With the human civilization is progressing, there are several kinds of political system appeared in the world. It seems that an important reason that results in some countries are democratic or some countries not. Therefore, this essay will discuss 2 countries America and Cuba, which are liberal democracy country and non-democracy (authoritarian regime) country respectively. What are liberal democracies and authoritarian regime? What class of politics system runs in those two countries? How does politics system runs in those two countries and changes them.
Following will help to further show what above is. This essay will also compare the some aspects of them, which are economics, party of country, human right. According to Hague and Harrop(2010, p89), “liberal democracy is a compromise”, liberal democracy makes government obey rules of law. It also equals liberal can limited government, and the final aim is protect citizens have their individual liberty. Whereas, non-liberal democracies are nearly regard as authoritarian and totalitarian. Now following will begin to simple introduction of Cuba and the Unite States.
Corroding to the The World Factbook (2012), Cuba, which is an island country in the Caribbean, official name is the Republic of Cuba and official language is Spanish. Havana not only is the largest city in Cuba, but also the capital of this country. The population of Cuba is over 11. 072 million (July 2012 est. ). Communist party of Cuba (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Cuba, PCC) is the only one and legal party in this country. In addition, any politics activity is not by PCC will be punished by government. The GDP of Cuba is $114. 1 billion (2011 est. ).
Corroding to the The World Factbook (2012), the United States of America, which also called the U. S. , the United States, the USA, America, and the States, is a federal constitution republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The official language of majority states is English. The population of America is over 313. 847 million (July 2012 est. ). America has several politics parties. Only the Democratic Party and the Republican Party dominate the American politics, although other parties existed as well. The GDP of America is $15. 04 trillion (2011 est. ).
As many politics scientist argue that Cuba has a totalitarian system, which is one of minority socialism countries, insists to keep planned economy. The constitution defines Cuba as “an independent and sovereign socialist state of workers” by Sawyer (2006,p. 10). Therefore, it means most or all the productions belong to government and people only can be divided food and life productions something like that by government. People earn work from government. But some aforementioned situation have changed, Cuba has a trend to reduce the control of private employment since 1993.
A pair of significant figure can see that, by 2006, public sector employment was 78% and private sector 22%, compared to 91. 8% and 8. 2% in 1981(The World Factbook, 2012). Although private employment rate has increased a lot, any company wants to employ people must pay the government first, then government will pay Cuban. Any Cuban wants to change his job should be via government permission. Deserving to be mentioned is the unemployment rates of Cuba are 1. 06%(2010 est. ) and 3. 8%(2011 est. ) (The World Factbook, 2012). Cuba has chronicity low employment rate was assumed that most of jobs people do was distributed by government. Lambie, 2004,p. 119) By contrast, according to Desipio (2000, p. 289), the United States is a liberal democracy country, which are successful in economic due to the free market. In terms of marketing, the totally different between Cuba and the USA is whether government restricts the development of private of sector. “The private sector is the engine of national growth, and this private sector is most successful when left alone by government. ” (Desipio, 2000, p. 296). Comparing with Cuba, according to The World Factbook (2012), in 2009 the constitution of economy of the USA was evaluated included, private sector is 84. %, economics activity from federal government occupied 4. 3%, and the rest economics activity all from local government and state is 9. 3%. However, the unemployment rates of the USA are 9. 6% (2010 est. ) and 9. 1% (2011 est. ). It seems a bit higher than Cuba. The constitution of 1976, which was replaced by the constitution of 1992, defined Cuba, is a socialist republic. Both of them are guided by ideas of Marx. Lenin. Engels and Jose Marti. Communist party of Cuba is only party in Cuba, which is described “leading force of society and of the state” by Sawyer (2006,p. 13).
Cuba has a totalitarian system. It is no democracy. The National Assembly of People’s Power is national legislature, which is the supreme organization of PCC and has 609 numbers for 5 years each term, has right to correct constitution and legislate laws. However, the power to make decision of legislative power is held by the 31 members of Council of Ministers. The president of this country, who is selected by Assembly, serves 5 years per term and can be selected unlimited time. In addition, any citizens who age over 16 and have not been convicted of a criminal offense can vote.
The right of vote in Cuba is only to choose Candidates of the Assembly. According to Lambie (2010,p147), this select system of president means present president or someone who has important power might control the process of selecting for reappointment. In contrast, the constitution of the USA is based federal republic, which describe the USA has “a strong democratic tradition” (The World Factbook, 2012). According to the constitution that was effective from 4 March 1789, allowing the USA to be a country, which each states are a part of a single republic with a strong central government.
Federal government of the USA has three distinct branches of government: an executive, a legislative and a judiciary. “This system not as separated power but as separated institutions sharing power”, thus lessen the opportunities that power to be abused. ”(Lowi et al,2006, p30). Therefore, those three branches are deemed to a very essential reason that makes the USA democracy. In addition, there are two major contemporary parties in the USA, Republican Party and Democratic Party are dominating the American politics with different politics assertions, whereas, Cuba only has one party and totalitarian system.
Human right might be a very comparable point between Cuba and The USA. American constitution, the bill of rights and other bills all concerned to preserve American citizens has freedom and many rudimental rights. Freedom includes speech, religion belief and publication. Those rights include fair trial, keeping weapon and using, to vote, to be elected and Property ownership. On the contrary, it might be terrible about situation of the human right in Cuba. According to the human right report: Cuba 2010(2010,p. 1), government arrested random those who are human rights advocates and “ members of independent organizations”.
Authorities prosecuted and denied the fair trial, intervened people privacy and monitoring private communications. Government also sternly limited the freedom of speech and press. Government constrained the right of association and pacific assembly; confine the freedom of movement of people, even controlled the freedom of belief. Over and above mentioned, authorities continued to stringently control the people work right, especially, the right to establish the union. There are two examples can be given to illustrate the human right of vote in Cuba and the USA. According to the human right report: Cuba 2010(2010,p. -7), Due to the only one politics party in Cuba, and the entire candidate are from PPC. Therefore, when the voting, Cuban only have two choice, one is voting for the candidates from only party, another one is giving up the chance to vote. Authorities have surveillance to people those who are human rights advocates and have different politics views with government. Once a spot of Cuban thought it is unfair because of only one party, and encouraged others gave up voting in order to play down votes. Government arrested those people and some of them were killed. Thus, the voter turnout was more than 95 percent.
Everyone knows the result is handled by PPC. On the contrary, there is more than one party American can vote (generally, only Democratic Party and the Republican Party). Laws allow citizens have right to give up voting. Each party compete fiercely with others, in order to attract voters, each party propagandizes their own catchword and multifarious policies that citizens concern about. According to Lowi et al (2006,p. 242), despite All the major parties cost billions of money to make efforts to bring voters to poll, the voter turnout still waver around 50 percent in every election.
It means a mass of American do not pay attention to election. There has a trend of reduce in voter turnout in most democracy countries since 1960. To sum up, although Cuba has a very terrible condition about democracy, even Cuba is regard as an authoritarian country by most political scientists. It might be that there is no totally democratic country in the world (Shell. 1969. p. 3). With the human right enhanced, the USA abolished racism and racial discrimination. But it still has important effect on the USA, even if the first black president is holding office present (Lowi et al, 2006, p43).
In spite of politics system might have essential influent on economy and human right, but there are other factors can affect them as well, such as culture, religion, and history. But it is possible to believe, in the future, some non-democracy countries like Cuba will change a lot, and our world will be more democratic. Reference: Desipio, L. (2000). Politicial Economy and Development. In: Kesselman, M. Krieger, J and Joseph, W, A. Introduction to Comparative Politcs. 2nd ed. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company. P289. Desipio, L. (2000). Politicial Economy and Development.
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