Introduction Did the events of 9/11 influence the perception of how people view the Hijab? In todays world, the media influences many issues across the world. One of the issues that occurs is the Hijab in both the Western and Islamic worlds. There is many arguments about the hijab, Islam points towards its postive and good points whereas the media can imply it as otherwise. This contradicts the opinions and views that Muslims in the past and today have towards the Hijab.
But before we start to investigate on this question, we need to know what the definition of the Hijab is.
So what is the Hijab? The literal meaning of a Hijab means a curtain or veil which is best understood when understanding the idea of modesty. One of the forms of the Veil is the curtain which is a sheet of material that partitions both genders, but allowing them to be able to communicate with each other. This means that they are both separated with them being dressed the way they wish because they cannot see one another.
The Veil is for both sexes, men and women. It’s most common that women wear the veil (also known as the Hijab) but there is a veil for men also.
This is because Allah (swt) prescribed the Hijab for both men and woman. To be able to answer this question also we need to understand what the term ‘media’ means? The definition of media is the communication channels through which news, entertainment, education, data or promotional messages are disseminated. Media includes every broadcasting and narrow casting medium such as newspapers, magazines, TV, radio, billboards, direct mail, telephone, fax and internet and etc. Now knowing the different forms of which media can be represented, one of the main questions arises. Can the media really influence the reality of things?
The forms of media are everywhere amongst us, meaning we are constantly surrounded by them. Media can use this as an advantage and then manipulate the truth by making the false truth seem real. Most of the media is biased. Most of the recent stories or articles have come from one point of view, one side of a story, and a conclusion is drawn without looking at the other. There are many other factors that allow the media to manipulate the truth and make viewers or consumers perceive things in a different way. Why did I decide to research and analyse this question? I decided this question based on because I myself wear a Hijab.
When I wear the Hijab, sometimes I get negative reactions, and this pursued me to reach my question. I wanted to know the reason to maybe why the Hijab can be perceived in the wrong way. Many suggest that the recent incidents involving the 9/11 attack was the reason for this negativity and that this event lead the negativity to an up rise. This is why I want to look into and investigate this question, to see whether the negativity and ‘hatred’ towards the Hijab is because of the 9/11 events or whether the Media is responsible for it for the way the 9/11 was portrayed across the world using media.
The Hijab and its Origin. The Origin of the Hijab is often seen as an islamic symbol but suprisingly the Hijab was introduced long before the Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) came to preach about Islam. Wearing a Hijab(also known as Veiling) was commonly used to indicate ones social status. But only the women that did not work in the fields were the ones that could not afford the hijab, therefore Hijabs represented a ‘high’ social status and this indicates that they had a priveliged lifestyle. However, the tradition of veiling was not until 627 C. E. hen the Prophet Muhammed (pbuh) introduced this restriction which denotes negativity. This was not for all women in the Ummah (Islamic community) but in fact for his wives in general. This can be connoted from the quote, “Believers, do not enter the Prophet’s house…unless asked. And if you are invited…do not linger. And when you ask something from the Prophet’s wives, do so from behind a Hijab. This will assure the purity of your hearts as well as theirs” (33:53). This quote also suggests that the Hijab was a way to show ones purity and good intentions.
This was told to the Ummah as the Prophets house was visited most often as a community mosque and was a place for social and religious life. As the Prophets house was visited the most, segregation was established also. Segregation was established by a ‘Veil’ also where a curtain was placed between women and men allowing them to talk and be dressed how they wish. However only the Prophets wives were the only ones that wore the Hijab during the Prophets’ lifetime, this was because the Hijab symbolized the becoming of ‘Muhammad’s Wife’.
Nowhere in the Qur’an (the Holy Book in Islam) is mentioned that wearing the Hijab is applied to women, they were only compulsory upon his wives. The Hijab wasn’t instructed but dressing with modestly was an instruction. This can be connoted from the quote, “draw their clothes around them a little to be recognized as believers and so that no harm will come to them” (33:60). The modest way of dressing was told to cover their ‘private’ parts, and cover the breasts when in front of ‘strange’ men.
These strange men are men that the woman could in theory marry; this means that it is not compulsory to wear one in front of her grandfather, father, brother(s), son(s) and uncle(s) and young children. After the Prophets death, more women started to adopt the tradition of ‘Veiling’ to follow the example of the Prophets wives, the Prophets wives were an inspiration to the Ummah. The Prophets wives are usually known as ‘The Mothers of the Ummah’. Does this imply that the Hijab or ‘Veil’ is not compulsory to all women? Or is the Veiling of the Prophets wives being an indication that all us women must do also?
The Hijab in Context Islam has strongly accentuated the idea of diffidence and modesty interactions between the opposite sex. This idea is put across by ‘dress code’, and is part of this teaching. In the Qur’an, there are two verses where Allah (swt)-The One God of Muslims- mentions the concepts of decency and the ‘hijab’. The first verse that mentions this is in chapter 24, verse 30. The name of this chapter is ‘an-Nur (The Light)’, and Allah (swt) commands to the Prophet: “Say to the believing men that: they should cast down their glances and guard their private parts (by being chaste). This is better for them. Regardless of the fact that this essay is to bring awareness to women, this quote is a command to Muslim men and that they should not look at women with lust in their eyes except for their own wives. This averts the chances of ‘temptation’ as this also commands men to lower their gazes. This is known as ‘Hijab of the Eyes’. This verse continues and Allah (swt) commands the prophet to address to the women: “Say to the believing women that: they should cast down their glances and guard their private parts (by being chaste)…” This is the same command that is given to the men that is linked with ‘Hijab of the Eyes’.
Hijab of the Eyes is similar to the teaching of Jesus (Isa) where he says “You have heard that it was said by them of old time, you shall not commit adultery. But I say unto you, that whosever looks on a woman to lust after her has committed adultery with her already in his heart. ” This applies to Islam also, not because of the teaching but because Jesus (Isa) is believed to be one of the Prophets before Prophet Muhammed (pbuh). Therefore when a Muslim man lowers his gaze whilst talking to someone the opposite sex, this is just a Muslim that is following the rules given by God, abiding to the Biblical and Qur’anic teachings.
Hijab of the eyes is not looking at things that are unlawful therefore: * Not looking at the opposite gender with lust (as mentioned above) * Not looking for signs of alcohol * Lowering your gaze in the presence of a respected person to show humbleness * Not using your eyes to ‘spill’ emotions, e. g. love, anger, hatred etc. * Not applying eye make-up as this attracts attention After Hijab of the Eyes, the dress codes for women became apparent in a single sentence; “…and not display their beauty except what is apparent, and they should place their khumur over their bosoms…” But two questions arise in our minds about this sentence.
What is the meaning of ‘khumur’ used in this verse? And what does the clause placing ‘the khumur over the bosoms’ mean? Khumur in Arabic means covering or veiling in which a woman conceals and covers her head. Al-Khumur can be defined as scarf as the heads is covered with this garment. The second verse that talks about women dressing is in Chapter 33, verse 59. In this chapter Allah (swt) gives the Prophet the command, “O Prophet! Say to your wives, your daughters, and the women of the believers that: they should let down upon themselves their Jalabib”. What is the meaning of Jalabib though?
Jalabib is the plural for Jilbab. The Definition of Jilbab is a full outer traditional garment that Muslim women wear in public that covers the head and hands. This therefore means that wearing a scarf is ‘compulsory’ and is part of the dress code for Muslim women as well as wearing something that covers the neck and bosom. As well as Qur’anic teachings, the second important teachings are the Sunnahs of the Prophet also known as Hadiths. The Qur’anic teachings can only be understood after studying and understanding the prophets’ way of life in which the Qur’an was brought.
As Muslims we should refer to the Prophet’s life as this will guide us in the right direction, but also as Allah (swt) says, “And We have revealed to you (O Muhammad) the Reminder (i. e. the Qur’an) so that you may clarify to the people what has been revealed to them, and so they may reflect. ” (16:44) this quote is implying that Hadiths should be taken into account just as much Qur’anic teachings are as well. Taking into account the context of the Hijab in the Qur’an and Hadiths, the Hijab is the decent way for a Muslim woman and most importantly the dress code.
Therefore his wives wore the hijab, and this set an example of how other Muslim women should dress also. This is an understanding that has been acknowledged around the world by Muslims over the last 14 centuries, so therefore wearing the Hijab is not a cultural issue, but instead a religious aspect. This links to my question because it is highlighting the positive aspects of the Hijab; it is explaining how the Hijab is a positive aspect in a woman’s life, which holds many positive qualities for a woman. The hijab is preventing any ‘evil’ that may come to the women which she will not want.
A Hijab for a Muslim Woman. For Muslim women, the hijab has many connotations, significances and a great impact upon their life. The hijab was introduced for decency and modesty whilst intermingling with members of the opposite sex. Muslim women know that the Hijab protects them from ‘evil’ in the world also e. g. harassment, looked at with lust etc. Allah (swt) also mentions in the Qur’an in chapter 33, verse 59, “This is more appropriate so that they may be known as (Muslim women) and thus not be harassed (or molested). This means that the scarf is a protection, and most women feel it does exactly what Allah says. With men whether they confess it or not, are slaves of lust and desire. The Hijab however: * Symbolizes that the ‘she’ is dedicated to only one man and is not for anyone else but if she is not married then it symbolizes that she has good and pure intentions of having one man in her life. Therefore the Hijab protects women from such men. * Hijab contributes to keeping the family and marriage life being stabilized. This is done by eradicating unlawful affairs (extramarital affairs). Also the Hijab obliges men to concentrate on a woman’s personality rather than her physical appearance and beauty. This sort of puts the woman in control of an unknown’s reaction towards her. This helps stop the men having lust and desire, so therefore the Hijab is not a positive attribute to just the woman, but to men also. I created a questionnaire on ‘how’ a Hijab helps a woman with her life, and what ‘impact’ it has in her life, and their own personal opinion on what the Hijab should signify as a whole. So for that reason I created two questionnaires.
One questionnaire was created directly for the men and one for the women. The questionnaires that I will be using are my primary data. The questions for both questionnaires were different but similar. These answers will be compared and contrasted to show if there is any mutual opinions between both the genders and if there is a point that is not mutual. If there are answers that are not mutual then these will be looked into and be discussed upon. The questions used for women were: 1) Do you wear a Hijab? 2) If yes, how long have you been wearing one for?
And what made you wear the Hijab? 3) What do you think the Hijab symbolises for you or any Muslim woman? 4) How do you feel when wearing a scarf? 5) How do you think people perceive you in a scarf? (How do people see you? ) 6) How does wearing a Hijab create an impact on your life? The questions used for men were: 1) When you see a female in a Hijab, what is your first impression of her? 2) What do you think the Hijab is supposed to signify? 3) Is there a difference in the way you ‘socialise’ or perceive a person with a Hijab and without? ) With a female in a Hijab, is it easier to focus on her personality more rather than her physical appearance? Primary Data Analysis -Females When asking females on their opinions on their hijab, most of the answers from the questionnaires were quite similar. From the questionnaire, the reason that most of the women started to take on the tradition of the Hijab was because they ‘Wanted to please Allah (swt) and follow his words and teachings passed in the Qur’an’, because of the ‘meaning of hijab’ and because they were brought up in an environment where most women wore the Hijab also.
The women that took part in the questionnaire stated that they think the hijab symbolises Modesty, Equality, Respect and Freedom and that the Hijab meant more than a piece of cloth to them for herself and other Muslim women. They felt that the Hijab gives the impression that they don’t want to be looked at in the wrong way, and that they are dedicating themselves for one person only which will be their husbands. When wearing a scarf they feel proud. They feel proud, proud of the fact that they are becoming a better Muslim and practising their religion.
They also feel happy because they feel they are becoming closer to ‘Allah (swt). ’ They also feel ‘modest’ and comfortable whilst wearing the Hijab on, and feel weird and strange without it, therefore becoming a component in their lives. Whilst wearing a Hijab, it surely has an impact on the way someone lives, and on their life, the. All of the women that took part in the survey said that the Hijab gave them ‘more respect, more responsibility’ and made them more ‘comfortable’ because they feel covered and no one is looking at them, they be unnoticed.
A small number of women feel that their beauty is concealed behind the Hijab, and no one therefore knows their true identity. This may seem like a negative aspect, however the participants of the questionnaire feel otherwise. This is because they want to conceal their beauty for the ‘one’ in their life. In the survey, the most important questions were, ‘How do you think people perceive you in a Hijab? (How do people see you? )’ Women in the survey told me that the Hijab gave them more respect, as it displayed that they are practising and are into their religion.
But a small number of women pointed out that sometimes wearing a Hijab means that some people do not see the good side to the Hijab. Some people see it as the dress code of a ‘terrorist’ and therefore feel segregated and secluded in the environment and community that they live in. But what made the impact of the Hijab being a terrorist dress code? Primary Data Analysis -Males In order to not have my questionnaire and its result being biased, a questionnaire was given to a group of males also. Surprisingly the opinions of males and females weren’t that different after comparing them, the responses were similar.
Most of the males gave the response that their first impression of a girl in a hijab is that she respects her culture, beliefs and herself. They see her as a decent girl who is Modest and conscious of the way she acts and has a ‘nice’ personality. She is submitting herself to Allah (swt). They believe and have the opinion that the Hijab denotes a woman that does not want any unwanted looks from any men. It also denotes purity, innocence, modesty and a woman that is into and practising her religion. It demonstrates humbleness, and a girl’s beauty, ‘Noor’ and her religious identity.
The questionnaire was also to test whether the Hijab affects the ways in which a male socialises and perceives a person with and without a Hijab. Using the questionnaire in general, the male response was mostly that it does change the way in which they socialise and perceive a person with and without a hijab. This is because most of the males with this opinion said that they would rather interact with someone who wears a Hijab rather than without because they expect the girls in Hijab to be more decent.
Hence, why some males stay away from women without the Hijab and would rather talk to the women in Hijab because it shows that they are religious and have etiquette. This is because, women that wear hijab, means that they carry self-respect with them otherwise they would not wear a Hijab, for this reason they be careful with what they say or do in front of them in order to give the same respect back. On the other hand, a small portion disagrees and hence thinks that there should be no difference because they should treat everyone equally.
One of the reasons in which a Muslim woman wears a Hijab is to divert unwanted looks, and allow someone to focus on their personality rather than their physical appearance, and when asking this to the Males, their opinions had proved this theory and statement. So if Males also find the Hijab as a positive aspect of a woman’s life, then how does the Media perceive it as a negative aspect? In conclusion, referring back to the origin of the hijab, the context and what a Hijabs importance in a Muslim woman’s life is, the hijab is to show a woman’s purity and good intentions.
She is protecting herself and she is stopping the lustful looks a man may give to her if she did not wear one. The Hijab is a positive aspect of a woman’s life, and understanding this more women today are taking the tradition on by wearing one too. Taking the questionnaire given to both genders, it is complementary to the reason why Hijab was mandatory for women and the Hijabs context of it also. One of the answers given from my questionnaire pointed out a negative thought about wearing the Hijab. This is the thought that the hijab can be seen as a ‘terrorists’ dress code.
This is because societies today have contradicted the positive views and have made the Hijab a negative aspect of a woman’s life by saying that a Hijab stops a women from having an identity, to being free, shows that a woman does not have enough or equal rights to men, makes them inferior, they simply a woman hiding behind a cloth and etc. This has been at its peak and steepest since the 9/11 attack which accused Muslims as the reason for this accident. So does this have a correlation between the events and the total negativity since it? Where the Contradiction of Hijab Started and its Impact.
The contradiction of the hijab and its religion (Islam) became apparent and at its peak after the 9/11 attack on the World Trade Centre, also famously known as the twin towers, and the Pentagon situated in America. The attack was said to be led by leading Islamic terrorists group, the Al-Qaeda. It is said that supposedly 19 Al-Qaeda terrorists hijacked 4 passenger jets, with the intention to use these to target the buildings. Two of these passenger jets crashed into the north and south towers correspondingly. This crash lead to the twin towers in collapsing and loss of lives.
The third of the four passenger jets crashed into the Pentagon in Washington. The fourth jet however crash landed in the fields after the passengers tried to overcome the hijackers of the jet before its intention to attacking the United States Capitol. The doubt of who was behind the attacks was lead to the idea that it was the Al-Qaeda. The main culprit was thought to be led by Osama Bin Laden, and he initially denied involvement in the attack but later in 2004 had claimed otherwise. He claimed responsibility for the attacks that took place on September 11th.
Because Osama Bin Laden was a Muslim, the Americans began to hate on Muslims in their community and society. Hate crimes escalated from the 9/11 attacks, and this resulted in many cases of harassment, deaths and stereotypical prejudices. Hate for the Religion of Islam became so aggressive and the tension between the Muslims and non-Muslims increased many of the American Society began to attack mosques and Hindu temples as a form of retaliatory acts. Most of the people that discriminated against the Muslim had Islamophobia. Islamophobia increased hugely after the 9/11 also.
This links to the fact that people who became or are islamophobic believed that Muslims was the cause for the attacks on September 11th. Most of the Despite all the negativity towards Islam from the 9/11 events, it brought great visibility of Islam. Head-scarfed Muslims (Hijab) were also. The aftermath of the 9/11 was distinctively marked as the symbol of terrorism. The result of this odious act meant that millions of Americans and American Muslim citizens and residents lives were lost. Because of this odious act, Islam started off from it being a fairly small religion in America to the focal point of the public and global anxiety.
But how does this link with the Hijab? Before the events of 9/11, the headscarf and Islam was only looked at when it involved debates and whether the Hijab was compulsory to wear in the western world. Since the 9/11 events in America, some Muslim women have discarded the Hijab, but some Muslim women however have decided to start wearing the Hijab instead to their families’ apprehension, but they would find themselves situated in a circumstances where they are surrounded and confined within the abuse against their religion ‘Islam’, different ethnic Muslims and Muslim women.
And also because although they were Americans themselves, they did not feel that they were because they were not supported by them. But whether their own country was against them or not, they did not want to hide away their religion. The 9/11 events gave the Hijab a whole new meaning. The Hijab connotes a woman’s modesty, self-decisiveness, to be able to control her sexuality, to prevent unwanted looks, freedom and her life choices. Whereas after 9/11 the hijab now connotes, marks and symbolises a women as someone who may or may not have an actual relationship with a terrorist.
The Muslim Hijab has now been stereotyped and labeled as the icon of terrorism and oppressed. This changes the way which a Muslim women is treated in the world after the events of 9/11. The important issue for Americans is not that the Muslim Women were scary or victims of Muslim male patriarchs but rather that these same Muslim women may be conspiring along with the ‘terrorists’ that mistreated the Americans. The Muslim world continues to stick to the idea that the Hijab stereotypes and connotes ‘a good Muslim woman’ because of the rights that a Muslim women now has.
Like quiet, modest, shy, differential to male authority figures and placing her family first rather than her career. Therefore, they are intended to relegation whether as terrorists, terrorist sympathizers or victims of male patriarchy (domestic violence/domestic terrorism). After the 9/11 events, the Hijab no longer reflected a Woman’s own decision about her personal faith or her dress sense. It became the label of a terrorist and an enemy to the Americans. Some Muslim women, scared of the thought of being attacked and being publicly humiliated, removed their Hijab. Women became victims of rejecting their religions against their will.
This has been connoted and inferred from the Article: ‘Living with 9/11: the Muslim American’, and we can distinguish that Sarsour’s mother was one of the victims of rejecting her faith against her will. Sarsour and her mother felt like ‘America’s latest ethnic scapegoats’. This shows that the Muslim communities were afraid of their own surroundings, afraid of their religion and afraid to be themselves. Before the 9/11 events, when a woman wore the Hijab, she would just receive looks and stares which had made them feel like outcasts then after the events of 9/11 it was a completely different matter.
The violence and hatred that was for the Hijab and Islam as a whole was beginning to be shown and was becoming more exposed upon the Muslim women that wore the Hijab. Racist remarks and slurs were verbally given and said. But not only Verbal abuse was given. Some Islamophobic people and Americans became physically violent, and the most common case of physical abuse was the tearing off the Hijab of a Muslim women. This was because they were considered to be related to terrorists whether it was true or not.
Slowly, nearly all Muslim women became this stereotype and therefore some were called terrorists. Particularly after the 9/11 events, the Hijab marked this stereotype even more than it did before the events, irrespective about a Muslim woman’s place of origin, skin colour etc. So how did this impact most of the Muslim women’s lives? Muslim women tend to wear the Hijab and this Hijab becomes a part of them and their identity. But when it comes to the real world and competing for a job, sometimes whether people admit it or not, discriminate against Muslims.
It is more likely for a woman without a Hijab (Muslim or not) in the United States of America to get a job rather than a Muslim woman with a Hijab. This is because the employer begins to doubt the Muslim woman with a Hijab about her loyalty to the workplace, employer and the nation and country itself. They imply that the woman is a ‘foreigner’ or anti American. The woman will feel anti-Muslim discrimination, but she will also face gender, race and religious discrimination in ways in which a Muslim man, a White woman or any other racial minority does not face.
Unfortunately, for Muslim women, their headscarves will continue to express them as ‘terrorists’ and remind some people of the 9/11 events. It will also continue to expose them to hate crimes and other ways and acts of discrimination and prejudice as they still symbolise the icon of the dreaded and detested at the moment and in our midst. These hate crimes show and imply that verbal abuse invades the minds of the public and makes them more discriminant and more violent to the Muslims and especially Muslim women.
As the Hijab becomes more of a Symbol of Islam, and a Symbol of a Muslim woman, it also became the symbol of disloyalty and foreigners in the eyes of the public which no longer allow a Muslim women to have the free will that she should have, and to make a choice about whether she chooses whether she wishes to practice her faith or wear the Hijab or not. But since the time of the 9/11 events, now Muslim women have to make a false choice between freely expressing herself based on religious, cultural and personal values or protecting herself and her family from violence and public humiliation.
So therefore the incidents of the 9/11 events were quite immense that resulted in the up rise in racial issues, abuse to the religion and the people part of it and making women remove the Hijab out of fear, and some taking the decision to take up the tradition of the Hijab. This links to my question because; this shows how the 9/11 events may or may not have influenced the way the Hijab is perceived at the moment. The events of 9/11 did influence the perception of the Hijab as the event was supposedly led by Muslim terrorists and therefore all muslins were targeted as a result.
The event caused the Nation to hate on Muslims and the easiest way to target a Muslim was the women, because Muslim women are easy to identify. A Muslim woman can be identified by just her Hijab, and this was taken advantage of and many Americans that hated upon the Muslim women were physically violent that resulted in them tearing off a Muslim woman’s scarf off. Conclusion Did the events of 9/11 Influence the perception of how people view the Hijab? I think that the 9/11 did influence the way people perceive the Hijab, because the 9/11 events caused it to be stereotyped and discriminating towards Muslim women.
The Hijab was no longer seen with positive attributes which the Hijab is meant to possess. The Hijab is to denote a woman’s modesty, her commitment to one, to prevent unwanted looks for protection and etc. But since the events of 9/11, the Hijab has lost all its meaning making it seem like nothing more than just a piece a cloth. Some Muslim women at the time of the 9/11 attack, donned the scarf whereas some other Muslim women did otherwise. This is because of the effect the 9/11 attack had upon the Muslim community as a whole. Also the 9/11 attack became a focus point of the media and had perceived the stories against Islam.
They were biased as the stories were one sided, and that the Muslim views were not looked at and not looked into. Many Muslim women experience the same situations and hostile consequences today in the modern world as a result of the 9/11 events and because they are stereotyped as timid, humble, powerless, oppressed and after the 9/11 events it also became stereotyped as terrorism. But because of the 9/11 events, the Hijab can sometimes make a woman feel unsafe because the Hijab is risking her own and her families personal safety and religious expression. However, I don’t think that the 9/11 events started the negative perception of the Hijab.
I feel that the negativity and discrimination was there to start with but the 9/11 events had triggered it. I also feel that different people, perceive the Hijab in their own and different ways to one another. Some people are islamophobic and some are not. ——————————————– [ 1 ]. http://www. hijabcampaign. com/faq-about-hijab/ [ 2 ]. http://www. islamicinsights. com/religion/religion/the-hijab-of-men. html [ 3 ]. http://www. bbc. co. uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/hijab_1. shtml [ 4 ]. http://islam. thetruecall. com/modules. php? name=News&file=article&sid=314 [ 5 ]. http://www. businessdictionary. om/definition/media. html [ 6 ]. http://alaiwah. wordpress. com/islam-the-origin-of-hijab/ [ 7 ]. http://www. al-islam. org/hijab/3. htm [ 8 ]. http://www. google. co. uk/#hl=en&rlz=1R2ADFA_enGB496&spell=1&q=definition+of+jilbab&sa=X&ei=vNMnUYS2OdGT0QXn_YCIBA&ved=0CCwQvwUoAA&bav=on. 2,or. r_gc. r_pw. r_qf. &bvm=bv. 42768644,d. d2k&fp=a6b372b0509e79be&biw=485&bih=504 [ 9 ]. http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/from-the-archive-blog/2011/sep/06/9-11-attacks-guardian-archive [ 10 ]. http://www. guardian. co. uk/world/2011/sep/05/living-with-911-muslim-american [ 11 ]. http://papers. ssrn. com/sol3/papers. cfm? abstract_id=2194119
Cite this Did the Events of 9/11 Influence the Perception of How People View the Hijab?
Did the Events of 9/11 Influence the Perception of How People View the Hijab?. (2016, Sep 16). Retrieved from https://graduateway.com/did-the-events-of-911-influence-the-perception-of-how-people-view-the-hijab/