b. | age grade. | d. | maturation. | ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:5OBJ:1. 1 KEY:WWW 20. The term _____ concerns an individual’s sense of the age at which he or she should experience certain events. a. age norms| c. | social clock| b. | age stratification| d. | age grade| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:5OBJ:1. 1 21. Manuel hoped to graduate from college by age 22 but finds himself enrolling for the first time at age 52. The anxiety Manuel feels because of this situation may be best explained by the concept of a. | biological maturation. | c. | plasticity. | b. | a social clock. | d. | historical change. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:5OBJ:1. 1 22. Diversity can be based on a. | race or ethnicity, but not socioeconomic status. | b. | race or socioeconomic status, but not ethnicity. | c. | ethnicity or socioeconomic status, but not race. | . | race, ethnicity, or socioeconomic status. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:5OBJ:1. 1 23. When compared to those from middle- or upper-income families, individuals from lower-income families tend to a. | reach milestones of adulthood earlier. | b. | reach milestones of adulthood later. | c. | never reach milestones of adulthood. | d. | reach milestones of adulthood at the same time. |
ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:5OBJ:1. 1 24. Which statement concerning the pre-seventeenth century conception of childhood is most accurate? a. | Pre-seventeenth century adults believed that children were simply miniature adults. | b. | Pre-seventeenth century dults did not discipline their children because infants were thought to be morally pure. | c. | Pre-seventeenth century adults forced children to grow up at a very slow pace. | d. | Pre-seventeenth century adults held views toward childhood that are different from most modern parents. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:5-6OBJ:1. 2 25. Which distinct period of development was the first to be recognized? a. | Childhood| c. | Middle age| b. | Adolescence| d. | Old age| ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:5-6OBJ:1. 2 26. The term emerging adulthood refers to individuals from about age a. | 11 to 17. | c. | 29 to 37. | b. | 18 to 29. | d. 38 to 46. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:6OBJ:1. 2 27. Hermes is currently in the “emerging adulthood” stage of development. As such, he would most likely a. | be leading a very stable life. | c. | be focused on others versus himself. | b. | feel adultlike in all ways. | d. | believe in a life of limitless possibilities. | ANS:DDIF:DifficultREF:6OBJ:1. 2 28. Which statement best characterizes individuals in the “emerging adulthood” period of development? a. | Young people who are adolescents but not adults. | b. | Young people who are neither adolescents nor adults. | c. | Old people who are adults but not elderly. | d. Old people who are neither adults nor elderly. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:6OBJ:1. 2 KEY:WWW 2
9. Which of the following has had the most significant impact on lengthening the average lifespan in the United States? a. | Improved health care for the elderly| b. | Improved nutritional habits| c. | Major decreases in infant mortality| d. | Disease prevention among school-age children| ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:7OBJ:1. 2 30. The average life expectancy for a newborn in the United States is _____ years. a. | 73| c. | 83| b. | 78| d. | 88| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 2 31. Which United States-born newborn would currently have the longest life expectancy? . | Donny, who is a white male| b. | Marie, who is a white female| c. | Michael, who is an African-American male| d. | Janet, who is an African-American female| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 2 32. The gap between the average life expectancies for _____ have widened in the past decades. a. | women versus men| c. | newborn females and newborn males| b. | Caucasians versus African-Americans| d. | high and low socioeconomic groups| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 2 33. The question of how biological and environmental forces impact development is referred to as the _____ issue. a. continuity-discontinuity| c. | nature-nurture| b. | passive-active| d. | proximal-distal| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 3 34. Maturation is best defined as a. | any physical changes that occur from conception to maturity. | b. | the biological unfolding of genetic potential. | c. | physical gains, changes, and losses across the lifespan. | d. | the effects of experience on thoughts, feelings, and behavior. |
ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 3 35. Which best describes the relationship between maturation and genes? a. | Maturation is driven by a plan contained in the genes. | b. Maturation is the nature side of development, and genes are the nurture side of development. | c. | Maturation is the process by which genes learn. | d. | Genes and maturation are unrelated concepts. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 3 36. Which of the following represents a maturational process? a. | Being taught how to pay attention| b. | Changing one’s violent ways as the result of spending time in prison| c. | Learning to tie your shoes| d. | The development of pubic hair during puberty| ANS:DDIF:DifficultREF:7OBJ:1. 3 37. Environmental impacts include all _____ that influence our development. . | external physical and social conditions| c. | internal physical and social conditions| b. | external genetic and social conditions| d. | internal genetic and social conditions| ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 3 38. Learning is defined as the process through which _____ brings about relatively permanent changes in actions, thoughts, or feelings. a. | maturation| c. | instincts| b. | genetics| d. | experience| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 3 39. Nature is to nurture as a. | maturation is to learning. | c. | psychology is to biology. | b. | experience is to genetics. | d. | positive is to negative. |
ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:7-8OBJ:1. 3 40. Maturation is to learning as a. | genes are to social experience. | c. | the environment is to heredity. | b. | knowing is to doing. | d. | practice is to instinct. | ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:7-8OBJ:1. 3 41. If all you know is that men commit more violent crimes than women you can most accurately conclude that a. | genes alone cause aggression. | b. | women elicit violent behavior in men. | c. | gender roles alone cause aggression. | d. | a difference in the level of a behavior exists, but the cause may involve hereditary and/or environmental factors. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:8OBJ:1. 42. A cross-cultural study on aggression in children from Belize, Kenya, Nepal, and American Somoa by Munro and colleagues (2000) indicated that a. | boys were only more aggressive in the poorest countries. | b. | boys were more aggressive an all four countries. | c. | girls were more aggressive in female-dominant countries. | d. | girls and boys exhibited equal levels of aggression in the majority of the countries. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:8OBJ:1. 3 KEY:WWW 43. The fact that sex differences in aggression are greatest in patrilineal cultures suggests that a. | genes for aggression most likely come from fathers. | . | cultural standards play a significant role in determining aggression. | c. | boys are naturally more aggressive than girls. | d. | primitive societies were likely less aggressive than modern societies. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:8OBJ:1. 3 44. Urie Bronfenbrenner is best associated with the _____ model of development. a. | bioecological| c. | psychodynamic| b. | humanistic| d. | cognitive| ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:9OBJ:1. 4 45. The _____ involves the immediate physical environment in which an individual functions. a. | microsystem| c. | exosystem| b. | chronosystem| d. | macrosystem| ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:9OBJ:1. 4 KEY:WWW 46.
The abusive behavior that Crosby perpetrated on his son has definitely negatively impacted his son’s development. According to the ecological model, this impact is best explained by events occurring in the child’s a. | exosystem. | c. | microsystem. | b. | mesosystem. | d. | macrosystem. | ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:9OBJ:1. 4 47. Which is best described as a linkage between two microsystems? a. | Exosystem| c. | Mesosystem| b. | Macrosystem| d. | Chronosystem| ANS:CDIF:EasyREF:9OBJ:1. 4 48. A factory decides to cut the pay of all its employees. This loss of pay results in Julia being unable to provide health care for her infant son.
According to bioecological theory, this exemplifies the impact that events in the _____ can play on the development of a child. a. | microsystem| c. | exosystem| b. | macrosystem| d. | chronosystem| ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:9-10OBJ:1. 4 49. Which is the best example of the macrosystem of a child? a. | The room in which it is raised| c. | The school in which it is raised| b. | The culture in which it is raised| d. | The family in which it is raised| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:10OBJ:1. 4 50. Differences in Maternal Leave Acts (laws) between the United States and other nations definitely influence children living in those counties.
Bronfenbrenner would describe this phenomena in terms of the impact of the a. | macrosystem. | c. | mesosystem. | b. | microsystem. | d. | exosystem. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:10OBJ:1. 4 51. The fact that specific historical events (e. g. , living during the AIDS epidemic) can influence development is best explained by the influence of the a. | mesosystem. | c. | microsystem. | b. | exosystem. | d. | chronosystem. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:10OBJ:1. 4 52. According to the bioecological model, researchers need to a. | focus mainly on unconscious factors. | b. | conduct research in the laboratory and not in “real-life” settings. c. | the first step is to separate out the contributions of nature and nurture. | d. | consider the relationship between the person, context, time, and the process through which a person interacts with his or her environment. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:10OBJ:1. 4 53. Dr. Benjamin Spock wrote a popular book for parents, providing information on what behaviors can be expected of typical infants at specific ages. This sort of publication primarily reflects which goal of developmental psychology? a. | Prediction| c. | Explanation| b. | Optimization| d. | Description| ANS:DDIF:DifficultREF:10OBJ:1. 5 54.
The title of Dr. Doublemint’s latest bestseller is Why Identical Twins Differ from Each Other! Given this title, it is safe to assume that Dr. Doublemint’s primary interest is in the _____ goal of psychology. a. | prediction| c. | explanation| b. | optimization| d. | description| ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:10OBJ:1. 5 55. Vue is a developmental psychologist who is concerned with helping adolescents learn to deal constructively with divorce. Her work focuses primarily on which goal of developmental psychology? a. | Prediction| c. | Explanation| b. | Optimization| d. | Description| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:10OBJ:1. 5 56.
When making a decision on whether or not to follow the latest diet trend, Jillian focuses on what the best scientific research has to say about the topic of nutrition. This indicates that Jillian believes in engaging in _____ practice. a. | speculative| c. | evidence-based| b. | ethnocentric| d. | emerging| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:11OBJ:1. 5 57. In the nineteenth century, scholars began to systematically record the growth and development of their own children. The published form of the observations were known as a. | quasi-experiments. | c. | meta-analyses. | b. | time of measurement papers. | d. | baby biographies. ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:11OBJ:1. 5 58. _____ is often cited as the most influential of the baby biographers. a. | G. Stanley Hall| b. | Charles Darwin| c. | Sigmund Freud| d. | Jean Piaget| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:11OBJ:1. 5 59. Who is most often cited as the founder of developmental psychology? a. | G. Stanley Hall| b. | Charles Darwin| c. | Sigmund Freud| d. | Jean Piaget| ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:11-12OBJ:1. 5 60. In his book Adolescence (1904), G. Stanley Hall described the period between childhood and adulthood as a time of a. | senescence. | c. | storm and stress. | b. | plasticity. | d. | fun and exploration. |
ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:12OBJ:1. 5 61. Francine has just purchased a copy of G. Stanley Hall’s 1922 book Senescence for herself. This indicates that she is likely very interested in the topic of a. | mental illness. | c. | bioecology. | b. | language. | d. | old age. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:12OBJ:1. 5 62. Dr. Johnson exclusively researches how people adapt to economic, psychological, and physical changes in old age. Given this emphasis, Dr. Johnson appears to be a. | a lifespan developmentalist. | c. | a pubescence specialist. | b. | an anthropologist. | d. | a gerontologist. | ANS:DDIF:DifficultREF:12OBJ:1. 5 63.
Which is NOT an assumption of the lifespan perspective? a. | Development is shaped by historical context. | b. | Development can take multiple directions. | c. | Development focuses on gains not losses. | d. | Understanding development requires multiple disciplines. | ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:12OBJ:1. 5 64. Sixty-year-old Kwan has led a life filled with ups (a prosperous career) and downs (a battle with breast cancer) and continues to maintain the capacity to change in response to such experiences. A lifespan developmental psychologist would likely say that Kwan has a. | a flawed social clock. | c. | minimal longevity. | b. great plasticity. | d. | maturational grief. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:12OBJ:1. 5 65. Which best exemplifies the concept of neuroplasticity? a. | The ability to use your arm to draw after the arm was severely broken| b. | The development of thicker heart muscles in old age after beginning an aerobic exercise class| c. | The production of large amounts of testosterone during puberty| d. | The formation of new brain cell connections as the result of reading a book| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:12-13OBJ:1. 5 66. The fact that many adult males who lived through the Great Depression later had erratic careers and unstable marriages exemplifies a. the impact of historical context on development. | b. | the multidirectional nature of development. | c. | maturation. | d. | the Baby Boom generation. | ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:13OBJ:1. 5 KEY:WWW 67. According to the lifespan perspective, development is a. | singularly influenced and involves a single discipline. | b. | multiply influenced and involves a single discipline. | c. | singularly influenced and involves multiple disciplines. | d. | multiply influenced and involves multiple disciplines. |
ANS:DDIF:EasyREF:13-14OBJ:1. 5 68. The scientific method is best characterized as a. neither a method nor an attitude. | c. | an attitude but not a method. | b. | a method but not an attitude. | d. | both a method and an attitude. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 69. The key element of the scientific method is the belief that _____ should determine the merits of an idea. a. | systematic observation| c. | debate| b. | logic| d. | intuition| ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 70. A theory is best defined as a a. | set of concepts and propositions used to control developmental outcomes. | b. | set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain some aspect of experience. | c. factual description of developmental phenomena. | d. | series of systematic tests of hypotheses. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 71. Dr. Wells has proposed that the center of the Earth consists of large open areas that contain air and water and may be inhabited by some life form. This proposition is best described as a a. | fact. | c. | theory. | b. | hypothesis. | d. | correlation. | ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:14OBJ:1. 6 72. A specific prediction about what will hold true if we observe a phenomenon is called a a. | fact. | c. | theory. | b. | hypothesis. | d. | correlation. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 73.
After observing the interaction between rival street gangs, Jet predicts that fighting between the gangs would decrease significantly if the existing “colors” (clothing) of the two gangs (one black and one red) were changed to pink and yellow. This prediction is most accurately thought of as a a. | fact. | c. | theory. | b. | hypothesis. | d. | correlation. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 74. Based on an observation at a local fast-food restaurant Dr. Colby predicts that more people will buy a hamburger if it is covered with cheese. This prediction is most accurately thought of as a a. | fact. | c. | theory. | b. hypothesis. | d. | correlation. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 KEY:WWW 75. If asked to list the characteristics of a good theory, you should AVOID saying a. | speculative. | c. | internally consistent. | b. | supported by data. | d. | falsifiable. | ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:14OBJ:1. 6 76. Dr. Vandepolder is conducting a study on American Midwest college students’ radio-listening habits. He doesn’t have the resources to survey all college students in the Midwest, so he uses census data to randomly select a group of several thousand students from Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Minnesota to participate in the study.
In this study, the group of all American Midwest college students is called the _____, while the group randomly selected from Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, and Minnesota is called the _____. a. | sample; control group| c. | control group; population| b. | sample; population| d. | population; sample| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:14-15OBJ:1. 6 77. Reba wants to examine the TV-viewing habits of 18- to 25-year-old males in the United States. As it is quite impossible to include all males of this age group in her study, she selects a smaller group of 18- to 25-year old males to survey. The males included in her study are called a(n) a. population. | c. | control group. | b. | sample. | d. | age grade. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 78. Trojan interviews a group of 50 teen mothers to determine what sort of knowledge they hold regarding use of contraceptives prior to the time they became pregnant. He then writes an article where he speaks in broad terms about what teen mothers know about the use of contraceptives prior to becoming pregnant. In this study, the group of 50 teen mothers is called the _____, while all teen mothers are collectively called the _____. a. | control group; population| c. | sample; control group| b. | population; sample| d. sample; population| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:14-15OBJ:1. 6 79. The major goal behind random sampling is to ensure that the a. | data is falsifiable. | b. | sample is representative of the population. | c. | project will not be costly. | d. | population is large. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:15OBJ:1. 6 80. Which is NOT a major shortcoming of self-reports? a. |
Standardizing the self-report measure results in difficulty in comparing the responses of two different individuals who have completed the self-report. | b. | Respondents may give socially desirable answers so the researchers think more positively of them. c. | They are difficult to use with very young children. | d. | Language abilities between people of different ages can make interpretation of results difficult. | ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:15OBJ:1. 6 81. Dr. Hu is interested in children’s affective responses to studying science. She spends many hours sitting quietly and observing in elementary school classrooms during science instruction, and makes careful notes on all she observes. While observing, Dr. Hu is careful not to interact with the children or to interfere with their behavior in any way. This form of data collection is known as a. self-report investigation. | c. | structured observation. | b. | naturalistic observation. | d. | case study analysis. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:15OBJ:1. 6 82. Developmental psychologist Dr. Wiggles is interested in preschool children’s helping behavior. He spends hours watching children at the campus preschool, taking great care not to interfere with the children or to influence their behavior in any way. What data collection technique is Dr. Wiggles using? a. | Case study| c. | Meta-analysis| b. | Naturalistic observation| d. | Structured observation| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:15OBJ:1. 6 KEY:WWW 83.
The greatest advantage of the naturalistic observation method is that it a. | can tell us what people do in everyday life. | b. | is easily conducted in a laboratory setting. | c. | readily leads to the discovery of cause-effect relationships. | d. | untangles age effects from cohort effects. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:15OBJ:1. 6 84. Which is true of ALL structured observations? a. | The data is analyzed using inferential statistics. | b. | They take place outside of the laboratory setting. | c. | They measure some verbal response. | d. | The researcher creates a special condition to elicit a behavior. |
ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:15-16OBJ:1. 6 85. Dr. Dre is very interested in infants’ reactions to different music styles. In order to study the phenomena, he built a special lab crib containing audio speakers. He then individually brings six-month-olds into the lab, places them in the crib, plays rap music, and watches each baby’s reactions. Given this description, Dr. Dre appears to be using the _____ technique. a. | self-report investigation| c. | structured observation| b. | naturalistic observation| d. | case study analysis| ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:15-16OBJ:1. 6 86. A brain scan is most accurately categorized as a a. naturalistic observation. | c. | structured observation. | b. | physiological measure. | d. | quasi-experiment. | ANS:BDIF:EasyREF:16OBJ:1. 6 87. An fMRI uses magnetic forces to measure _____ in an active area of the brain. a. | blood flow| c. | dendritic expansion| b. | neurotransmitter levels| d. | hormone output| ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:16OBJ:1. 6 88. The main limitation of physiological measures is that a. | responses to such measures are easy to fake. | b. | they cannot be used to assess emotional reactions. | c. | it is not always clear what is being assessed. | d. | they cannot be used to study infants. |
ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:16OBJ:1. 6 89. Which type of study always involves an in-depth examination of one specific individual or a very small number of individuals? a. | Cross-sectional study| c. | Longitudinal study| b. | Quasi-experimental study| d. | Case study| ANS:DDIF:EasyREF:17OBJ:1. 6 90. The main limitation of the case study methods is that a. | results may not generalize to others. | b. | inferential statistics must be used in its analysis. | c. | it is “too artificial” as it is typically conducted in the laboratory. | d. | it does not provide any detail about an individual’s behavior. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:17OBJ:1. 91. In a psychological experiment, a researcher always a. | manipulates some aspect of the environment and then measures the effect on behavior. | b. | uses a control group. | c. | randomly assigns participants to a minimum of three different DIF:s of the independent variable. | d. | tests the entire population. | ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:17-18OBJ:1. 7 92. Professor Plumb is interested in the impact of fruit consumption on memory. He identifies a group of college students to serve as research participants. Then he randomly assigns them to one of three conditions. In condition 1, the students eat no fruit for a week.
In condition 2, students eat one pound of fruit each day for one week. Those students assigned to condition 5 eat five pounds of fruit each day for one week. At the end of the week, Professor Plumb measures the students’ memory recall for a list of 20 words. Given this description, Professor Plumb appears to be using a(n) _____ research technique. a. | correlational| c. | experimental| b. | meta-analysis| d. | biographical| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:17-18OBJ:1. 7 93. A true experiment involves the _____ of the independent variable. a. | manipulation| c. | elimination| b. | measurement| d. | correlation| ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:17-18OBJ:1. 7 KEY:WWW 4. A psychologist measures the IQs of 20 students who ingested a “smart pill” and 20 students who ingested a “sugar pill” in order to determine if the pill had an effect on intelligence. To ensure peak performance, she tests all of the students on Wednesdays. In this experiment, the independent variable is the a. | day of the week. | c. | IQ score. | b. | pill type. | d. | sex of the researcher. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:18OBJ:1. 7 95. In the Friedrich and Stein study on the influence of television on aggression, the type of television show watched (aggressive, prosocial, or neutral) represented the ______ variable in the experiment. . | extraneous| c. | independent| b. | dependent| d. | confounding| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 96. In an experimental design, the behavior being measured is called the _____ variable. a. | extraneous| c. | independent| b. | dependent| d. | confounding| ANS:BDIF:EasyREF:18OBJ:1. 7 97.
A psychologist measures the IQs of 20 students who ingested a “smart pill” and 20 students who ingested a “sugar pill” in order to determine if the pill had an effect on intelligence. To ensure peak performance, she tests all of the students on Wednesdays. In this experiment, the dependent variable is the a. | day of the week. c. | IQ score. | b. | pill type. | d. | sex of the researcher. | ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:18OBJ:1. 7 98. A study is done examining whether rewarding children for good behavior increases the amount of time students spend studying. In this study, amount of time spent studying would be the _____ variable. a. | control| c. | confounding| b. | dependent| d. | independent| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 KEY:WWW 99. In the Friedrich and Stein study on the influence of television on aggression, the observed level of aggression the children displayed in the nursery school represented the ______ variable in the experiment. . | extraneous| c. | independent| b. | dependent| d. | confounding| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 100. Random assignment helps ensure a. | cohort effects. | b. | differences exist between treatment groups prior to the treatment. | c. | age effects. | d. | similarity of treatment groups prior to the treatment. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 101. Which is NOT a hallmark of a true experiment? a. | Control over responses on the dependent measure| b. | Manipulation of an independent variable| c. | Control over extraneous variables| d. | Random assignment of participants to experimental conditions|
ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:17-18OBJ:1. 7 102. Faith wants to know whether there is a cause-effect relationship between the amount of time parents spend reading to their children and their children’s attitudes toward reading. What type of research design should Faith use? a. | Cross-sectional| c. | Longitudinal| b. | Experimental| d. | Naturalistic observation| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:17-18OBJ:1. 7 103. A key limitation of the experimental method is that it a. | cannot be used to identify cause-and-effect. | b. | is very expensive. | c. | cannot be used to assess many interesting questions due to ethical reasons. d. | does an excellent job of explaining real-world experience, but does not do a good job of explaining what happens in the laboratory. | ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:18-19OBJ:1. 7 104. What point was Urie Bronfenbrenner attempting to make when he said that developmental psychology had become, “the science of the strange behavior of children in strange situations with strange adults”? a. | Modern developmental psychology is too focused on laboratory research. | b. | Modern developmental psychology pays too much attention to exceptional children and not enough to normal children. | c. Modern developmental psychology is too worried about the impact of early childhood abuse by parents. | d. | Modern developmental psychology conducts far too few experiments. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 105. The key distinction between a true experiment and a quasi-experiment is that in quasi-experiments, a. | research is conducted in the “real world” not in the laboratory. | b. | individuals are not randomly assigned to different treatments. | c. | no statistical analysis is conducted. | d. | there is always a control group. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:19OBJ:1. 7 106. Dr.
Rambo wants to determine whether there are sex differences in reaction to televised violence. He asks male and female participants to watch a 15-minute video clip of a violent program and then complete a rating scale. Rambo’s research project is best classified as a(n) a. | true experiment. | c. | naturalist observation. | b. | quasi-experiment. | d. | interview. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:19OBJ:1. 7 107. The fundamental question addressed by the correlational method is a. | “Does variable A cause variable B? ”| b. | “How is a control group influenced by the absence of an independent variable? | c. | “What impact does random assignment have on psychological behavior? ”| d. | “Are two or more variables related in some systematic way? ”| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:19OBJ:1. 8 108. In the field of developmental psychology, the main reason that the correlational method is used more often than experimental methods is because a. | correlations are more effective at addressing the issue of cause. | b. | of ethical concerns. | c. | correlational research is significantly more scientifically rigorous. | d. | of the availability of computers. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:19OBJ:1. 8 109. Dr.
Fill wants to study the relationship between drug addiction and being the victim of child abuse. As Dr. Fill is an ethical researcher, he would have to conduct a(n) _____ study. a. | experimental| c. | laboratory| b. | correlational| d. | cross-sectional| ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:19OBJ:1. 8 KEY:WWW 110. Tom finds a correlation of +. 81 between number of years in school and salary of first job. This would mean that a. | the more education one has, the lower his or her starting salary is likely to be. | b. | the more education one has, the higher his or her starting salary is likely to be. | c. education level determines whether or not someone will get a job after graduation. | d. | increases in education level cause employers to offer higher salaries. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:19OBJ:1. 8 111. If the correlation between listening to country music and passing general psychology is found to be -. 8, then one could rightly conclude that _____ country music listeners pass the class. a. | all| c. | few| b. | most| d. | no| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:19OBJ:1. 8 112. Mara finds that the correlation between variables A and B is +. 43, while the correlation between variables A and C is -. 78. These results indicate that a. the correlation between A and C is stronger than the correlation between A and B. | b. | the correlation between A and B is stronger than the correlation between A and C. | c. | variable A causes variable B but not variable C. | d. | variable A causes both variables B and C. | ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:19OBJ:1. 8 113. Smoking cigarettes and having lung cancer are highly correlated events, and people often logically conclude that smoking must cause the cancer. It is hypothetically possible, however, that having lung cancer causes one to crave nicotine and thus it leads to smoking. This example illustrates the issue of a. the third variable. | c. | time of measurement effects. | b. | a reversed cause-effect relationship. | d. | plasticity. | ANS:BDIF:DifficultREF:20OBJ:1. 8 114.
Research has shown a positive correlation between the amount of time children spend watching television and their level of aggression. It is possible that the actual cause of this relationship is harsh parents who act aggressively toward children (teaching them to be aggressive) and whose violence leads children to avoid them at all costs (including by watching television). This example illustrates the issue of a. | the third variable. | c. | time of measurement effects. b. | a reversed cause-effect relationship. | d. | plasticity. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:20OBJ:1. 8 115. A meta-analysis is best described as a. | a study using numerous previous studies. | c. | an unstructured interview. | b. | a controlled laboratory experiment. | d. | a longitudinal design study. | ANS:ADIF:EasyREF:20-21OBJ:1. 8 116. In order to study the effects of television on children’s behavior, Dr. Squarepants synthesizes the results from 150 studies looking at the influence of cartoons on children’s moral development. Given this description, Dr. Squarepants appears to be using the _____ research technique. . | naturalistic observation| c. | structured observation| b. | meta-analysis| d. | sequential design| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:20-21OBJ:1. 8 117. Which best describes the basic premise of the cross-sectional research design? a. | Assess different age groups (e. g. , 5-, 10-, 15-year-olds) at same time (e. g. , during same week)| b. | Assess same age group (e. g. , only 5-year-olds) at same time (e. g. , during same week)| c. | Assess different age groups (e. g. , 5-, 10-, 15-year-olds) at different times (e. g. , 5-year-olds in 2003, 10-year-olds in 2004, and 15-year-olds in 2005)| d. Assess same group (e. g. , 5-year-olds) at different times (e. g. , first test when kids are 5, then when they are 10, and finally when they turn 15)| ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:21OBJ:1. 9 118. Who is using a cross-sectional research design? a. | Fred, who is assessing study habits in fifth graders in three different countries| b. | Barney, who is assessing the study habits in a group of fifth graders and who will follow and assess this same group when they get to eighth and then eleventh grade| c. |
Wilma, who is simultaneously testing the study habits of fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders| d. Betty, who is assessing the study habits of fifth graders in the year 2003, and plans to assess eighth-graders’ study habits in 2004 and eleventh graders’ habits in 2005| ANS:CDIF:DifficultREF:21OBJ:1. 9 119. For her senior project, Shantae wants to study children’s moral reasoning. During the Fall semester, she interviews 20 individuals in each of the follo:wing grades: first, fourth, seventh, tenth, and college sophomores. She asks each participant to solve a practical moral dilemma. What sort of research design is Shantae using? a. | Cross-sectional| c. | Longitudinal| b. | Experimental| d. Sequential| ANS:ADIF:DifficultREF:21OBJ:1. 9 KEY:WWW 120. A _____ is a group of people born in a specified, limited span of years (e. g. , the 1960s). a. | cohort| c. | population| b. | cross-section| d. | sample| ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:21OBJ:1. 9 KEY:WWW 121. The fact that individuals who were born in 1980 will develop differently than individuals born in 1880 is best explained using the concept of _____ effects. a. | age| c. | cohort| b. | microsystem| d. | social clock| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:21OBJ:1. 9 122. In which research design are age differences and cohort differences hopelessly tangled? a. Cross-cultural| c. | Longitudinal| b. | Cross-sectional| d. | Sequential| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:21OBJ:1. 9 123. While I am the fastest to conduct research design, one big disadvantage I have is that I do not generate information about the development of individuals. Which research method am I? a. | Cross-cultural| c. | Longitudinal| b. | Cross-sectional| d. | Sequential| ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:21OBJ:1. 9 KEY:WWW 124. In a(n) ______ research design, the performance of one group of individuals is assessed repeatedly across a portion of the lifespan. a. | cross-sectional| c. | longitudinal| b. | experimental| d. sequential| ANS:CDIF:EasyREF:22OBJ:1. 9 125. Who is using a longitudinal research design? a. | George, who is assessing eating habits of 40-year-olds in three different countries| b. | Jane, who is assessing the eating habits in a group of 40-year-olds, and who will follow and assess this same group when they get to ages 60 and 80| c. | Elroy, who is simultaneously testing the eating habits of 40-, 60-, and 80-year-olds| d. | Judy, who is assessing the eating habits of 40-year-olds in the year 2003, and plans to assess 60-year-olds’ eating habits in 2008 and 80-year-olds’ habits in 2013|
ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:22OBJ:1. 9 KEY:WWW 126. Olga is interested in how people develop strategies for conflict resolution. She selects a group of preschoolers, and uses both interviews and naturalistic observation to explore their approaches to dealing with conflict. Every two years thereafter, Olga again interviews and observes this same group of youngsters, concluding her study when the children reach adolescence. Olga has been using a _____ research design. a. | behavioral observation| c. | longitudinal| b. | cross-sectional| d. | sequential| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:22OBJ:1. 9 127.
The impact on research findings produced by historical events occurring at the moment the data were collected are referred to as _____ effects. a. | meta-analysis| c. | age| b. | placebo| d. | time of measurement| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:23OBJ:1. 9 128. In which type of study are the effects of age and the effects of time of measurement confounded with one another? a. | Correlational| c. | Longitudinal| b. | Cross-sectional| d. | Sequential| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:23OBJ:1. 9 129. Measuring different age groups of subjects repeatedly at different periods in time is called a ______ design. a. longitudinal| c. | sequential| b. | cross-sectional| d. | cross-cultural| ANS:CDIF:ModerateREF:23OBJ:1. 9 130. Sol is investigating the effects of divorce on children’s self-esteem. His initial sample consists of a group of 10 five-year-olds, which he plans to follow over a period of at least 15 years. When this group of children reaches age 15, Sol adds a second group of five-year-olds to his study, and plans to follow them for another 15 years. Sol’s overall plan is best classified as a _____ research design. a. | correlational| c. | longitudinal| b. | cross-sectional| d. | sequential|
ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:23-24OBJ:1. 9 131. Only the _____ design allows a researcher to potentially separate out effects of age, cohort, and time of measurement. a. | cross-sectional| c. | longitudinal| b. | experimental| d. | sequential| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:23-25OBJ:1. 9 132. Socioeconomic status affects the development of a. | both lower- and higher-SES individuals. | b. | lower-SES but not higher-SES individuals. | c. | higher-SES but not lower-SES individuals. | d. | neither lower- nor higher-SES individuals. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:25-26OBJ:1. 10 133. Ethnocentrism is the belief that . | it is better to think of others as having a “deficit” than being “different. ”| b. | one’s own culture is superior. | c. | it is easier to understand the position of people different from one’s self. | d. | race does not impact behavior. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:26OBJ:1. 10 134. While considering a new study, Creed is concerned that the stimulus he is using might frighten the infants he is testing. This indicates that Creed is focusing on a. | meta-analysis. | c. | a sequential design. | b. | a correlational design. | d. | research ethics. | ANS:DDIF:EasyREF:26OBJ:1. 10 135.
The American Psychological Association and the Society for Research on Child Development guidelines for ethics in research stipulate all of the following EXCEPT a. | informed consent. | b. | the avoidance of physical and psychological harm. | c. | debriefing participants. | d. | testing participants using multiple measures. | ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:27OBJ:1. 10 136. The fact that a study participant needs to be aware of what they may experience while in a research study illustrates the concept of a. | informed consent. | c. | protection from harm. | b. | debriefing. | d. | confidentiality. | ANS:ADIF:ModerateREF:27OBJ:1. 10 137. After Mr.
Flay has finished filling out a survey that he thought was on cooking skills, he is told that the actual purpose of the survey was to assess his intelligence. This would represent the concept of a. | informed consent. | c. | protection from harm. | b. | debriefing. | d. | confidentiality. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:27OBJ:1. 10 138. In a study in which participants are tricked into believing that they caused harm to someone else, a researcher is obligated to make sure that the participants are told about the true nature of the study before they leave and also must make sure that the participants do not feel bad about their behavior.
These two researcher obligations are referred to as a. | informed consent and debriefing. | c. | protection from harm and confidentiality. | b. | debriefing and protection from harm. | d. | confidentiality and informed consent. | ANS:BDIF:ModerateREF:27OBJ:1. 10 KEY:WWW 139. Due to the ethical standard concerning _____, a researcher could not tell a parent that the parent’s child scored in the “genius” range on an IQ test that the researcher had given. a. | informed consent| c. | protection from harm| b. | debriefing| d. | confidentiality| ANS:DDIF:ModerateREF:27OBJ:1. 10 TRUE/FALSE 1.
Biological aging is defined as the deterioration of organisms that leads inevitably to their death. ANS:TDIF:ModerateREF:3OBJ:1. 1 2. Lisa thinks that age 22 is the perfect time to get married because all of her friends plan to marry at this age. This is an example of an age norm. ANS:TDIF:ModerateREF:5OBJ:1. 1 KEY:WWW 3. In Western Societies, it took until the beginning of the eighteenth century for “adolescence” to be viewed as a distinct period of the lifespan. ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:6OBJ:1. 2 4. Maturation refers to the gains that occur across the lifespan as the result of experiences.
ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:7OBJ:1. 3 5. The larger cultural context in which development takes place is called the microsystem. ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:9-10OBJ:1. 4 6. The notion that development is impacted by the time in which we live is a key element of what Bronfenbrenner referred to as the chronosystem. ANS:TDIF:ModerateREF:9-10OBJ:1. 4 KEY:WWW 7. Plasticity involves the capacity to change in response to both positive and negative events. ANS:TDIF:EasyREF:12OBJ:1. 5 8. The scientific method is both an attitude and a method. ANS:TDIF:EasyREF:14OBJ:1. 6 9. A theory is a specific prediction generated by a hypothesis.
ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 KEY:WWW 10. A random sample is always smaller than the population from which it is drawn. ANS:TDIF:ModerateREF:15OBJ:1. 6 11. In a structured observation a researcher creates a special condition designed to elicit some behavior of interest. ANS:TDIF:ModerateREF:15-16OBJ:1. 6 12. The greatest advantage of the experimental method is the ability to establish the fact that one thing causes another. ANS:TDIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 13. In an experimental research design, the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter is called the independent variable.
ANS:TDIF:EasyREF:18OBJ:1. 7 KEY:WWW 14. Random assignment of participants occurs in all quasi-experimental designs. ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 15. A correlation of +. 2 indicates a stronger relationship between two variables than would a correlation of -. 9. ANS:FDIF:DifficultREF:19OBJ:1. 8 16. The main advantage of the correlational method is that it can be used to establish cause-effect relationships. ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:20OBJ:1. 8 17. Cohort effects concern the impact of being born in one particular historical context rather than another. ANS:TDIF:ModerateREF:21OBJ:1. 9 18.
Cross-sectional studies are better suited than longitudinal studies to the examination of individual differences. ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:21-23OBJ:1. 9 19. In a sequential design, time of measurement is confounded with cohort effects. ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:23-24OBJ:1. 9 KEY:WWW 20. Informed consent is typically obtained following a study. ANS:FDIF:ModerateREF:27OBJ:1. 10 COMPLETION 1. Development is defined as the systematic changes that take place between _____ and death. ANS:conception DIF:DifficultREF:2OBJ:1. 1 2. The status and privileges assigned to individuals of a specific age defines the concept of an age _____.
ANS:grade DIF:ModerateREF:4OBJ:1. 1 3. A rite of _____ is a ritual marking the transition from one age status to another. ANS:passage DIF:EasyREF:4OBJ:1. 1 4. The “new” period between adolescence and full-fledged adulthood is called _____ adulthood. ANS:emerging DIF:EasyREF:6OBJ:1. 2KEY:WWW 5. _____ developed the bioecological model that stresses how biology and environment interact to produce development. ANS:Bronfenbrenner DIF:ModerateREF:9OBJ:1. 4 6. According to Bronfenbrenner, a local law passed that requires all children to attend school all year round would be an example of the _____ environmental system
ANS:exosystem DIF:DifficultREF:9-10OBJ:1. 5 7. Bronfenbrenner used the concept of the _____ to capture the notion that changes in environmental systems and life events are patterned over a person’s lifetime. ANS:chronosystem DIF:ModerateREF:9-10OBJ:1. 4KEY:WWW 8. _____ is considered the most famous baby biographer. ANS:Darwin DIF:EasyREF:11OBJ:1. 5 9. A set of concepts and propositions intended to describe and explain some aspect of experience is a _____. ANS:theory DIF:ModerateREF:14OBJ:1. 6 10. The overall group from which a sample is drawn is called the _____. ANS:population
DIF:ModerateREF:14-15OBJ:1. 6KEY:WWW 11. In a _____ observation study, the researcher creates a special condition designed to elicit the behavior of interest. ANS:structured DIF:ModerateREF:15-16OBJ:1. 6 12. In an experiment, the researcher manipulates the _____ variable. ANS:independent DIF:ModerateREF:18OBJ:1. 7 13. A _____ experiment is an experiment-like study that assesses the impact of different treatments, but does not involve random assignment to treatment groups. ANS:quasi DIF:DifficultREF:18OBJ:1. 7 14. The numeric expression r = +. 84 represents a _____ coefficient.
ANS:correlation DIF:ModerateREF:19OBJ:1. 8KEY:WWW 15. In a _____, the results from multiple studies are synthesized to produce some overall conclusion. ANS:meta-analysis DIF:ModerateREF:20OBJ:1. 8 16. _____ effects concern the impact of being born as a member of a particular generation in history. ANS:Cohort DIF:ModerateREF:21OBJ:1. 9 17. In a _____ design, a single cohort group is assessed repeatedly over time. ANS:longitudinal DIF:ModerateREF:22OBJ:1. 9 18. A _____ design combines elements of both longitudinal and cross-sectional designs. ANS:sequential DIF:ModerateREF:23-24OBJ:1. 9 19.
Family indicators like education, income, and occupational prestige levels underlie _____ status. ANS:socioeconomic DIF:ModerateREF:25OBJ:1. 10KEY:WWW 20. The belief that one’s own group and its culture are superior is referred to as _____. ANS:ethnocentrism DIF:DifficultREF:26OBJ:1. 10 ESSAY 1. Define “development. ” Then discuss and give examples of the three broad domains of interest to students of human development. ANS:Answer not providedREF:2-3OBJ:1. 1 2. Discuss the bioecological model using personal examples for each of the following levels of impact: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem.
ANS:Answer not providedREF:8-10OBJ:1. 4 3. Currently, development is characterized as multidirectional, multiple influenced, and characterized by lifelong plasticity. What does this mean? ANS:Answer not providedREF:12-14OBJ:1. 5 4. What is the relationship between theories, hypotheses, and scientific method? ANS:Answer not providedREF:14OBJ:1. 6 5. You have been asked to conduct an experiment on whether a pill affects memory development. Please describe your experiment by identifying the independent and dependent variable(s) you would select.
Discuss how the variable(s) would be manipulated. ANS:Answer not providedREF:17-18OBJ:1. 7 6. What are age effects, cohort effects, and time of measurement effects, and how do researchers design studies to control each effect? ANS:Answer not providedREF:21-24OBJ:1. 9 7. Discuss the ethical concerns a researcher must consider before they conduct a study using humans. ANS:Answer not providedREF:26-27OBJ:1. 10 8. What are the concepts of age grade, age norms, and a social clock, and how could they be applied to you and your life? ANS:Answer not providedREF:3-5OBJ:1. 1KEY:WWW 9.
A researcher is interested in what children of different ages understand about their parents’ jobs. Describe the advantages and disadvantages of verbal-report, naturalistic observations, and structured observations in conducting a study on this issue. ANS:Answer not providedREF:15-16OBJ:1. 6KEY:WWW 10. Dr. Newmonic is interested in memory skill development between ages 5 and 25. Please tell Dr. Newmonic about the advantages and disadvantages of using cross-sectional, longitudinal research, and sequential designs in conducting his study. ANS:Answer not providedREF:21-23OBJ:1. 9KEY:WWW
Cite this Developmental Psychology and Moderate Ref
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